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Journal Article

Wheel Chock Key Design Elements and Geometrical Profile for Truck Vehicle Restraint

Abstract Wheel chocks are rather simple compliant mechanisms for stabilizing vehicles at rest. However, chocks must be carefully designed given the complex interaction between the chock and the tire/suspension system. Despite their importance for safety, literature is surprisingly limited in terms of what makes a wheel chock efficient. Using simple but reliable quasi-static mechanical models, this study identifies mechanical requirements that help to avoid a number of failure modes associated with many existing wheel chocks. Given that chock grounding is not always possible, a chock’s maximum restraining capacity is only obtained when the wheel is completely supported by the chock. A generic chock profile is proposed to achieve this objective while mitigating undesirable failure modes. The profile is based on fundamental mechanical principles and no assumption is made on the load interaction between the chock and the wheel.
Journal Article

Vehicle Stability Control through Optimized Coordination of Active Rear Steering and Differential Driving/Braking

Abstract In this article, a hierarchical coordinated control algorithm for integrating active rear steering and driving/braking force distribution (ARS+D/BFD) was presented. The upper-level control was synthesized to generate the required rear steering angle and external yaw moment by using a sliding-mode controller. In the lower-level controller, a control allocation algorithm considering driving/braking actuators and tire forces constraints was designed to assign the desired yaw moment to the four wheels. To this end, an optimization problem including several equality and inequality constraints were defined and solved analytically. Finally, computer simulation results suggest that the proposed hierarchical control scheme was able to help to achieve substantial enhancements in handling performance and stability.
Journal Article

U.S. Light-Duty Vehicle Air Conditioning Fuel Use and Impact of Solar/Thermal Control Technologies

Abstract To reduce fuel consumption and carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from mobile air conditioning (A/C) systems, “U.S. Light-Duty Vehicle Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Corporate Average Fuel Economy Standards” identified solar/thermal technologies such as solar control glazings, solar reflective paint, and active and passive cabin ventilation in an off-cycle credit menu. National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) researchers developed a sophisticated analysis process to calculate U.S. light-duty A/C fuel use that was used to assess the impact of these technologies, leveraging thermal and vehicle simulation analysis tools developed under previous U.S. Department of Energy projects. Representative U.S. light-duty driving behaviors and weighting factors including time-of-day of travel, trip duration, and time between trips were characterized and integrated into the analysis.
Journal Article

Transient Operation and Over-Dilution Mitigation for Low-Pressure EGR Systems in Spark-Ignition Engines

Abstract Low-Pressure cooled Exhaust Gas Recirculation (LP-cEGR) is proven to be an effective technology for fuel efficiency improvement in turbocharged spark-ignition (SI) engines. Aiming to fully exploit the EGR benefits, new challenges are introduced that require more complex and robust control systems and strategies. One of the most important restrictions of LP-cEGR is the transient response, since long air-EGR flow paths introduce significant transport delays between the EGR valve and the cylinders. High dilution generally increases efficiency, but can lead to cycle-by-cycle combustion variation. Especially in SI engines, higher-than-requested EGR dilution may lead to combustion instabilities and misfires. Considering the long EGR evacuation period, one of the most challenging transient events is throttle tip-out, where the engine operation shifts from a high-load point with high dilution tolerance to a low-load point where EGR tolerance is significantly reduced.
Journal Article

Tire Side Force Characteristics with the Coupling Effect of Vertical Load and Inflation Pressure

Abstract The tire vertical load and inflation pressure have great influence on tire steady- and non-steady-state characteristics and, consequently, on the vehicle handling and stability. The objective of this article is to reveal the coupling effect of tire vertical load and inflation pressure on tire characteristics and then introduce an improved UniTire side force model including such coupling effect through experimental and theoretical analysis. First, the influence of the tire vertical load and inflation pressure on the tire characteristics is presented through experimental analysis. Second, the theoretical tire cornering stiffness and lateral relaxation length model are introduced to study the underlying mechanism of the coupling effect. Then, an improved UniTire side force model including the coupling effect of tire vertical load and inflation pressure is derived. Finally, the proposed improved UniTire side force model is validated through tire steady-state and transient data.
Journal Article

Systematic CFD Parameter Approach to Improve Torque Converter Simulation

Abstract A systematic parametrization approach was employed to simulate a torque converter operating over a wide range of speed ratios. Results of the simulation yielded torque converter impeller and turbine torques prediction errors below 11% when compared to manufacturer data. Further improvements in the computational fluids dynamic (CFD) model reduced such errors down to 3% for the impeller and 6% for the turbine torque predictions. Convergence was reached well under 300 iterations for the most optimal variable setting, but each speed ratio was let to run for 300 iterations. Solution time for the 300 iterations was 40 minutes per speed ratio. The systematic parametrization provides a very competitive procedure for torque converter simulation with reduced computational error and fast solution time.
Journal Article

Performance Margin for Geometric Road Design

Abstract Although several methods exist for measuring the performance capability of a vehicle, many require detailed knowledge of the forces acting at each tire contact patch or do not account for both the vehicle dynamics and the road geometry. A simple vehicle model is proposed to estimate the upper limit of performance capability for a given operating condition (the Performance Envelope) based on the Effective Friction and the road geometry (slope and cross-slope). The Effective Friction accounts for both the vehicle dynamics and road surface properties and is estimated, through simulation or experimentation, using two standard vehicle dynamics tests: constant radius cornering and straight-line braking. The Performance Margin is defined as the additional performance capability available before the vehicle reaches the Performance Envelope, both represented in the intuitive units of gravity.
Journal Article

PSO-Fuzzy Gain Scheduling of PID Controllers for a Nonlinear Half-Vehicle Suspension System

Abstract The present article addresses the gain scheduling of proportional-integral-differential (PID) controllers using fuzzy set theory coupled with a metaheuristic optimization technique to control the vehicle nonlinear suspension system. The nonlinearities of the vehicle suspension system are due to the asymmetric piecewise dampers, quadratic tire stiffness, and the cubical spring stiffness. Conventional PID controller suffers from the low performance subject to modeling nonlinearities, while fuzzy logic controller (FLC), as a universal approximator, has the capacity to deal with the nonlinear, stochastic, and complex models. However, finding the optimal Mamdani FLC rules is still a challenging task in addition to a proper architecture of the membership functions (MFs). As a remedy to this drawback, particle swarm optimization (PSO) technique is employed in this article to improve the efficiency of the FLC-based PID controllers.
Journal Article

Obstacle Avoidance for Self-Driving Vehicle with Reinforcement Learning

Abstract Obstacle avoidance is an important function in self-driving vehicle control. When the vehicle move from any arbitrary start positions to any target positions in environment, a proper path must avoid both static obstacles and moving obstacles of arbitrary shape. There are many possible scenarios, manually tackling all possible cases will likely yield a too simplistic policy. In this paper reinforcement learning is applied to the problem to form effective strategies. There are two major challenges that make self-driving vehicle different from other robotic tasks. Firstly, in order to control the vehicle precisely, the action space must be continuous which can’t be dealt with by traditional Q-learning. Secondly, self-driving vehicle must satisfy various constraints including vehicle dynamics constraints and traffic rules constraints. Three contributions are made in this paper.
Journal Article

Multi-Chamber Tire Concept for Low Rolling-Resistance

Abstract Rolling-resistance is leading the direction of numerous tire developments due to its significant effect on fuel consumption and CO2 emissions considering the vehicles in use globally. Many attempts were made to reduce rolling-resistance in vehicles, but with no or limited success due to tire complexity and trade-offs. This article investigates the concept of multiple chambers inside the tire as a potential alternative solution for reducing rolling-resistance. To accomplish that, novel multi-chamber designs were introduced and numerically simulated through finite-element (FE) modeling. The FE models were compared against a standard design as the baseline. The influences on rolling-resistance, grip, cornering, and mechanical comfort were studied. The multi-chambers tire model reduced rolling-resistance considerably with acceptable trade-offs. Independent air volumes isolating tread from sidewalls would maintain tire’s profile effectively.
Journal Article

Methodology for Developing a Diesel Exhaust After Treatment Simulation Tool

Abstract A methodology for the development of catalyst models is presented. Also, a methodology of the implementation of such models into a modular simulation tool, which simulates the units in succession, is presented. A case study is presented illustrating how suitable models can be found and used for simulations. Such simulations illustrate the behavior of the individual units and the overall system. It is shown how, by simulating the units in succession, the entire after treatment system can be tested and optimized, because the integration makes it possible to observe the effect of the modules on one another.
Journal Article

Investigation of a Six-Phase Interior Permanent Magnet Synchronous Machine for Integrated Charging and Propulsion in EVs

Abstract Merits such as reduced weight, overall and operational costs of the electric vehicle (EV) while providing level 3 charging capability, are propelling research on integrated charging (IC) technology for EVs. Since the same interior permanent magnet synchronous machine (IPMSM) is used during IC and traction conditions, it is important to understand the behavior of the machine during these conditions and optimally design the machine. Hence, firstly, this paper presents a case study on performance of a laboratory 3-phase IPMSM under IC and traction conditions. Thereafter, understanding the challenges such as low magnet operating point, losses and torque oscillation in 3-phase IPMSM during IC, a 6-phase IPMSM with an unconventional configuration is investigated to yield traction characteristics like that of the 3-phase IPMSM and mitigate challenges during IC. In the process, mathematical model of the 6-phase IPMSM is developed employing the dq-axis theory.
Journal Article

Introducing the Modified Tire Power Loss and Resistant Force Regarding Longitudinal Slip

Abstract Investigation of vehicle resistant forces and power losses is of crucial importance owing to current state of energy consumption in transport sector. Meanwhile, considerable portion of resistant forces in a ground vehicle is traced back to tires. Pneumatic tires are known to be a source of energy dissipation as a consequence of their viscoelastic nature. The current study aims to provide a modification to tire resistance by considering the power loss in a tire due to longitudinal slip. The modified tire resistance is comprised of rolling resistance and a newly introduced resistance caused by tire slip, called slip resistance. The physical model is chosen for parameters sensitivity study since the tractive force is described in this model via tangible physical parameters, e.g. tire tangential stiffness, coefficient of friction, and contact patch length.
Journal Article

Integrated Positioning Method for Intelligent Vehicle Based on GPS and UWB

Abstract Knowledge of intelligent vehicle absolute position is a vital premise for the implementation of decision programming, kinematic and dynamics control. In order to achieve high accuracy positioning and reduce running cost as much as possible under all operating conditions, this paper proposed an integrated positioning method based on GPS and Ultra Wide Band(UWB) for intelligent vehicle’s navigation and position system. In this method, GPS and UWB are alternately active according to the confidence level of GPS signal. When the vehicle is traveling in a wide-open area and GPS signal is well received, the positioning results of Dead Reckoning system are corrected by the low frequency positioning output from GPS. During the correcting process, in order to realize the better fusion of measurement data, a simplified federal Kalman filter was designed by using indirect method.
Journal Article

Influence of Intelligent Active Suspension System Controller Design Techniques on Vehicle Braking Characteristics

Abstract This article presents a comprehensive investigation for the interaction between vehicle ride vibration control and braking control using two degrees of freedom (2DOF) quarter vehicle model. A typical limited bandwidth active suspension system with nonlinear spring and damping characteristics of practical hydraulic and pneumatic components is controlled to regulate both suspension and tire forces and therefore provide the optimum ride comfort and braking performance of an anti-lock brake system (ABS). In order to design a suitable controller for this nonlinear integrated system, various control techniques are followed including state feedback tuned using Linear Quadratic Regulator (LQR), state feedback tuned using Genetic Algorithm (GA), Proportional Integrated (PI) tuned genetically, and Fuzzy Logic Control (FLC). The ABS control system is designed to limit skid ratio below threshold of 15%.
Journal Article

In-Plane Flexible Ring Tire Model Parameter Identification: Optimization Algorithms

Abstract Parameter identification is an important part of tire model development. The prediction performance of a tire model highly depends on the identified parameter values of the tire model. Different optimization algorithms may yield different tire parameters with different computational accuracy. It is essential to find out which optimization algorithm is most likely to generate a set of parameters with the best prediction performance. In this study, four different MATLAB® optimization algorithms, including fminsearchcon, patternsearch, genetic algorithm (GA), and particleswarm, are used to identify the parameters of a newly proposed in-plane flexible ring tire model. The reference data used for parameter identification are obtained through a ADAMS FTire® virtual cleat test. After parameters are identified based on above four algorithms, their performances are compared in terms of effectiveness, efficiency, reliability, and robustness.
Journal Article

Improving Vehicle Rollover Resistance Using Fuzzy PID Controller of Active Anti-Roll Bar System

Abstract The active anti-roll bar (AARB) system in vehicles has recently become one of the research hotspots in the field of vehicle technology to improve the vehicle’s active safety. In most off-road vehicles, high ground clearance is required while keeping all wheels in contact with the ground in order to improve traction and maintain load distribution among the wheels. A problem however arises in some types of the off-road vehicles when the vehicle is operated at high speeds on smooth roads. In such condition, the combination of the vehicle’s center of gravity position, large suspension stroke, and soft spring construction creates a stability problem, which could make the vehicle liable to rollover. This article analyzes a comparison of stability performance between passive and active anti-roll bar systems to improve rolling resistance. For active systems, two control strategies will be investigated. The conventional PID controller is firstly investigated and taken as a reference.
Journal Article

Improvement in Gear Shift Comfort by Reduction in Double Bump Force of Passenger Vehicles

Abstract In today’s competitive automobile market, driver comfort is at utmost importance and the bar is being raised continuously. Gear Shifting is a crucial customer touch point. Any issue or inconvenience caused while shifting gear can result into customer dissatisfaction and will impact the brand image. While there are continual efforts being taken by most of the car manufactures, “Double Bump” in gearshift has remained as a pain area and impact severely on the shift feel. This is more prominent in North-South (N-S) transmissions. In this paper ‘Double Bump’ is a focus area and a mathematical / analytical approach is demonstrated by analyzing ‘impacting parameters’ and establishing their co-relation with double bump. Additionally, the results are also verified with a simulation model.
Journal Article

Impact of Dynamic Characteristics of Wheel-Rail Coupling on Rail Corrugation

Abstract To gain a better understanding of the characteristics of corrugation, including the development and propagation of corrugation, and impact of vehicle and track dynamics, a computational model was established, taking into account the nonlinearity of vehicle-track coupling. The model assumes a fixed train speed of 300 km/h and accounts for vertical interaction force components and rail wear effect. Site measurements were used to validate the numerical model. Computational results show that (1) Wheel polygonalisation corresponding to excitation frequency of 545-572 Hz was mainly attributed to track irregularity and uneven stiffness of under-rail supports, which in turn leads to vibration modes of the bogie and axle system in the frequency range of 500-600 Hz, aggregating wheel wear. (2) The peak response frequency of rail of the non-ballasted track coincides with the excitation frequency of wheel-rail coupling; the resonance results in larger wear amplitude of the rail.
Journal Article

Force Transmission Characteristics for a Loaded Structural-Acoustic Tire Model

Abstract Concerns about tire noise radiation arise partly from city traffic planning, environmental protection, and pedestrian safety standpoints, while from the vehicle passengers’ perspective, noise transmitted to the vehicle interior is more important. It is the latter concern that is addressed in this article. Sound-absorbing materials generally offer good absorption at higher frequencies, but the reduction of relatively low frequency, structure-borne tire noise is a continuing focus of many auto manufacturers. A tire’s internal, acoustic cavity resonance is a very strong contributing factor to tire-related structure-borne noise, and it can easily be perceived by passengers. Some reduction of vehicle cabin noise can be achieved through the insertion of sound-absorbing material in the tires. However, apart from the additional cost for such tires, there is also an increased complexity when repairing them because of the need to avoid damaging the sound-absorptive lining.