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Technical Paper

System Simulation and Analysis of EPA 5-Cycle Fuel Economy for Powersplit Hybrid Electric Vehicles

To better reflect real world driving conditions, the EPA 5-Cycle Fuel Economy method encompasses high vehicle speeds, aggressive vehicle accelerations, climate control system use and cold temperature conditions in addition to the previously used standard City and Highway drive cycles in the estimation of vehicle fuel economy. A standard Powersplit Hybrid Electric Vehicle (HEV) system simulation environment has long been established and widely used within Ford to project fuel economy for the standard EPA City and Highway cycles. Direct modeling and simulation of the complete 5-Cycle fuel economy test set for HEV's presents significant new challenges especially with respect to modeling vehicle thermal management system and interactions with HEV features and system controls. It also requires a structured, systematic approach to validate the key elements of the system models and complete vehicle system simulations.
Journal Article

Power Management of Hybrid Electric Vehicles based on Pareto Optimal Maps

Pareto optimal map concept has been applied to the optimization of the vehicle system control (VSC) strategy for a power-split hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) system. The methodology relies on an inner-loop optimization process to define Pareto maps of the best engine and electric motor/generator operating points given wheel power demand, vehicle speed, and battery power. Selected levels of model fidelity, from simple to very detailed, can be used to generate the Pareto maps. Optimal control is achieved by applying Pontryagin's minimum principle which is based on minimization of the Hamiltonian comprised of the rate of fuel consumption and a co-state variable multiplied by the rate of change of battery SOC. The approach delivers optimal control for lowest fuel consumption over a drive cycle while accounting for all critical vehicle operating constraints, e.g. battery charge balance and power limits, and engine speed and torque limits.
Journal Article

Methodology for Assessment of Alternative Hybrid Electric Vehicle Powertrain System Architectures

Hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) systems offer significant improvements in vehicle fuel economy and reductions in vehicle generated greenhouse gas emissions. The widely accepted power-split HEV system configuration couples together an internal combustion engine with two electric machines (a motor and a generator) through a planetary gear set. This paper describes a methodology for analysis and optimization of alternative HEV power-split configurations defined by alternative connections between power sources and transaxle. The alternative configurations are identified by a matrix of kinematic equations for connected power sources. Based on the universal kinematic matrix, a generic method for automatically formulating dynamic models is developed. Screening and optimization of alternative configurations involves verification of a set of design requirements which reflect: vehicle continuous operation, e.g. grade test; and vehicle dynamic operation such as acceleration and drivability.
Technical Paper

Engine Control Unit Modeling with Engine Feature C Code for HEV Applications

Engine control unit (ECU) modeling using engine feature C code is an increasingly important part of new vehicle analysis and development tools. The application areas of feature based ECU models are numerous: a) cold vehicle fuel economy (FE) prediction required for recently introduced 5-cycle certification; b) vehicle thermal modeling; c) evaporative (purge) systems design; d) model-in-the-loop/software-in-the-loop (MIL/SIL) vehicle control development and calibration. The modeling method presented in the paper embeds production C-code directly into Simulink at a feature level using an S-Function wrapper. A collection of features critical to accurate engine behavior prediction are compiled individually and integrated according to the newly developed Engine Control Model Architecture (ECMA). Custom MATLAB script based tools enable efficient model construction.