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Journal Article

Validation of Crush Energy Calculation Methods for Use in Accident Reconstructions by Finite Element Analysis

Abstract The crush energy is a key parameter to determine the delta-V in accident reconstructions. Since an accurate car crush profile can be obtained from 3D scanners, this research aims at validating the methods currently used in calculating crush energy from a crush profile. For this validation, a finite element (FE) car model was analyzed using various types of impact conditions to investigate the theory of energy-based accident reconstruction. Two methods exist to calculate the crush energy: the work based on the barrier force and the work based on force calculated by the vehicle acceleration times the vehicle mass. We show that the crush energy calculated from the barrier force was substantially larger than the internal energy calculated from the FE model. Whereas the crush energy calculated from the vehicle acceleration was comparable to the internal energy of the FE model.
Journal Article

Structural Optimization Techniques to Design Light Weight and Low Radiated Noise Components

Abstract Structural optimization evolved as a preferred technique across industries to develop lightweight products. One of the widely studied topics in structural optimization is to develop methods that reduce the radiated noise from a structure, where responses like Equivalent Radiated Power (ERP) and natural frequencies used to indirectly address the noise levels. This article compares freeform optimization with topology optimization technique and investigates their effectiveness for reducing radiated noise and weight. To illustrate the same, Finite Element Method (FEM) and Boundary Element Method (BEM) analysis are performed on a sheet metal flat plate (panel) as an example and correlated the same with experimental data. Further, different optimization problem formulations have been explored on those examples and results have been compared.
Journal Article

Steady Aeroelastic Response Prediction and Validation for Automobile Hoods

Abstract The pursuit of improved fuel economy through weight reduction, reduced manufacturing costs, and improved crash safety can result in increased compliance in automobile structures. However, with compliance comes an increased susceptibility to aerodynamic and vibratory loads. The hood in particular withstands considerable aerodynamic force at highway speeds, creating the potential for significant aeroelastic response that may adversely impact customer satisfaction and perception of vehicle quality. This work seeks an improved understanding in computational and experimental study of fluid-structure interactions between automobile hoods and the surrounding internal and external flow. Computational analysis was carried out using coupled CFD-FEM solvers with detailed models of the automobile topology and structural components. The experimental work consisted of wind tunnel tests using a full-scale production vehicle.
Journal Article

Selection of Reference Flux Linkage for Direct Torque Control Based Induction Motor Drive in Electric Vehicle Applications

Abstract The surge in economic activities, in the developing nations, has resulted in rapid expansion of urban centres. This expansion of cities has caused a rapid increase in vehicular traffic, which in turn has caused deterioration of air quality. To overcome the problem of unprecedented air pollution, the governments worldwide have framed policies for faster adoption of electric vehicles. One of the major challenges faced is the development of low- cost drive for these vehicles and keeping the imports to a minimum. As a result of this, the trend is to move away from the permanent magnet-based motor technology and to use induction motor-based drivetrain. For the induction motors to be successful in electric vehicle drivetrain application, it is important to have a robust speed control algorithm. This work aims at adapting a direct torque control technique for induction motor’s speed control.
Journal Article

Residual Stresses and Plastic Deformation in Self-Pierce Riveting of Dissimilar Aluminum-to-Magnesium Alloys

Abstract In this work, the complex relationship between deformation history and residual stresses in a magnesium-to-aluminum self-pierce riveted (SPR) joint is elucidated using numerical and experimental approaches. Non-linear finite element (FE) simulations incorporating strain rate and temperature effects were performed to model the deformation in the SPR process. In order to accurately capture the deformation, a stress triaxiality-based damage material model was employed to capture the sheet piercing from the rivet. Strong visual comparison between the physical cross-section of the SPR joint and the simulation was achieved. To aid in understanding of the role of deformation in the riveting process and to validate the modeling approach, several experimental measurements were conducted. To quantify the plastic deformation from the piercing of the rivet, micro hardness mapping was performed on a cross-section of the SPR joint.
Journal Article

Numerical Prediction of Various Failure Modes in Spotweld Steel Material

Abstract Crash simulation is targeted mainly carried out by the collision regulations FMVSS simulation to identify problems in vehicle structures. A modern car structure consist of several thousand weld-type connections, and failure in these connections plays an important role for the crashworthiness of the vehicle. Therefore accurate modeling of these connections is important for the automotive industry in order to improve Vehicle collision characteristics. In pursuit of this key requirement, we introduced a proper methodology for the development detailed weld model to study structural response of the weld when the applied load range is beyond the yield strength. Three-dimensional finite element (FE) models of spot welded joints are developed using the LS-Dyna FE code. In this process the force estimation model of spot welds is explained. The results from this paper shows good agreement between the simulations and the tests.
Journal Article

Mixture Distributions in Autonomous Decision-Making for Industry 4.0

Abstract Industry 4.0 is expected to revolutionize product development and, in particular, manufacturing systems. Cyber-physical production systems and digital twins of the product and process already provide the means to predict possible future states of the final product given the current production parameters. With the advent of further data integration coupled with the need for autonomous decision-making, methods are needed to make decisions in real time and in an environment of uncertainty in both the possible outcomes and in the stakeholders’ preferences over them. This article proposes a method of autonomous decision-making in data-intensive environments, such as a cyber-physical assembly system. Theoretical results in group decision-making and utility maximization using mixture distributions are presented. This allows us to perform calculations on expected utility accurately and efficiently through closed-form expressions, which are also provided.
Journal Article

Machining Quality Analysis of Powertrain Components Using Plane Strain Finite Element Cutting Models

Abstract Finite Element Analysis (FEA) of metal cutting is largely the domain of research organizations. Despite significant advances towards accurately modelling metal machining processes, industrial adoption of these advances has been limited. Academic studies, which mainly focused on orthogonal cutting, fail to address this discrepancy. This paper bridges the gap between simplistic orthogonal cutting models and the complex components typical in the manufacturing sector. This paper outlines how to utilize results from orthogonal cutting simulations to predict industrially relevant performance measures efficiently. In this approach, using 2D FEA cutting models a range of feed, speed and rake angles are simulated. Cutting force coefficients are then fit to the predicted cutting forces. Using these coefficients, forces for 3D cutting geometries are calculated.
Journal Article

Investigation of a Six-Phase Interior Permanent Magnet Synchronous Machine for Integrated Charging and Propulsion in EVs

Abstract Merits such as reduced weight, overall and operational costs of the electric vehicle (EV) while providing level 3 charging capability, are propelling research on integrated charging (IC) technology for EVs. Since the same interior permanent magnet synchronous machine (IPMSM) is used during IC and traction conditions, it is important to understand the behavior of the machine during these conditions and optimally design the machine. Hence, firstly, this paper presents a case study on performance of a laboratory 3-phase IPMSM under IC and traction conditions. Thereafter, understanding the challenges such as low magnet operating point, losses and torque oscillation in 3-phase IPMSM during IC, a 6-phase IPMSM with an unconventional configuration is investigated to yield traction characteristics like that of the 3-phase IPMSM and mitigate challenges during IC. In the process, mathematical model of the 6-phase IPMSM is developed employing the dq-axis theory.
Journal Article

Internal Combustion Engine Cylinder Volume Trace Deviation

Abstract Heat release analysis is a widely used cylinder pressure-based method for evaluating combustion in engine development, and it is also being investigated as a means to control engine combustion. Heat release analysis has been shown to be sensitive to errors in the calculated cylinder volume, but despite this one of the most common assumptions is that the cylinder volume is nominal and can be calculated solely by the geometrical relations among the measures of the engine components. During engine operation, the components surrounding the combustion chamber are exposed to thermal forces, pressure forces, and mass forces from the reciprocating components. Due to these forces, the components will deform and the volume of the combustion chamber will deviate from its ideal volume. The volume will also be affected by the production tolerances of the engine.
Journal Article

Innovative Approach of Wedge Washer to Avoid Bolt Loosening in Automotive Applications

Abstract Automotive vehicle includes various systems like engine, transmission, exhaust, air intake, cooling and many more systems. No doubt the performance of individual system depends upon their core design. But for performance, the system needs to be fastened properly. In automotive, most of the joints used fasteners which helps in serviceability of the components. There are more than thousands of fasteners used in the vehicle. At various locations, we found issue of bolt loosening and because of this design intent performance has not met by the system. During product development of ECS (Engine cooling system), various issues reported to loosening the bolt. The pre-mature failure of bolt loosening, increases the interest in young engineers for understanding the behavior of fastener in vehicle running conditions. This paper focuses on the design of wedge shape of washer to avoid bolt loosening.
Journal Article

Influence of the Friction Coefficient in Self-Pierce Riveting Simulations: A Statistical Analysis

Abstract In this work, optimal modeling parameters for self-pierce riveting (SPR) were determined using a factorial design of experiments (DOE). In particular, we show statistically how each of the calibrating parameters used in modeling the SPR process through nonlinear finite element modeling can drastically change the geometry of the joint. The results of this study indicate that the degree of interlock, which is a key feature of a sound joint, is largely influenced by the friction between the die and bottom sheet as well as the friction between the rivet and top sheet. Furthermore, this numerical study also helped elucidate the role of friction in SPR and sheds light on how coatings with diverse friction coefficients can affect material deformation and ultimately structural integrity of the joint.
Journal Article

Industrial Framework for Identification and Verification of Hot Spots in Automotive Composite Structures

Abstract In this article, a framework for efficient strength analysis of large and complex automotive composite structures is presented. This article focuses on processes and methods that are compliant with common practice in the automotive industry. The proposed framework uses efficient shell models for identification of hot spots, automated remodelling and analysis of found hot spots with high-fidelity models and finally an automated way of post-processing the detailed models. The process is developed to allow verification of a large number of load cases in large models and still consider all potential failure modes. The process is focused on laminated composite primary structures. This article highlights the challenges and tools for setting up this framework.
Journal Article

Hewing Out Evacuation Routes for Burning Buses by Linear-Shaped Charge Jet

Abstract In recent years, several buses have ignited in some cities in China, causing numerous deaths and significant property damage. However, few research studies have been conducted to deal with such accidents. Therefore, in this work, a linear-shaped charge jet with rectangular cross sections was used to hew out evacuation routes for burning buses, and the parameter design for the shaped charge jet was improved according to asymmetry limitations and human tolerance. A numerical finite element simulation model of the behavior of a jet penetrating the jambs was established using ANSYS/LS-DYNA software. The asymmetrical characteristics of an arc segment in the structure of a rectangular-shaped charge were analyzed, in addition to the influence on the deviations of the jet penetration capacity and blast injuries to occupants caused by the side effects of detonation.
Journal Article

Fracture-Splitting Processing Performance Study and Comparison of the C70S6 and 36MnVS4 Connecting Rods

Abstract 36MnVS4 is a new connecting-rod fracture-splitting material. To explore why it has a high fracture- splitting defective index, this article simulated the fracture-splitting process of connecting rods. Comparing 36MnVS4 with C70S6, this article analyzed the stress-strain state of the groove roots, the position of crack initiation, the plastic deformation distribution of the fracture surface, and the splitting force changes in fracture splitting process. Results show that the crack initiation position of the 36MnVS4 connecting rod is relatively more scattered and random, and the crack starting point of the C70S6 connecting rod is more unique. Compared with the C70S6 connecting rod, the 36MnVS4 connecting rod has an earlier crack initiation time and smaller fracture-splitting force. Therefore, the 36MnVS4 has higher gap sensitivity and its fracture surface is more prone to tear.
Journal Article

Force Transmission Characteristics for a Loaded Structural-Acoustic Tire Model

Abstract Concerns about tire noise radiation arise partly from city traffic planning, environmental protection, and pedestrian safety standpoints, while from the vehicle passengers’ perspective, noise transmitted to the vehicle interior is more important. It is the latter concern that is addressed in this article. Sound-absorbing materials generally offer good absorption at higher frequencies, but the reduction of relatively low frequency, structure-borne tire noise is a continuing focus of many auto manufacturers. A tire’s internal, acoustic cavity resonance is a very strong contributing factor to tire-related structure-borne noise, and it can easily be perceived by passengers. Some reduction of vehicle cabin noise can be achieved through the insertion of sound-absorbing material in the tires. However, apart from the additional cost for such tires, there is also an increased complexity when repairing them because of the need to avoid damaging the sound-absorptive lining.
Journal Article

Finite Element Thermo-Structural Methodology for Investigating Diesel Engine Pistons with Thermal Barrier Coating

Abstract Traditionally, in combustion engine applications, metallic materials have been widely employed due to their properties: castability and machinability with accurate dimensional tolerances, good mechanical strength even at high temperatures, wear resistance, and affordable price. However, the high thermal conductivity of metallic materials is responsible for consistent losses of thermal energy and has a strong influence on pollutant emission. A possible approach for reducing the thermal exchange requires the use of thermal barrier coating (TBC) made by materials with low thermal conductivity and good thermo-mechanical strength. In this work, the effects of a ceramic coating for thermal insulation of the piston crown of a car diesel engine are investigated through a numerical methodology based on finite element analysis. The study is developed by considering firstly a thermal analysis and then a thermo-structural analysis of the component.
Journal Article

Explanation for Variability in Lower Frequency Structure-Borne Noise and Vibration: Roles of Rear Subframe Dynamics and Right-Left Spindle Phasing

Abstract This investigation focuses on a class of rear suspension systems that contain both direct and intersecting structural paths from the tire contact patches to the vehicle body. The structural paths intersect through a dynamically active rear subframe structure. New experiments and computational models are developed and analyzed in this article to investigate the variability of structure-borne noise and vibration due to tire/road interactions in the lower- to mid-frequency regimes. Controlled operational experiments are conducted with a mass-production minivan on a chassis dynamometer equipped with rough road shells. Unlike prior literature, the controlled experiments are analyzed for run-run variations in the structure-borne noise up to 300 Hz in a single vehicle to evaluate the nature of excitations at the spindle as the key source of variation in the absence of significant manufacturing, assembly and instrumentation errors.
Journal Article

Elasto-Hydrodynamic Bearing Model in Powertrain Multi-Body Simulation

Abstract Multi-body simulation is a well-established simulation technique in the analysis of internal combustion engines dynamics. The enhancement of multi-body simulation especially regarding flexible structures included effects of structural dynamics in the analysis and helped not only to broaden the field of application but also improved quality of the results. In connection to that there is a steady increase in the need for enhanced and refined modeling approaches for technical subsystems such as journal bearings. The paper on hand will present the elasto-hydrodynamic journal bearing module for the software FEV Virtual Engine which is a vertical application to the generic multi-body simulation suite Adams.
Journal Article

Disc Pad Physical Properties vs. Porosity: The Question of Compressibility as an Intrinsic Physical Property

Abstract Disc pad physical properties are believed to be important in controlling brake friction, wear and squeal. Thus these properties are carefully measured during and after manufacturing for quality assurance. For a given formulation, disc pad porosity is reported to affect friction, wear and squeal. This investigation was undertaken to find out how porosity changes affect pad natural frequencies, dynamic modulus, hardness and compressibility for a low-copper formulation and a copper-free formulation, both without underlayer, without scorching and without noise shims. Pad natural frequencies, modulus and hardness all continuously decrease with increasing porosity. When pad compressibility is measured by compressing several times as recommended and practiced, the pad surface hardness is found to increase while pad natural frequencies and modulus remain essentially unchanged.