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Technical Paper

The Characteristics of Scavenging Flow in a Poppet-Valve Type 2-Stroke Diesel Engine by Using RSSV System

Optimization study is performed for the scavenging process as the first step for the development of a poppet-valve type automotive two-stroke diesel engine. The scavenging flow pattern is varied by the RSSV (rotatable shrouded scavenging valve) system, which was designed for application of a shroud valve to an actual engine. The scavenging flow is analyzed by flow visualization and numerical calculations under a steady condition. Water is used as the working fluid, instead of air for effective visualization of the flow pattern in the flow visualization study. More details in the scavenging characteristics are observed by a dye experiment, in which the dye path indicates the flow streamline in the cylinder. In the numerical study, three-dimensional flows are calculated by a modified version of KIVA-2 code, with a special technique to consider the valve and shroud shapes.
Technical Paper

Simulation of Fuel/Air Mixture Formation for Heavy Duty Liquid Phase LPG Injection (LPLI) Engines

Submodels are developed for injection, evaporation and wall impingement of a liquid LPG spray. The injection model determines the quality of fuel as two-phase choke flow at the nozzle exit. Wind tunnel experiments show the spray penetration more sensitive to ambient flow velocity than to injection pressure. Most evaporation occurs during choking, while heat transfer from surrounding air has a negligible effect on downstream droplet sizes. Three dimensional simulation shows that the bathtub cavity is better than the dog-dish cavity for stable flame propagation in lean-burn conditions. The injection timing during the IVC period has a negligible effect, while injection during an intake stroke enhances fuel/air mixing to result in more homogeneous cylinder charge.
Technical Paper

Numerical Prediction of Stratified Charge Distribution in a Gasoline Direct-Injection Engine - Parametric Studies

Numerical analysis of the flow field and fuel spray in a gasoline direct-injection (GDI) engine is performed by a modified version of the KIVA code. A simple valve treatment technique is employed to handle multiple moving valves without difficulties in generation of a body-fitted grid. The swirl motion of a hollow-cone spray is simulated by injecting droplets with initial angular momentum around the nozzle periphery. The model for spray-wall impingement is based on single droplet experiments with the droplet behaviors after impingement determined by experimental correlations. Different behaviors of an impinging droplet depend on the wall temperature and the critical temperature of fuel with the fuel film taken into account. The test engine is a 4-stroke 4-valve gasoline engine with a pent-roof head and vertical ports to form a reverse tumble flow during the intake stroke. A hollow-cone spray by a high-pressure swirl injector is employed to enhance mixture preparation and mixing.
Technical Paper

Numerical Prediction of Charge Distribution in a Lean Burn Direct-Injection Spark Ignition Engine

Three-dimensional computation of the flow field and fuel spray in a DISC engine is performed using a modified version of KIVA-II. A special valve treatment technique is employed to simulate multiple moving valves without excessive efforts for body-fitted grid generation. The test engine is a 4-valve 4-stroke gasoline engine with a pent-roof head and a hollow-cone spray by a high-pressure swirl injector. The injection strategy is divided into two categories, ‘early’ and ‘late’ injection to optimize the combustion process. A spray-wall impingement model based on a single droplet experiment is implemented to consider both ‘early’ and ‘late’ injection case. Parametric studies are performed with respect to the load, injection timing, duration and position, spark-plug position, and the combustion chamber geometry. Results show that the current numerical analysis is capable of representing the spray motion and mixture formation in an operating engine qualitatively.
Technical Paper

Numerical Prediction and Validation of Fuel Spray Behavior in a Gasoline Direct-Injection Engine

Analysis of flow field and charge distribution in a gasoline direct-injection (GDI) engine is performed by a modified version of the KIVA code. A particle-based spray model is proposed to simulate a swirl-type hollow-cone spray in a GDI engine. Spray droplets are assumed to be fully atomized and introduced at the sheet breakup locations as determined by experimental correlations and energy conservation. The effects of the fuel injection parameters such as spray cone angle and ambient pressure are examined for different injectors and injection conditions. Results show reasonable agreement with the measurements for penetration, dispersion, global shape, droplet velocity and size distribution by Phase Doppler Particle Anemometry(PDPA) in a constant-volume chamber. The test engine is a 4-stroke 4-valve optically accessible single-cylinder engine with a pent-roof head and tumble ports.
Technical Paper

Extended CMC Model for Turbulent Spray Combustion in a Diesel Engine

This study presents an extended Conditional Moment Closure (CMC) model [1] for turbulent spray combustion of a diesel engine. A spatially integrated CMC equation involves multiple flame structures, evaporation source terms for mixture fraction variance and scaled conditional scalar dissipation rates (CSDR) and probability density functions (PDF). An independent transport equation is solved for each flame group with equal mass of sequentially injected and evaporated fuel group. The implementation strategy in KIVA is to determine mean scalar variables instead of mean reaction rates in terms of conditional flame structures and local PDF's. Simulation is performed to test the suggested CMC model for a heavy duty diesel engine with early injection timings. NOx chemistry [2] is combined with skeletal chemistry of n-heptane [3] while soot is modeled by both one equation model [4] and two equation model [5].
Technical Paper

Correlation Between the Measured Flame Surface Density and Turbulence Parameters in Turbulent Premixed Flames

Recent findings on the characteristics of flame surface density are introduced for turbulent premixed combustion in typical operating conditions of SI engines. The maximum flame surface density tends to show linear dependence on the K -factor defined as a function of the integral length scale and . The flame surface density shows an asymmetric profile in the space with the peak location correlated in terms of the dimensionless parameter, NB, which represents the degree of gradient or counter-gradient diffusion by turbulence. The effects of the K -factor and NB are discussed in the wrinkled flamelet and corrugated flamelet regime respectively. The flame surface density increases at a higher ambient pressure due to decrease in the laminar flame speed and the length scales of flame wrinkling. Comments are made on the turbulent stretch and turbulent flux terms in the Σ -equation in modeling combustion of an SI engine.
Technical Paper

A New Combustion Model Based on Transport of Mean Reaction Progress Variable in a Spark Ignition Engine

In this study a new model is proposed for turbulent premixed combustion in a spark-ignition engine. An independent transport equation is solved for the mean reaction progress variable in a propagation form in KIVA-3V. An expression for turbulent burning velocity was previously given as a product of turbulent diffusivity in unburned gas, laminar flame speed and maximum flame surface density. The model has similarity with the G equation approach, but originates from zone conditionally averaged formulation for unburned gas. A spark kernel grows initially as a laminar flame and becomes a fully developed turbulent flame brush according to a transition criterion in terms of the kernel size and the integral length scale. Simulation of a homogeneous charge pancake chamber engine showed good agreement with measured flame propagation and pressure trace. The model was also applied against experimental data of Hyundai θ-2.0L SI engine.