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Technical Paper

A Study of a New Aftertreatment System (1): A New Dosing Device for Enhancing Low Temperature Performance of Urea-SCR

In order to reduce diesel NOx emissions, aftertreatment methods including LNT (Lean NOx Trap) and urea SCR (Selective Catalytic Reduction) have been researched. One of the shortcomings of urea SCR is its NOx reduction performance degradation at low exhaust gas temperatures and possible emission of unregulated byproducts. Here, a new type of a urea-dosing device to overcome these shortcomings is studied. This dosing device actively produces ammonia without depending upon the exhaust gas temperature, and designed for onboard application. The device incorporates an electrically heated bypass with a hydrolysis catalyst. An injector supplies urea solution into the bypass. The bypass is heated only when thermolysis is needed to produce ammonia (NH3). The hydrolysis catalyst further assists in the production of NH3. The ammonia gas obtained is then mixed with the main exhaust gas flow.
Technical Paper

Advances of Hino J-series Diesel Engines

Approximately 200,000 units of Hino J-series diesel engine were produced for 7 years. The J-series engines had a reputation all over the world for their performance, reliability, lightweight, and installation ability. They are composed of 4, 6 cylinders engines and unique 5-cylinder engine J07C. In 2002, newly modified J-series engines, which met the Japan 2001 noise emission regulations, were developed and J07C-TI, 5-cylinder TI engine, equipped with a common-rail fuel injection system was added in the J-series. Common-rail fuel injection system was equipped in order to achieve the emission targets in the future as well as to meet the current emission regulations. Achieving higher injection pressure level through the all engine speed, include excess low speed, was effective in reduction of PM emissions and in increasing of low engine speed torque drastically.
Technical Paper

Analysis of Spray Feature Injected by Tailpipe Injector for Aftertreatment of Diesel Engine Emissions

Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF) is a very effective aftertreatment device to limit particulate emissions from diesel engines. As the amount of soot collected in the DPF increases, the pressure loss increases. Therefore, DPF regeneration needs to be performed. Injected fuel into the exhaust line upstream of the Diesel Oxidation Catalyst (DOC), hydrocarbons are oxidized on the DOC, which increases the exhaust gas temperature at the DPF inlet. It is also necessary that the injected fuel is completely vaporized before entering the DOC, and uniformly mixed with the exhaust gases in order to make the DOC work efficiency. However, ensuring complete evaporation and an optimum mixture distribution in the exhaust line are challenging. Therefore, it is important that the fuel spray feature is grasped to perform DPF regeneration effectively. The purpose of this study is the constructing a simulation model.
Technical Paper

Characterization of Emissions from Urea-SCR and DPF System for Heavy Duty Engine

Urea selective catalyst reduction (SCR) systems have a high NOx conversion rate because the ammonia formed by the hydrolyzing urea solution reacts with NOx efficiently as a reducing agent. Systems combining urea-SCR and a diesel particulate filter (DPF) have been adopted in heavy duty vehicles to meet the post new long term emissions regulations in Japan. This study examined the emissions reduction performance of these systems after 160,000 km. The emissions that were examined included both regulated emissions (NOx, PM, HC, and CO) and unregulated emissions. As a result, the cleanness of diesel emissions from a urea-SCR and DPF system was confirmed.
Technical Paper

DPR Developed for Extremely Low PM Emissions in Production Commercial Vehicles

DPR is a particulate-emissions reduction system that has been developed to reduce particulate emissions in production commercial vehicles and consists of a multiple fuel-injection system, an engine electronic control unit, and a DPR-Cleaner which includes an oxidation catalyst, a catalyzed particulate filter, and silencers. DPR performs active regeneration to accelerate the regeneration of the filter under engine operating conditions where regeneration by passive regeneration alone is not sufficient. Thus, DPR makes it possible to regenerate the filter regardless of the exhaust gas temperature and enables significant reduction of particulate in commercial vehicles to levels below 0.027 g/kWh under Japan's D13 mode operating conditions. The authors describe development results of the DPR.
Technical Paper

DPR with Empirical Formula to Improve Active Regeneration of a PM Filter

Diesel Particulate active Reduction system (DPR) is a system that traps particulate matter in diesel exhaust gas with a particulate filter and actively regenerates the filter when PM accumulates to a specific level. In 2003, DPR was installed on Hino's light-, medium-, and heavy-duty diesel engines, and about 50,000 units of these DPR-equipped diesel engines are currently on the market. This paper reports results of further progress made on optimization of the active regeneration function of DPR. The goal of successful development of DPR is to optimally control the system under various engine-operating conditions to regenerate the filter without producing abnormal combustion of PM and to minimize the amount of unburned PM to keep the filter from clogging. To improve the control of DPR, the combustion phenomena of PM collecting on the filter were studied through visualization, and the factors influencing combustion were determined.
Technical Paper

Development of Diesel Particulate Trap Systems for City Buses

Diesel particulate trap systems are one of the effective means for the control of particulate emission from diesel vehicles. Hino has been researching and developing various diesel particulate trap systems for city buses. This paper describes two of the systems. One uses a wall flow filter equipped with an electric heater and a sensing device for particulate loading for the purpose of filter regeneration. Another makes use of a special filter named “Cross Flow Filter” with an epoch-making regeneration method called “Reverse Jet Cleaning”, by which it becomes possible to separate the part for particulate burning from the filter. Both systems roughly have come to satisfy the functions of trap systems for city buses, but their durability and reliability for city buses are not yet sufficient.
Technical Paper

Development of Low Fuel Consumption, High Durability, and Low Emissions J-Series Engines

Environmental protection is now one of the most important social concerns in the world. In 1998, emission controls in the US required the reduction of NOx by 20% from the 1994 limit. Hino Motors has developed new J-series medium-duty diesel engines for trucks that meet the US 1998 emissions regulations. The engines comprise turbocharged and aftercooled 4- and 6-cylinder engines of the same cylinder bore and stroke. The engines feature a 4-valve system, OHC valve train design, centered nozzle arrangement, and an optimum combustion chamber design, which achieved uniform combustion. With these features, the maximum combustion temperature was decreased, and hence reduced the NOx, smoke, and PM emissions. A muffler integrated with a catalytic converter (catalytic muffler) was adopted to reduce PM emissions further. The engines with the catalytic muffler have successfully met the US 1998 emissions regulations.
Technical Paper

Development of New Diesel Particulate Active Reduction System for both NOx and PM Reduction

The new Diesel Particulate active Reduction (DPR) system was developed for a medium-duty commercial vehicle as a deNOx catalyst combined with the conventional DPR system to achieve the Japan Post New-Long-Term (JPNLT) emissions regulations. It consists of a catalyst converter named as the new DPR cleaner, a fuel dosing injector, NOx sensors, temperatures and pressure sensors. The new DPR cleaner was constructed from a Front Diesel Oxidation Catalyst (F-DOC), a catalyzed particulate Filter (Filter), and a Rear Diesel Oxidation Catalyst (R-DOC). A newly developed Hydrocarbon Selective Catalyst Reduction (HC-SCR) catalyst was employed for each catalyst aiming to reduce NOx emissions with diesel fuel supplied from the fuel dosing injector. While the total volume of the catalyst was increased, the compact and easy-to-install catalyst converter was realized through the optimization of the flow vector and flow distribution in it by means of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) analysis.
Journal Article

Development of a Fuel Economy and Exhaust Emissions Test Method with HILS for Heavy-Duty HEVs

The objective of this study was to develop a test method for heavy-duty HEVs using a hardware-in-the-loop simulator (HILS) to enhance the type-approval-test method. To achieve our objective, HILS systems for series and parallel HEVs were actually constructed to verify calculation accuracy. Comparison of calculated and measured data (vehicle speed, motor/generator power, rechargeable energy storage system power/voltage/current/state of charge, and fuel economy) revealed them to be in good agreement. Calculation error for fuel economy was less than 2%.
Technical Paper

Development of the Burner Systems for EPA2010 Medium Duty Diesel Vehicles

EPA 2010 emissions regulations - currently the strictest standards in the world - place particular emphasis on exhaust gas thermal control technology. The Burner System, a device developed to control exhaust gas temperatures, is the most effective means of raising exhaust gas temperature, as this system can function under any engine conditions, including low engine speed and torque. The Burner System begins operating immediately when the engine is started, activating the Diesel Exhaust Fluid (DEF) - Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) System immediately, because the Burner System is active, it enables the diesel particulate filter active regeneration under any engine operating conditions as well. This technical paper reports Burner System (ActiveClean™ Thermal Regenerator) development results.
Technical Paper

Emission Characteristics from After-Treatment System of Medium and Light Duty Engines

1 To meet the Japan Post New-Long-Term (Japan 2009) emissions regulation introduced in 2009, The Hydrocarbon Selective Catalytic Reduction (HC-SCR) system for the NOx emission with a diesel fuel was chosen among various deNOx after-treatment systems (the Urea-SCR, the NOx storage-Reduction Catalyst and so on). The HC-SCR was adopted, in addition to combustion modification of diesel engine (mainly cooled EGR) as the New DPR system. The New DPR system for medium and light duty vehicles was developed as a world's first technology by Hino Motors. Advantages of the New DPR are compact to easy-to-install catalyst converter and no urea solution (DEF) injection (regardless urea infrastructure) as compared the Urea-SCR system.
Technical Paper

Feasibility Study of Urea SCR Systems on Heavy Duty Commercial Vehicles

Four urea SCR systems were developed and evaluated on a C/D and on the road to investigate their potential for Japanese emission regulations in 2005 and beyond. Test results showed that NOx conversion ratios were 50 to 70% during the Japanese D13 mode cycle, and the ratios under the transient driving cycle were lower than those tested during a steady state. Unregulated emissions, such as benzene, aldehyde and benzo[a]pyrene, existed either at a trace level using the oxidation catalyst, or lower than a base diesel engine, when no oxidation catalyst was used. The health effects of particulate matter emitted from the SCR system were almost the same as those from conventional diesel engines, as evaluated by the Ames test and in vitro micronucleus test. Thermal degradation products, such as cyanuric acid and melamine, were two to four figures lower compared with the toxicological information of Safety Information Resources Inc. (SIRI).
Technical Paper

Impact Study of High Biodiesel Blends on Exhaust Emissions to Advanced Aftertreatment Systems

In Biodiesel Fuel Research Working Group(WG) of Japan Auto-Oil Program(JATOP), some impacts of high biodiesel blends have been investigated from the viewpoints of fuel properties, stability, emissions, exhaust aftertreatment systems, cold driveability, mixing in engine oils, durability/reliability and so on. In the impact on exhaust emissions, the impact of high biodiesel blends into diesel fuel on diesel emissions was evaluated. The wide variety of biodiesel blendstock, which included not only some kinds of fatty acid methyl esters(FAME) but also hydrofined biodiesel(HBD) and Fischer-Tropsch diesel fuel(FTD), were selected to evaluate. The main blend level evaluated was 5, 10 and 20% and the higher blend level over 20% was also evaluated in some tests. The main advanced technologies for exhaust aftertreatment systems were diesel particulate filter(DPF), Urea selective catalytic reduction (Urea-SCR) and the combination of DPF and NOx storage reduction catalyst(NSR).
Technical Paper

Impact Study of High Biodiesel Blends on Performance of Exhaust Aftertreatment Systems

Biodiesel Fuel (BDF) Research Work Group works on identifying technological issues on the use of high biodiesel blends (over 5 mass%) in conventional diesel vehicles under the Japan Auto-Oil Program started in 2007. The Work Group conducts an analytical study on the issues to develop measures to be taken by fuel products and vehicle manufacturers, and to produce new technological findings that could contribute to the study of its introduction in Japan, including establishment of a national fuel quality standard covering high biodiesel blends. For evaluation of the impacts of high biodiesel blends on performance of diesel particulate filter system, a wide variety of biodiesel blendstocks were prepared, ranging from some kinds of fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) to another type of BDF such as hydrotreated biodiesel (HBD). Evaluation was mainly conducted on blend levels of 20% and 50%, but also conducted on 10% blends and neat FAME in some tests.
Technical Paper

Impact of Oil-derived Ash on Continuous Regeneration-type Diesel Particulate Filter - JCAPII Oil WG Report

Impact of oil-derived ash on the pressure drop of continuous regeneration-type diesel particulate filter (CR-DPF) was investigated through 600hrs running test at maximum power point on a 6.9L diesel engine, which meets the Japanese long-term emission regulations enacted in 1998, using approximately 50ppm sulfur content fuel. Sulfated ash content of test oils were varied as 0.96, 1.31, and 1.70 mass%, respectively. During the running test, the exhaust pressure drop through CR-DPF was measured. And after the test, the ventilation resistance through CR-DPF was also evaluated before and after the baking process, which was applied to eliminate the effect of soot accumulated in CR-DPF. The results revealed that the less sulfated ash in oil gave rise to lower pressure drop across CR-DPF. According to microscope examination of the baked DPF, ash was mainly accumulated on the wall surface of CR-DPF, and that seemed to be related to the magnitude of pressure drop caused by ash.
Technical Paper

Impact of Oil-derived Sulfur and Phosphorus on Diesel NOx Storage Reduction Catalyst - JCAP II Oil WG Report

Emission regulations for diesel-powered vehicles have been gradually tightening. Installation of after-treatment devices such as diesel particulate filters (DPF), NOx storage reduction (NSR) catalysts, and so on is indispensable to satisfy rigorous limits of particulate matter (PM) and nitrogen oxides (NOx). Japan Clean Air Program II Oil Working Group (JCAPII Oil WG) has been investigating the effect of engine oil on advanced diesel after-treatment devices. First of all, we researched the impact of oil-derived ash on continuous regeneration-type diesel particulate filter (CR-DPF), and already reported that the less sulfated ash in oil gave rise to lower pressure drop across CR-DPF [1]. In this paper, impact of oil-derived sulfur and phosphorus on NSR catalyst was investigated using a 4L direct injection common-rail diesel engine with turbo-intercooler. This engine equipped with NSR catalyst meets the Japanese new short-term emission regulations.
Technical Paper

Improvement of Low-Temperature Performance of The NOx Reduction Efficiency on the Urea-SCR Catalysts

Diesel engine has a good fuel economy and high durability and used widely for power source such as heavy duty in the world. On the other hand, it is required to reduce NOx (Nitrogen Oxides) and PM (Particulate Matter) emissions further from diesel exhaust gases to preserve atmosphere. The urea-SCR (Selective Catalytic Reduction) system is the most promising measures to reduce NOx emissions. DPF (Diesel Particulate Filter) system is commercialized for PM reduction. However, in case that a vehicle has a slow speed as an urban area driving, a diesel exhaust temperature is too low to activate SCR catalyst for NOx reduction in diesel emissions. Moreover, the diesel exhaust temperature becomes lower as a future engine has less fuel consumption. The purpose of this study is reduction of NOx emission from a heavy-duty diesel engine using the Urea SCR system at the low temperature.
Technical Paper

Influence of Ferrocene on Engine and Vehicle Performance

Ferrocene is used as an antiknock additive to replace lead alkyls. To clarify the influence of one metal additive, ferrocene, on engine, following experiments were carried out. The insulation resistance of spark plugs was measured, deposits in the engine were analyzed, and an exhaust emission and fuel economy tests were conducted using gasoline containing ferrocene. The deposit, which contained iron oxides, adhered to the combustion chamber, spark plugs, and exhaust pipe when the engine operated with gasoline containing ferrocene. When vehicles operated with gasoline containing ferrocene, fuel consumption increased and the exhaust temperature rose. In addition, an abnormal electrical discharge pattern was observed in spark plugs operating at high temperatures. Iron-oxide of Fe3O4 is changed into Fe2O3 under high temperatures. Discharge current flows in iron oxides including Fe2O3 because the conductivity of Fe2O3 increases at high temperatures.
Technical Paper

Investigations of Compatibility of ETBE Gasoline with Current Gasoline Vehicles

Clarifying the impact of ETBE 8% blended fuel on current Japanese gasoline vehicles, under the Japan Clean Air Program II (JCAPII) we conducted exhaust emission tests, evaporative emission tests, durability tests on the exhaust after-treatment system, cold starting tests, and material immersion tests. ETBE 17% blended fuel was also investigated as a reference. The regulated exhaust emissions (CO, HC, and NOx) didn't increase with any increase of ETBE content in the fuel. In durability tests, no noticeable increase of exhaust emission after 40,000km was observed. In evaporative emissions tests, HSL (Hot Soak Loss) and DBL (Diurnal Breathing Loss) didn't increase. In cold starting tests, duration of cranking using ETBE 8% fuel was similar to that of ETBE 0%. In the material immersion tests, no influence of ETBE on these material properties was observed.