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Journal Article

Windshield Glare from Bus Interiors: Potential Impact on City Transit Drivers at Night

2019-11-15
Abstract Windshield glare at night is a safety concern for all drivers. Public transit bus drivers also face another concern about glare caused by interior lighting sources originally designed for passenger safety. The extent to which interior light reflections contribute to glare is unknown. Unique methods for measuring discomfort and disability glare during bus driving were developed. An initial simulation study measured windshield luminance inside of a New Flyer D40LF diesel bus parked in a controlled, artificial, totally darkened test environment. Findings indicated significant disability glare (from elevated luminance) in the drivers’ primary field of view due to interior reflections. Any reduction in contrast would result in less prominent glare if actual driving conditions differ. To assess this, levels of windshield glare were also measured with the bus parked on the roadside under the “background glow” of the urban environment.
Journal Article

Vulnerability of FlexRay and Countermeasures

2019-05-23
Abstract The importance of in-vehicle network security has increased with an increase in automated and connected vehicles. Hence, many attacks and countermeasures have been proposed to secure the controller area network (CAN), which is an existent in-vehicle network protocol. At the same time, new protocols-such as FlexRay and Ethernet-which are faster and more reliable than CAN have also been proposed. European OEMs have adopted FlexRay as a control network that can perform the fundamental functions of a vehicle. However, there are few studies regarding FlexRay security. In particular, studies on attacks against FlexRay are limited to theoretical studies or simulation-based experiments. Hence, the vulnerability of FlexRay is unclear. Understanding this vulnerability is necessary for the application of countermeasures and improving the security of future vehicles. In this article, we highlight the vulnerability of FlexRay found in the experiments conducted on a real FlexRay network.
Journal Article

Vibration Response Properties in Frame Hanging Catalyst Muffler

2018-07-24
Abstract Dynamic stresses exist in parts of a catalyst muffler caused by the vibration of a moving vehicle, and it is important to clarify and predict the vibration response properties for preventing fatigue failures. Assuming a vibration isolating installation in the vehicle frame, the vibration transmissibility and local dynamic stress of the catalyst muffler were examined through a vibration machine. Based on the measured data and by systematically taking vibration theories into consideration, a new prediction method of the vibration modes and parameters was proposed that takes account of vibration isolating and damping. A lumped vibration model with the six-element and one mass point was set up, and the vibration response parameters were analyzed accurately from equations of motion. In the vibration test, resonance peaks from the hanging bracket, rubber bush, and muffler parts were confirmed in three excitation drives, and local stress peaks were coordinate with them as well.
Journal Article

Vehicle Stability Control through Optimized Coordination of Active Rear Steering and Differential Driving/Braking

2018-07-05
Abstract In this article, a hierarchical coordinated control algorithm for integrating active rear steering and driving/braking force distribution (ARS+D/BFD) was presented. The upper-level control was synthesized to generate the required rear steering angle and external yaw moment by using a sliding-mode controller. In the lower-level controller, a control allocation algorithm considering driving/braking actuators and tire forces constraints was designed to assign the desired yaw moment to the four wheels. To this end, an optimization problem including several equality and inequality constraints were defined and solved analytically. Finally, computer simulation results suggest that the proposed hierarchical control scheme was able to help to achieve substantial enhancements in handling performance and stability.
Journal Article

Vehicle Aerodynamic Optimization: On a Combination of Adjoint Method and Efficient Global Optimization Algorithm

2019-04-26
Abstract This article presents a workflow for aerodynamic optimization of vehicles that for the first time combines the adjoint method and the efficient global optimization (EGO) algorithm in order to take advantage of both the gradient-based and gradient-free methods for aerodynamic optimization problems. In the workflow, the adjoint method is first applied to locate the sensitive surface regions of the baseline vehicle with respect to the objective functions and define a proper design space with reasonable design variables. Then the EGO algorithm is applied to search for the optimal site in the design space based on the expected improvement (EI) function. Such workflow has been applied to minimize the aerodynamic drag for a mass-produced electric vehicle. With the help of STAR-CCM+ and its adjoint solver, sensitive surface regions with respect to the aerodynamic drag are first located on the vehicle.
Journal Article

Validation of Crush Energy Calculation Methods for Use in Accident Reconstructions by Finite Element Analysis

2018-10-04
Abstract The crush energy is a key parameter to determine the delta-V in accident reconstructions. Since an accurate car crush profile can be obtained from 3D scanners, this research aims at validating the methods currently used in calculating crush energy from a crush profile. For this validation, a finite element (FE) car model was analyzed using various types of impact conditions to investigate the theory of energy-based accident reconstruction. Two methods exist to calculate the crush energy: the work based on the barrier force and the work based on force calculated by the vehicle acceleration times the vehicle mass. We show that the crush energy calculated from the barrier force was substantially larger than the internal energy calculated from the FE model. Whereas the crush energy calculated from the vehicle acceleration was comparable to the internal energy of the FE model.
Journal Article

Uncertainty in Gravimetric Analysis Required for LEV III Light-Duty Vehicle PM Emission Measurements

2018-06-20
Abstract With the reduction in PM emission standards for light duty vehicles to 3 mg/mi for current Federal and California standards and subsequently to 1 mg/mi in 2025 for California, the required PM measurements are approaching the detection limits of the gravimetric method. A “filter survey” was conducted with 11 laboratories, representing industry, agencies, research institutes, and academic institutions to analyze the accuracy of the current gravimetric filter measurement method under controlled conditions. The reference filter variability, measured within a given day over periods as short as an hour, ranged from 0.61 μg to 2 μg to 5.0 μg for the 5th, 50th, 95th percentiles (n > 40,000 weights, 317 reference objects), with a laboratory average of 2.5 μg.
Journal Article

Uncertainty Assessment of Octane Index Framework for Stoichiometric Knock Limits of Co-Optima Gasoline Fuel Blends

2018-10-25
Abstract This study evaluates the applicability of the Octane Index (OI) framework under conventional spark ignition (SI) and “beyond Research Octane Number (RON)” conditions using nine fuels operated under stoichiometric, knock-limited conditions in a direct injection spark ignition (DISI) engine, supported by Monte Carlo-type simulations which interrogate the effects of measurement uncertainty. Of the nine tested fuels, three fuels are “Tier III” fuel blends, meaning that they are blends of molecules which have passed two levels of screening, and have been evaluated to be ready for tests in research engines. These molecules have been blended into a four-component gasoline surrogate at varying volume fractions in order to achieve a RON rating of 98. The molecules under consideration are isobutanol, 2-butanol, and diisobutylene (which is a mixture of two isomers of octene). The remaining six fuels were research-grade gasolines of varying formulations.
Journal Article

Uncertainty Analysis of High-Frequency Noise in Battery Electric Vehicle Based on Interval Model

2019-02-01
Abstract The high-frequency noise issue is one of the most significant noise, vibration, and harshness problems, particularly in battery electric vehicles (BEVs). The sound package treatment is one of the most important approaches toward solving this problem. Owing to the limitations imposed by manufacturing error, assembly error, and the operating conditions, there is often a big difference between the actual values and the design values of the sound package components. Therefore, the sound package parameters include greater uncertainties. In this article, an uncertainty analysis method for BEV interior noise was developed based on an interval model to investigate the effect of sound package uncertainty on the interior noise of a BEV. An interval perturbation method was formulated to compute the uncertainty of the BEV’s interior noise.
Journal Article

U.S. Light-Duty Vehicle Air Conditioning Fuel Use and Impact of Solar/Thermal Control Technologies

2018-12-11
Abstract To reduce fuel consumption and carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from mobile air conditioning (A/C) systems, “U.S. Light-Duty Vehicle Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Corporate Average Fuel Economy Standards” identified solar/thermal technologies such as solar control glazings, solar reflective paint, and active and passive cabin ventilation in an off-cycle credit menu. National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) researchers developed a sophisticated analysis process to calculate U.S. light-duty A/C fuel use that was used to assess the impact of these technologies, leveraging thermal and vehicle simulation analysis tools developed under previous U.S. Department of Energy projects. Representative U.S. light-duty driving behaviors and weighting factors including time-of-day of travel, trip duration, and time between trips were characterized and integrated into the analysis.
Journal Article

Two-Way Coupled CFD Approach for Predicting Gear Temperature of Oil Jet Lubricated Transmissions

2018-07-24
Abstract This article focuses on the development of a two-way coupled methodology to predict gear temperature of oil jet lubricated transmissions using commercial software for computational fluid dynamics simulation. The proposed methodology applies an overset mesh technique to model the gear interlocking motion, multiphase of air-oil mixture, and heat transfer. Two gear pairs were used to develop and validate the methodology, an overdrive helical gear pair of a commercial vehicle transmission and a standard spur gear pair. Different oil jet lubrication methods were investigated using the proposed methodology, such as oil jet directed at the into-mesh position and at the out-of-mesh position. This investigation showed that out of mesh lubrication direction shows better cooling performance which is in well agreement with previous studies of literature.
Journal Article

Transient Operation and Over-Dilution Mitigation for Low-Pressure EGR Systems in Spark-Ignition Engines

2018-09-17
Abstract Low-Pressure cooled Exhaust Gas Recirculation (LP-cEGR) is proven to be an effective technology for fuel efficiency improvement in turbocharged spark-ignition (SI) engines. Aiming to fully exploit the EGR benefits, new challenges are introduced that require more complex and robust control systems and strategies. One of the most important restrictions of LP-cEGR is the transient response, since long air-EGR flow paths introduce significant transport delays between the EGR valve and the cylinders. High dilution generally increases efficiency, but can lead to cycle-by-cycle combustion variation. Especially in SI engines, higher-than-requested EGR dilution may lead to combustion instabilities and misfires. Considering the long EGR evacuation period, one of the most challenging transient events is throttle tip-out, where the engine operation shifts from a high-load point with high dilution tolerance to a low-load point where EGR tolerance is significantly reduced.
Journal Article

Toward Material Efficient Vehicles: Ecodesign Recommendations Based on Metal Sustainability Assessments

2018-09-17
Abstract Current End-of-Life Vehicle (ELV) recycling processes are mainly based on mechanical separation techniques. These methods are designed to recycle those metals with the highest contribution in the vehicle weight such as steel, aluminum, and copper. However, a conventional vehicle uses around 50 different types of metals, some of them considered critical by the European Commission. The lack of specific recycling processes makes that these metals become downcycled in steel or aluminum or, in the worst case, end in landfills. With the aim to define several ecodesign recommendations from a raw material point of view, it is proposed to apply a thermodynamic methodology based on exergy analysis. This methodology uses an indicator called thermodynamic rarity to assess metal sustainability. It takes into account the quality of mineral commodities used in a vehicle as a function of their relative abundance in Nature and the energy intensity required to extract and process them.
Journal Article

Torque and Pressure CFD Correlation of a Torque Converter

2019-08-22
Abstract A torque converter was instrumented with 29 pressure transducers inside five cavities under study (impeller, turbine, stator, clutch cavity between the pressure plate and the turbine shell). A computer model was created to establish correlation with measured torque and pressure. Torque errors between test and simulation were within 5% and K-Factor and torque ratio errors within 2%. Turbulence intensity on the computer model was used to simulate test conditions representing transmission low and high line pressure settings. When turbulence intensity was set to 5%, pressure simulation root mean square errors were within 11%-15% for the high line pressure setting and up to 34% for low line pressure setting. When turbulence intensity was increased to 50% for the low line pressure settings, a 6% reduced root mean square error in the pressure simulations was seen.
Journal Article

Tire Side Force Characteristics with the Coupling Effect of Vertical Load and Inflation Pressure

2018-11-09
Abstract The tire vertical load and inflation pressure have great influence on tire steady- and non-steady-state characteristics and, consequently, on the vehicle handling and stability. The objective of this article is to reveal the coupling effect of tire vertical load and inflation pressure on tire characteristics and then introduce an improved UniTire side force model including such coupling effect through experimental and theoretical analysis. First, the influence of the tire vertical load and inflation pressure on the tire characteristics is presented through experimental analysis. Second, the theoretical tire cornering stiffness and lateral relaxation length model are introduced to study the underlying mechanism of the coupling effect. Then, an improved UniTire side force model including the coupling effect of tire vertical load and inflation pressure is derived. Finally, the proposed improved UniTire side force model is validated through tire steady-state and transient data.
Journal Article

Throat Unit Collector Modeling of Gasoline Particulate Filter Performance

2019-07-26
Abstract The wide application of Gasoline Direct Injection (GDI) engines and the increasingly stringent Particulate Matter (PM) and Particulate Number (PN) regulations make Gasoline Particulate Filters (GPFs) with high filtration efficiency and low pressure drop highly desirable. However, due to the specifics of GDI operation and GDI PM, the design of these filters is even more challenging as compared to their diesel counterparts. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) studies have been shown to be an effective way to investigate filter performance. In particular, our previous two-dimensional (2D) CFD study explicated the pore size and pore-size distribution effects on GPF filtration efficiency and pressure drop. The “throat unit collector” model developed in this study furthers this work in order to characterize the GPF wall microstructure more precisely.
Journal Article

Theory of Collision Avoidance Capability in Automated Driving Technologies

2018-10-29
Abstract To evaluate that automated vehicle is as safe as a human driver, a following question is studied: how does an automated vehicle react under extreme conditions close to collision? In order to understand the collision avoidance capability of an automated vehicle, we should analyze not only such post-extreme condition behavior but also pre-extreme condition behavior. We present a theory to analyze the collision avoidance capability of automated driving technologies. We also formulate a collision avoidance equation on the theory. The equation has two types of solutions: response driving plans and preparation driving plans. The response driving plans are supported by response strategy on which the vehicle reacts after detection of a hazard and they are highly efficient in terms of travel time.
Journal Article

The Key Role of Advanced, Flexible Fuel Injection Systems to Match the Future CO2 Targets in an Ultra-Light Mid-Size Diesel Engine

2019-01-23
Abstract The article describes the results achieved in developing a new diesel combustion system for passenger car application that, while capable of high power density, delivers excellent fuel economy through a combination of mechanical and thermodynamic efficiencies improvement. The project stemmed from the idea that, by leveraging the high fuel injection pressure of last generation common rail systems, it is possible to reduce the engine peak firing pressure (pfp) with great benefits on reciprocating and rotating components’ light-weighting and friction for high-speed light-duty engines, while keeping the power density at competitive levels. To this aim, an advanced injection system concept capable of injection pressure greater than 2500 bar was coupled to a prototype engine featuring newly developed combustion system. Then, the matching among these features has been thoroughly experimentally examined.
Journal Article

The Impacts of Pd in BEA Zeolite on Decreasing Cold-Start NMOG Emission of an E85 Fuel Vehicle

2018-10-25
Abstract In the development of hydrocarbon (HC) traps for E85 fuel vehicle emission control, the addition of palladium (Pd) to BEA zeolite was studied for trapping and decreasing cold-start ethanol emissions. BEA zeolite after a laboratory aging at 750°C for 25 hours released nearly all of the trapped ethanol as unconverted ethanol at low temperature, and some ethene was released at a higher temperature by a dehydration reaction. The addition of Pd to BEA zeolite showed a decrease in the release of unconverted ethanol emissions even after the lab aging. The release of methane (CH4), acetaldehyde (CH3CHO), carbon monoxide (CO), and CO2 from Pd-BEA zeolite during desorption (temperature programmed desorption (TPD)) demonstrated that multiple ethanol reaction mechanisms were involved including dehydrogenation and decomposition reactions.
Journal Article

The Effect of NO2/NOx Ratio on the Performance of a SCR Downstream of a SCR Catalyst on a DPF

2019-06-14
Abstract Different aftertreatment systems consisting of a combination of selective catalytic reduction (SCR) and SCR catalyst on a diesel particulate filter (DPF) (SCR-F) are being developed to meet future oxides of nitrogen (NOx) emissions standards being set by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the California Air Resources Board (CARB). One such system consisting of a SCRF® with a downstream SCR was used in this research to determine the system NOx reduction performance using experimental data from a 2013 Cummins 6.7L ISB diesel engine and model data. The contribution of the three SCR reactions on NOx reduction performance in the SCR-F and the SCR was determined based on the modeling work. The performance of a SCR was simulated with a one-dimensional (1D) SCR model. A NO2/NOx ratio of 0.5 was found to be optimum for maximizing the NOx reduction and minimizing NH3 slip for the SCR for a given value of ammonia-to-NOx ratio (ANR).
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