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Technical Paper

Zinc Dialkyldithiophosphate-Dispersant Interactions: Effects on Solution Behavior and Wear

Interactions between a Zinc dialkyldithiophosphate (ZDP) and three different commercially available succinimide dispersants were observed through changes in solutions behavior, as determined by viscometry and Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and four-ball tests. The viscometric response observed for two component blends of ZDP and succinimide dispersant in white oil changed as a function of the molar Zn to N ratio, indicative of specific interactions. The break in the viscometric response curve occurred at Zn:N=0.13 for all three succinimide dispersants. FTIR spectra of the same ZDP-dispersant blends were examined and similar Zn:N dependencies were observed. Four-ball tests measuring wear scar diameter, seizure load and weld load showed a dependence on the Zn to N ratio similar to that observed by viscometry. At very low Zn to N ratios wear and seizure load were decreased, while at higher ratios the seizure and weld loads were increased over that for ZDP alone.
Technical Paper

Variability of Intake Valve Deposit Measurements in the BMW Vehicle Intake Valve Deposit Test

Despite the many years of widespread use of the BMW Intake Valve Deposit (IVD) vehicle test, relatively little has been published quantifying the variation in the test procedure. This paper presents an analysis of the variability in the BMW test. Though results from 8045 km (8K; 5,000 mile) tests rather than 16090 km (16K; 10,000 mile) are highlighted due to the size of the available database and relative sensitivity of the data, analysis suggests that variation at 8K is representative of 16K variation. A square root transformation of average deposit weight at 8K, though more cumbersome than the more common log transformation, is found to be the most appropriate way to eliminate the dependence of variation on the absolute level of deposits. Within-car variation is found to account for over half of the test-to-test variation, contradicting the notion that car-to-car differences are the dominant source of variability.
Technical Paper

Understanding Soot Mediated Oil Thickening Through Designed Experimentation - Part 5: Knowledge Exhancement in the GM 6.5L

Our basic understanding of the chemical and physical nature of soot, its interaction with lubricant components and its role in promoting wear and oil thickening in heavy duty diesel engines continues to grow. Our current study in the GM 6.5L engine focuses on examining the effects of variations in base stock type (Group I vs. Group II), viscosity index improver or viscosity modifier (VM) chemistry (OCP vs. dispersant OCP), zinc dithiophosphate (ZDP) type and dispersant type (low MW vs. high MW) on roller follower wear, viscosity growth and other measured responses. In this study, more robust fluids were tested producing very low wear results and minimal viscosity increase of the lubricant. Fluids containing dispersant OCP (DOCP) and high MW dispersant produced a lower degree of wear, whereas varying the ZDP type (1° vs. 2°) showed no effect on wear. The use of Group II base stocks was associated with significantly lower viscosity increases.
Technical Paper

Understanding Oil Aging in Extended Drain Axle & Transmission Applications

Extended drain of axle and transmission lubricants has gained wide acceptance in both passenger car and commercial vehicle applications. Understanding how the lubricant changes during extended drain operations is crucial in determining appropriate lubricants and drain intervals for these applications. A suitable aging screen test with an established relationship to field performance is essential. Over the years numerous methods have been studied (DKA, GFC, ISOT, ASTM L-60) with varying degrees of success1,2,3. Current methods tend to be overly severe in comparison to field experience, hence the need for further work in this area. As a result of recent work, a lubricant aging test method has been developed which shows good correlation with field experience, giving us an effective tool in the development of long drain oils.
Technical Paper

Understanding MTF Additive Effects on Synchroniser Friction - Part 2, Structure Performance Analysis

Specific frictional properties are essential to provide correct and pleasurable shifting in a manual transmission. Synchroniser rings are being manufactured from an increasingly wider range of materials, and it is important to understand synchroniser-additive interactions in order to develop tailored lubricants that provide the desired frictional performance. This paper describes a study of the interaction of various friction modifier additives with a range of synchroniser materials in order to better understand the potential to develop lubricants that provide optimal frictional performance across a wide range of manual transmission-synchroniser systems.
Journal Article

Understanding MTF Additive Effects on Synchroniser Friction

Specific frictional properties are essential to provide correct and pleasurable shifting in a manual transmission. Synchroniser rings are being manufactured from an increasingly wider range of materials, and so it is important to understand synchroniser-additive interactions in order to develop tailored lubricants that provide the desired frictional performance. This paper describes a study of the interaction of various friction modifier additives with a range of synchroniser materials in order to better understand the potential to develop lubricants that provide optimal frictional performance across a wide range of manual transmission-synchroniser systems. This presentation will outline the results of testing fluids with a range of synchroniser materials and will be followed by a future paper that will describe details of the fluids and analysis of their interactions with the different synchroniser surfaces.
Technical Paper

Unbiased Engine Test Evaluation

In API engine oil licensing, candidate oils must meet the performance requirements of category defined engine tests. While API category engine tests are developed to target a theoretical performance standard, it is rare that the cost to test and approve oils is understood. Given that engine tests are an integral part of oil evaluation, understanding of engine test value is necessary. Therefore, measurements of value are presented as Unbiased Engine Test Evaluation (UETE). UETE evaluates an engine test's draw on time and money resources by estimating the average number of tests required before a candidate oil will pass the category defined engine tests. A pilot study using the API CH-4 Category is presented.
Technical Paper

The Effect of Passenger Car Motor Oil Detergent System on Vehicle Tailpipe Emissions

The International Lubricant Standardization and Approval Committee (ILSAC) GF-2 specification requires Passenger Car Motor oils to provide enhanced fuel economy in a modern low friction engine (ASTM Sequence VIA). The durability of this fuel economy improvement is becoming increasingly important and will be address in the successor to the Sequence VIA, the Sequence VIB, which is currently under development for ILSAC GF-3. Previous investigations have indicated that the choice of detergent system and friction modifier has a large impact on the fuel economy of a lubricant. As a result of a study undertaken to further investigate these effects in a 1994 Ford Crown Victoria running the EPA Federal Test Procedure, a significant impact on tailpipe emissions was discovered. Detergent system affected both regulated emissions (hydrocarbon (HC), carbon monoxide (CO), and oxides of nitrogen (NOx) emissions), and non-regulated emissions (carbon dioxide emissions).
Technical Paper

Step Forward In Diesel Engine Emissions Reduction: System Incorporating a Novel Low Emission Diesel Fuel Combined With a Diesel Oxidation Catalyst

Water-emulsified diesel fuel technology has been proven to reduce nitrogen oxides (NOx) and particulate matter (PM) simultaneously at relatively low cost compared to other pollution-reducing strategies. The value of this technology is that it requires absolutely no engine adjustments or modifications to reduce harmful emissions. Technologies that break the NOx -particulate trade-off are virtually non-existent, therefore understanding how the water contained in an emulsified fuel can reduce both NOx and PM simultaneously is critical. To understand this phenomenon, emulsified fuels with varying water levels (0 to 20%) were evaluated in a multi-cylinder marine engine using three different injection timings. This testing in an actual engine confirms that as the water level is increased the amount of NOx and PM are reduced without compromising engine performance.
Technical Paper

Statistical Methods to Formulate Belt Drive CVT Fluids with High Friction Coefficients

In the development of next generation continuously variable transmission fluids (CVTF) where high metal-to-metal friction is required, statistical methods play an important role in finding and understanding chemical additive effects on friction coefficient. In this study, the iterative use of statistical experimental design is applied, first with a Plackett-Burman design to screen many component effects, and then with mixture experiments to further study selective component and interaction effects, so that optimal fluid performance can ultimately be achieved. Friction data generated from continuously variable transmission (CVT) push belt element, bench screen-tests is utilized to make inferences about formulation behavior.
Technical Paper

Rheological and Electrical Test Methods for Evaluation of Structure Development in Oil and Water Mixtures

Intentionally adding water to oil, in the laboratory, provides an indication of the oil's ability to tolerate the presence of water. Various characteristics, such as emulsion, haze or separation, may be observed. Some blends of oil and water have been shown to form structures when left undisturbed. A visual, qualitative, storage test is capable of detecting this phenomenon as the presence or absence of structure. However, the time frame of formation can be on the order of days or weeks and is sensitive to handling and temperature effects. Quantitative methods are required for any evaluation of chemistry, temperature and handling effects on the rate and strength of structure formation. This paper describes rheological and electrical methods which directly and indirectly measure the tendency to form a structure at the molecular level, yielding rate of formation and strength information.
Technical Paper

On-Road Monitoring of Low Speed Pre-Ignition

To meet increasingly stringent emissions and fuel economy regulations, many Original Equipment Manufacturers (OEMs) have recently developed and deployed small, high power density engines. Turbocharging, coupled with gasoline direct injection (GDI) has enabled a rapid engine downsizing trend. While these turbocharged GDI (TGDI) engines have indeed allowed for better fuel economy in many light duty vehicles, TGDI technology has also led to some unintended consequences. The most notable of these is an abnormal combustion phenomenon known as low speed pre-ignition (LSPI). LSPI is an uncontrolled combustion event that takes place prior to spark ignition, often resulting in knock, and has been known to cause catastrophic engine damage. LSPI propensity depends on a number of factors including engine design, calibration, fuel properties and engine oil formulation. Several engine tests have been developed within the industry to better understand the phenomenon of LSPI.
Technical Paper

Oil Thickening in the Mack T-7 Engine Test—Fuel Effects and the Influence of Lubricant Additives on Soot Aggregation

For a diesel lubricant to meet the new Mack EO-K/2 specification, it must be effective in preventing excessive viscosity increase during the 150-hour Mack T-7 test. The severity of this test is shown to be highly dependent upon fuel chemistry and injection timing. A comparison of various lubricant formulations in the Mack T-7 engine run with a given fuel suggests that nitrogen-containing succinimide dispersants, dispersant viscosity improvers, and supplemental ash in the form of overbased sulfonate detergents are effective in controlling viscosity increase. Crankcase oil thickening follows a modified form of Brinkman’s equation and can be predicted from measured values of soot particle size and concentration. Basic lubricant additives are shown to prevent particle size growth by adsorption on to the acidic soot surface, thereby interrupting soot aggregation and retarding oil thickening.
Technical Paper

Oil Thickening in the Mack T-7 Engine Test. II—Effects of Fuel Composition on Soot Chemistry

In the first paper in this series (1)*, the extent of oil thickening for a given lubricant in the Mack T-7 engine test was found to be influenced by fuel composition. Based upon the knowledge that thickening is due to the accumulation and aggregation of soot in the oil, a set of experiments has been carried out to identify relationships between fuel chemistry and the oil thickening tendency of soot formed by fuel combustion. Three commercial diesel fuels were treated with chemical combustion aids and/or organic sulfur, and both short-duration and full-length tests were run in a Mack T-7 engine fitted with a filter designed to collect soot from the exhaust stream. A model describing the complex effects of fuel chemistry on the oil thickening process is proposed in which fuel sulfur content is shown to influence soot content of the lubricant after ISO hours of engine operation.
Technical Paper

Oil Development for Nascar Racing

The relationship between 76 Racing and NASCAR allowed 76 Lubricants Company to work closely with Richard Childress Racing (RCR) and The Lubrizol Corporation in the development of oil screening and analytical test procedures which permit rapid evaluation of potential top-tier NASCAR race oils. The oils were designed to meet the challenge of increasingly severe engine operating parameters. This paper will discuss dynamometer testing and how properties of the oil such as viscosity grade, base fluid, and additives affect engine durability in the dynamometer test program and performance at the track in NASCAR Winston Cup Racing. Areas of growing concern include the cam/lifter contact, ring/liner contact, wrist pin/pin bore and wrist pin bushing contacts. Racing lubricants must withstand these harsh conditions for periods of 3-4 hours of continuous running.
Technical Paper

Motor Oil Thickening - A CLR Engine Test Procedure Which Correlates with Field Service

Information relative to oil thickening has been developed in road tests. Typical operating temperatures, as well as the length of time required to thicken oils in these tests, are described. A laboratory test procedure has been developed that shows a good degree of correlation with this field service. The effect of test conditions such as jacket temperature and piston ring design on oil thickening in the laboratory are described.
Technical Paper

Modeling of ASTM Sequence IIIE Piston Ring Land Deposit Formation

Piston ring land deposit formation is a key performance criterion in the ASTM Sequence IIIE engine test. Because engine testing of lubricant formulation variables is expensive, a ring land deposit bench test was developed replicating the Sequence IIIE bulk oxidation and deposit formation mechanisms. Following an initial bulk oxidation of the candidate oils, deposits similar in chemical composition and morphology to Sequence IIIE ring land deposits are produced in a modified panel coker apparatus. Good correlation with the ASTM Sequence IIIE engine test has been established. Lubricant additive and base oil effects on oxidation control and deposit formation have been investigated. Their influences on lubricant formulation strategy are discussed.
Technical Paper

Maximizing the Effectiveness of Water Blended Fuel in Reducing Emissions by Varying Injection Timing or Using After-Treatment Device

Water-emulsified diesel fuel technology has been proven to reduce nitrogen oxides (NOx) and particulate matter (PM) simultaneously at relatively low cost compared to other pollution-reducing strategies. While the mechanisms which result in these reductions have been postulated, the development of new analytical tools to measure in-cylinder soot formation using optically accessible engines can lead to a deeper understanding of combustion and the chemical and physical mechanisms when water is present during combustion. In this study, an optically accessible single cylinder engine was used to study how water brought into the combustion chamber via an emulsified fuel changes the combustion process and thereby reduces emissions. In-cylinder measurements of relative soot concentrations were used to determine the effect of water-emulsified fuel on soot formation.
Technical Paper

Maintaining Diesel Fuel Performance at Lowest Cost with Fuel Additives

Multifunctional additives can compensate for lower quality diesel fuel. Performance and quality have been decreasing worldwide. This has resulted largely from increased use of heavier crude oils and more severe processing to achieve necessary fuel product mix. Fuel additives provide the refiner and marketer with an economic approach to restoring performance and quality. Additives can be formulated to solve many problems related to deposits and wear, which are major factors affecting engine power, economy, emissions and durability. They are of critical importance to the vehicle owner/ operator to maintain dependability and low operating cost. At the same time, the refiner benefits economically through the use of lower cost crudes, greater operational flexibility and ease of adjusting final fuel blends to meet specifications. Typical additive components include: detergent dispersants, inhibitors, stabilizers, cetane improvers, and flow improvers.
Technical Paper

Low Viscosity Oil Studies and the Influence of Radial Clearance on Bearing Distress in a 3.8L Engine

Classical journal bearing equations predict the function of oil flow in dissipating heat, thereby governing the effective viscosity of the lubricant in bearings. From this perspective, experimental dynamometer tests explored low speed, high load, high temperature, operation of four low viscosity oils. Test length was 48 hours using a 3.8L V-6 engine under steady state and cyclic conditions. With a 1.4 cP HTHSR viscosity oil the bearing distress appeared dependent on connecting rod bearing clearances serving to govern rate of oil flow through the main bearings. Front and rear main bearings exhibited severe overheat-distress. This was related to the design of the oil distribution system in the crankshaft. A severe cyclic acceleration test showed little bearing distress. Significant distress occurred only with an SAE 5W viscosity grade. SAE 5W-30 and 5W-40 multigrades showed no abnormal wear. Results were interpreted in terms of high temperature, high shear rate rheology of the test oils.