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Technical Paper

Time-Resolved Laser-Induced Incandescence Measurements of Particulate Emissions During Enrichment for Diesel Lean NOx Trap Regeneration

Laser-induced incandescence is used to measure time-resolved diesel particulate emissions for two lean NOx trap regeneration strategies that utilize intake throttling and in-cylinder fuel enrichment. The results show that when the main injection event is increased in duration and delayed 13 crank-angle degrees, particulate emissions are very high. For a repetitive pattern of 3 seconds of rich regeneration followed by 27 seconds of NOx-trap loading, we find a monotonic increase in particulate emissions during the loading intervals that approaches twice the initial baseline particulate level after 1000 seconds. In contrast, particulate emissions during the regeneration intervals are constant throughout the test sequence.
Technical Paper

Synergies of PCCI-Type Combustion and Lean NOx Trap Catalysis for Diesel Engines

It is widely recognized that future NOx and particulate matter (PM) emission targets for diesel engines cannot be met solely via advanced combustion over the full engine drive cycle. Therefore some combination of advanced combustion and aftertreatment technologies will be required. In this study, advanced combustion modes operating with a diesel particulate filter (DPF) and a lean NOx trap (LNT) catalyst were evaluated on a 1.7 liter 4-cylinder diesel engine. The combustion approaches included baseline engine operation with and without exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) and one PCCI-type (premixed charge combustion ignition) combustion mode to enable high efficiency clean combustion (HECC). Five steady-state operating conditions were evaluated. At the low load setting the exhaust temperature was too low to enable LNT regeneration and oxidation; however, HECC (low NOx) was achievable.
Technical Paper

Simultaneous Low Engine-Out NOx and Particulate Matter with Highly Diluted Diesel Combustion

This paper describes the simultaneous reduction of nitrogen oxides (NOx) and particulate matter (PM) in a modern light-duty diesel engine under high exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) levels. Simultaneous reduction of NOx and PM emissions was observed under lean conditions at several low to moderate load conditions using two different approaches. The first approach utilizes a throttle to increase EGR rate beyond the maximum rate possible with sole use of the EGR valve for a particular engine condition. The second approach does not use a throttle, but rather uses a combination of EGR and manipulation of injection parameters. A significant reduction in particulate matter size and concentration was observed corresponding to the reduction in particulate mass. This PM reduction was accompanied by a significant shift in the heat release profile. In addition, there were significant cylinder-to-cylinder variations in particulate matter characteristics, gaseous emissions, and heat release.
Technical Paper

Selective Catalytic Reduction of NOx Emissions from a 5.9 Liter Diesel Engine Using Ethanol as a Reductant

NOx emissions from a heavy-duty diesel engine were reduced by more than 90% and 80% utilizing a full-scale ethanol-SCR system for space velocities of 21000/h and 57000/h respectively. These results were achieved for catalyst temperatures between 360 and 400°C and for C1:NOx ratios of 4-6. The SCR process appears to rapidly convert ethanol to acetaldehyde, which subsequently slipped past the catalyst at appreciable levels at a space velocity of 57000/h. Ammonia and N2O were produced during conversion; the concentrations of each were higher for the low space velocity condition. However, the concentration of N2O did not exceed 10 ppm. In contrast to other catalyst technologies, NOx reduction appeared to be enhanced by initial catalyst aging, with the presumed mechanism being sulfate accumulation within the catalyst. A concept for utilizing ethanol (distilled from an E-diesel fuel) as the SCR reductant was demonstrated.
Journal Article

Predicting Light-Duty Vehicle Fuel Economy as a Function of Highway Speed

The website provides information such as “window label” fuel economy for city, highway, and combined driving for all U.S.-legal light-duty vehicles from 1984 to present. The site is jointly maintained by the U.S. Department of Energy and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and also offers a considerable amount of consumer information and advice pertaining to vehicle fuel economy and energy-related issues. Included with advice pertaining to driving styles and habits is information concerning the trend that as highway cruising speed is increased, fuel economy will degrade. An effort was undertaken to quantify this “conventional wisdom” through analysis of dynamometer testing results for 74 vehicles at steady-state speeds from 50 to 80 mph. Using this experimental data, several simple models were developed to predict individual vehicle fuel economy and its rate of change over the 50-80 mph speed range interval.
Journal Article

Novel Characterization of GDI Engine Exhaust for Gasoline and Mid-Level Gasoline-Alcohol Blends

Gasoline direct injection (GDI) engines can offer improved fuel economy and higher performance over their port fuel-injected (PFI) counterparts, and are now appearing in increasingly more U.S. and European vehicles. Small displacement, turbocharged GDI engines are replacing large displacement engines, particularly in light-duty trucks and sport utility vehicles, in order for manufacturers to meet more stringent fuel economy standards. GDI engines typically emit the most particulate matter (PM) during periods of rich operation such as start-up and acceleration, and emissions of air toxics are also more likely during this condition. A 2.0 L GDI engine was operated at lambda of 0.91 at typical loads for acceleration (2600 rpm, 8 bar BMEP) on three different fuels; an 87 anti-knock index (AKI) gasoline (E0), 30% ethanol blended with the 87 AKI fuel (E30), and 48% isobutanol blended with the 87 AKI fuel.
Technical Paper

Nitrogen Selectivity in Lean NOx Trap Catalysis with Diesel Engine In-Cylinder Regeneration

NOx emissions have traditionally been difficult to control from diesel engines; however, lean NOx trap catalysts have been shown to reduce NOx emissions from diesel engines by greater than 90% under some conditions. It is imperative that lean NOx traps be highly selective to N2 to achieve the designed NOx emissions reduction. If selectivity for NOx reduction to NH3 or N2O is significant then, ultimately, higher levels of pollution or greenhouse emissions will result. Here studies of the N2 selectivity of lean NOx trap regeneration with in-cylinder techniques are presented. Engine dynamometer studies with a light-duty engine were performed, and a lean NOx trap in the exhaust system was regenerated by controlling in-cylinder fuel injection timing and amounts to achieve rich exhaust conditions. NH3 and N2O emissions were analyzed with FTIR spectroscopy.
Journal Article

Lean Gasoline Engine Reductant Chemistry During Lean NOx Trap Regeneration

Lean NOx Trap (LNT) catalysts can effectively reduce NOx from lean engine exhaust. Significant research for LNTs in diesel engine applications has been performed and has led to commercialization of the technology. For lean gasoline engine applications, advanced direct injection engines have led to a renewed interest in the potential for lean gasoline vehicles and, thereby, a renewed demand for lean NOx control. To understand the gasoline-based reductant chemistry during regeneration, a BMW lean gasoline vehicle has been studied on a chassis dynamometer. Exhaust samples were collected and analyzed for key reductant species such as H₂, CO, NH₃, and hydrocarbons during transient drive cycles. The relation of the reductant species to LNT performance will be discussed. Furthermore, the challenges of NOx storage in the lean gasoline application are reviewed.
Technical Paper

Intra-Catalyst Reductant Chemistry and Nox Conversion of Diesel Lean Nox Traps at Various Stages of Sulfur Loading

Due to increasingly stringent emissions regulations, Lean NOx Trap (LNT) catalysts are being researched as a potential solution for diesel engine emissions reduction. LNTs are practical for diesel NOx reduction due to their ability to reduce NOx from the O2 rich environment produced by diesel engines. LNTs function by storing NOx on the catalyst surface during efficient lean operation then, under rich conditions, releasing and reducing the trapped NOx. One method of producing this rich environment which regenerates a LNT involves manipulating the fuel injection parameters and throttling the air intake. This process is called in-cylinder regeneration. Experiments will be described here in which a 1.7 L common rail diesel engine has been used to regenerate LNTs at various stages of sulfur exposure, a known poison of the LNT.
Technical Paper

In-Cylinder Regeneration of Lean NOx Trap Catalysts Using Low Temperature Combustion

A Lean NOx Trap (LNT) regeneration method that has shown promise regarding its ability to effectively regenerate the LNT, while not adversely affecting the PM emissions, involves the use of Low Temperature Combustion (LTC). LTC is accomplished by highly diluting the intake charge with EGR.1-3* If enough EGR is applied, the in-cylinder air:fuel mixture, and ensuing exhaust, will become rich, thereby regenerating the LNT. This type of highly dilute combustion tends to be more premixed than diffusion, which can lower engine-out PM and NOx emissions. LTC regeneration has been characterized and results are presented comparing this approach to other approaches for rich, in-cylinder diesel combustion for LNT regeneration.
Technical Paper

In-Cylinder Production of Hydrogen During Net-Lean Diesel Operation

Hydrogen (H2) is an excellent reductant, and has been shown to be highly effective when introduced into a variety of catalysts such as three-way catalysts, lean NOx traps (LNTs), and hydrocarbon lean NOx catalysts (also termed hydrocarbon selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalysts). Furthermore, since lean-burn engines offer improved fuel efficiency yet difficult NOx emission control, H2 production during lean operation for the purpose of NOx reduction could be beneficial. On-board generation of hydrogen is being explored via catalytic or plasma-based reformers. A possible alternative to these add-on systems is generation of the H2 in-cylinder with standard fuel injection hardware. This paper details experiments relating to the production and measurement of H2 under net-lean operation in a common-rail diesel engine. In-cylinder fuel control is used to tailor the combustion process such that H2 is generated while maintaining a lean Air:Fuel ratio in the bulk exhaust gas.
Technical Paper

Hydrocarbon Selective Catalytic Reduction Using a Silver-Alumina Catalyst with Light Alcohols and Other Reductants

Previously reported work with a full-scale ethanol-SCR system featuring a Ag-Al2O3 catalyst demonstrated that this particular system has potential to reduce NOx emissions 80-90% for engine operating conditions that allow catalyst temperatures above 340°C. A concept explored was utilization of a fuel-borne reductant, in this case ethanol “stripped” from an ethanol-diesel micro-emulsion fuel. Increased tailpipe-out emissions of hydrocarbons, acetaldehyde and ammonia were measured, but very little N2O was detected. In the current increment of work, a number of light alcohols and other hydrocarbons were used in experiments to map their performance with the same Ag-Al2O3 catalyst. These exploratory tests are aimed at identification of compounds or organic functional groups that could be candidates for fuel-borne reductants in a compression ignition fuel, or could be produced by some workable method of fuel reforming.
Technical Paper

Highway Fuel Economy Testing of an RCCI Series Hybrid Vehicle

In the current work, a series-hybrid vehicle has been constructed that utilizes a dual-fuel, Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition (RCCI) engine. The vehicle is a 2009 Saturn Vue chassis and a 1.9L turbo-diesel engine converted to operate with low temperature RCCI combustion. The engine is coupled to a 90 kW AC motor, acting as an electrical generator to charge a 14.1 kW-hr lithium-ion traction battery pack, which powers the rear wheels by a 75 kW drive motor. Full vehicle testing was conducted on chassis dynamometers at the Vehicle Emissions Research Laboratory at Ford Motor Company and at the Vehicle Research Laboratory at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. For this work, the US Environmental Protection Agency Highway Fuel Economy Test was performed using commercially available gasoline and ultra-low sulfur diesel. Fuel economy and emissions data were recorded over the specified test cycle and calculated based on the fuel properties and the high-voltage battery energy usage.
Journal Article

High Load Expansion of Catalytic EGR-Loop Reforming under Stoichiometric Conditions for Increased Efficiency in Spark Ignition Engines

The use of fuel reformate from catalytic processes is known to have beneficial effects on the spark-ignited (SI) combustion process through enhanced dilution tolerance and decreased combustion duration, but in many cases reformate generation can incur a significant fuel penalty. In a previous investigation, the researchers showed that, by controlling the boundary conditions of the reforming catalyst, it was possible to minimize the thermodynamic expense of the reforming process, and in some cases, realize thermochemical recuperation (TCR), a form of waste heat recovery where exhaust heat is converted to usable chemical energy. The previous work, however, focused on a relatively light-load engine operating condition of 2000 rpm, 4 bar brake mean effective pressure (BMEP). The present investigation demonstrates that this operating strategy is applicable to higher engine loads, including boosted operation up to 10 bar BMEP.
Technical Paper

Fuel Economy and Emissions of the Ethanol-Optimized Saab 9-5 Biopower

Saab Automobile recently released the BioPower engines, advertised to use increased turbocharger boost and spark advance on ethanol fuel to enhance performance. Specifications for the 2.0 liter turbocharged engine in the Saab 9-5 Biopower 2.0t report 150 hp (112 kW) on gasoline and a 20% increase to 180 hp (134 kW) on E85 (nominally 85% ethanol, 15% gasoline). While FFVs sold in the U.S. must be emissions certified on Federal Certification Gasoline as well as on E85, the European regulations only require certification on gasoline. Owing to renewed and growing interest in increased ethanol utilization in the U.S., a European-specification 2007 Saab 9-5 Biopower 2.0t was acquired by the Department of Energy and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) for benchmark evaluations. Results show that the vehicle's gasoline equivalent fuel economy on the Federal Test Procedure (FTP) and the Highway Fuel Economy Test (HFET) are on par with similar U.S.-legal flex-fuel vehicles.
Journal Article

Fuel Economy and Emissions Effects of Low Tire Pressure, Open Windows, Roof Top and Hitch-Mounted Cargo, and Trailer

To quantify the fuel economy (FE) effect of some common vehicle accessories or alterations, a compact passenger sedan and a sport utility vehicle (SUV) were subjected to SAE J2263 coastdown procedures. Coastdowns were conducted with low tire pressure, all windows open, with a roof top or hitch-mounted cargo carrier, and with the SUV pulling an enclosed cargo trailer. From these coastdowns, vehicle dynamometer coefficients were developed which enabled the execution of vehicle dynamometer experiments to determine the effect of these changes on vehicle FE and emissions over standard drive cycles and at steady highway speeds. In addition, two minivans were subjected to coastdowns to examine the similarity in derived coefficients for two duplicate vehicles of the same model. The FE penalty associated with the rooftop cargo box mounted on the compact sedan was as high as 25-27% at higher speeds, where the aerodynamic drag is most pronounced.
Journal Article

Fuel Consumption Sensitivity of Conventional and Hybrid Electric Light-Duty Gasoline Vehicles to Driving Style

Aggressive driving is an important topic for many reasons, one of which is higher energy used per unit distance traveled, potentially accompanied by an elevated production of greenhouse gases and other pollutants. Examining a large data set of self-reported fuel economy (FE) values revealed that the dispersion of FE values is quite large and is larger for hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) than for conventional gasoline vehicles. This occurred despite the fact that the city and highway FE ratings for HEVs are generally much closer in value than for conventional gasoline vehicles. A study was undertaken to better understand this and better quantify the effects of aggressive driving, including reviewing past aggressive driving studies, developing and exercising a new vehicle energy model, and conducting a related experimental investigation.
Technical Paper

European Lean Gasoline Direct Injection Vehicle Benchmark

Lean Gasoline Direct Injection (LGDI) combustion is a promising technical path for achieving significant improvements in fuel efficiency while meeting future emissions requirements. Though Stoichiometric Gasoline Direct Injection (SGDI) technology is commercially available in a few vehicles on the American market, LGDI vehicles are not, but can be found in Europe. Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) obtained a European BMW 1-series fitted with a 2.01 LGDI engine. The vehicle was instrumented and commissioned on a chassis dynamometer. The engine and after-treatment performance and emissions were characterized over US drive cycles (Federal Test Procedure (FTP), the Highway Fuel Economy Test (HFET), and US06 Supplemental Federal Test Procedure (US06)) and steady state mappings. The vehicle micro hybrid features (engine stop-start and intelligent alternator) were benchmarked as well during the course of that study.
Journal Article

Ethanol Blend Effects On Direct Injection Spark-Ignition Gasoline Vehicle Particulate Matter Emissions

Direct injection spark-ignition (DISI) gasoline engines can offer better fuel economy and higher performance over their port fuel-injected counterparts, and are now appearing increasingly in more U.S. vehicles. Small displacement, turbocharged DISI engines are likely to be used in lieu of large displacement engines, particularly in light-duty trucks and sport utility vehicles, to meet fuel economy standards for 2016. In addition to changes in gasoline engine technology, fuel composition may increase in ethanol content beyond the 10% allowed by current law due to the Renewable Fuels Standard passed as part of the 2007 Energy Independence and Security Act (EISA). In this study, we present the results of an emissions analysis of a U.S.-legal stoichiometric, turbocharged DISI vehicle, operating on ethanol blends, with an emphasis on detailed particulate matter (PM) characterization.
Technical Paper

Emissions From a 5.9 Liter Diesel Engine Fueled With Ethanol Diesel Blends

A certification diesel fuel and blends containing 10 and 15 volume % ethanol were tested in a 5.9-liter Cummins B Series engine. For each fuel blend, an 8-mode AVL test cycle was performed. The resulting emissions were characterized and measured for each individual test mode (prescribed combination of engine speed and load). These individual mode results are used to create a weighted average that is designed to approximate the results of the Heavy-Duty Transient Federal Test Procedure. The addition of ethanol was observed to have no noticeable effect on the emission of NOx but produced small increases in CO and HC. However, the particulate matter was observed to decrease 20% and 30% with the addition of 10% and 15% ethanol, respectively.