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Technical Paper

Virtual Transmission Evaluation Using an Engine-in-the-Loop Test Facility

2018-04-03
2018-01-1361
This paper describes an approach to reduce development costs and time by frontloading of engineering tasks and even starting calibration tasks already in the early component conception phases of a vehicle development program. To realize this, the application of a consistent and parallel virtual development and calibration methodology is required. The interaction between vehicle subcomponents physically available and those only virtually available at that time, is achieved with the introduction of highly accurate real-time models on closed-loop co-simulation platforms (HiL-simulators) which provide the appropriate response of the hardware components. This paper presents results of a heterogeneous testing scenario containing a real internal combustion engine on a test facility and a purely virtual vehicle using two different automatic transmission calibration and hardware setups.
Journal Article

Utilization of HVO Fuel Properties in a High Efficiency Combustion System: Part 2: Relationship of Soot Characteristics with its Oxidation Behavior in DPF

2014-10-13
2014-01-2846
The present work is a continuation of the earlier published results by authors on the investigation of Hydrogenated Vegetable Oil (HVO) on a High Efficiency Diesel Combustion System (SAE Int. J. Fuels Lubr. Paper No. 2013-01-1677 and JSAE Paper No. 283-20145128). In order to further validate and interpret the previously published results of soot microstructure and its consequences on oxidation behavior, the test program was extended to analyze the impact of soot composition, optical properties, and physical properties such as size, concentration etc. on the oxidation behavior. The experiments were performed with pure HVO as well as with petroleum based diesel and today's biofuel (i.e. FAME) as baseline fuels. The soot samples for the different analyses were collected under constant engine operating conditions at indicated raw NOx emissions of Euro 6 level using closed loop combustion control methodology.
Technical Paper

U.S. 2007 - Which Way to Go? Possible Technical Solutions

2003-03-03
2003-01-0770
The exhaust emissions standards for heavy-duty (HD) truck engines in the U.S. are facing a severe reduction of both PM and NOx emission in the year 2007, making extensive exhaust aftertreatment inevitable. Although the final emission limit values for NOx (0.20 g/bhp-hr) and NMHC (0.14 g/bhp-hr) will see a phase-in between 2007 and 2010, the PM emission limits of 0.01 g/bhp-hr will already take full effect in 2007. Engine-out emissions in the range of EURO 5 / U.S. 2002/04 will be achievable through internal measures as described in this paper. To fulfill U.S. 2007 limits, a diesel particulate filter will be necessary. The final limits taking effect in 2010 will only be fulfilled through application of NOx and particulate aftertreatment. To achieve the low engine-out emission levels, this paper will focus on both internal measures (high-EGR combustion systems and partial homogenization) and external aftertreatment systems.
Journal Article

Tomorrows Diesel Fuel Diversity - Challenges and Solutions

2008-06-23
2008-01-1731
Regulated emissions, CO2-values, comfort, good driveability, high reliability and costs, this is the main frame for all future powertrain developments. In this frame, the diesel powertrain, not only for passenger cars, but also for commercial vehicle applications, faces some challenges in order to fulfil the future European and current US emission legislations while keeping the fuel consumption benefit, good driveability and an acceptable cost frame. One of these challenges is the varying fuel qualities of diesel fuel in different countries including different cetane number, volatility, sulphur content and different molecular composition. In addition to that in the future, more and more alternative fuels with various fuel qualities and properties will be launched into the market for economical and environmental reasons. At present, the control algorithms of the injection system applied in most diesel engines is open loop control.
Technical Paper

Tier 2 Useful Life (120,000 miles) Exhaust Emission Results for a NOx Adsorber and Diesel Particle Filter Equipped Light-Duty Diesel Vehicle

2006-04-03
2006-01-0424
Due to its high efficiency and superior durability, the diesel engine is again becoming a prime candidate for future light-duty vehicle applications within the United States. While in Europe the overall diesel share exceeds 40%, the current diesel share in the United States is 1%. Despite the current situation and the very stringent Tier 2 emission standards, efforts are being made to introduce the diesel engine back into the U.S. market. In order to succeed, these vehicles have to comply with emissions standards over a 120,000 miles distance while maintaining their excellent fuel economy. The availability of technologies-such as high-pressure, common-rail fuel systems; low-sulfur diesel fuel; oxides of nitrogen (NOx) adsorber catalysts or NACs; and diesel particle filters (DPFs)-allow the development of powertrain systems that have the potential to comply with the light-duty Tier 2 emission requirements. In support of this, the U.S.
Technical Paper

Tier 2 Intermediate Useful Life (50,000 Miles) and 4000 Mile Supplemental Federal Test Procedure (SFTP) Exhaust Emission Results for a NOx Adsorber and Diesel Particle Filter Equipped Light-Duty Diesel Vehicle

2005-04-11
2005-01-1755
Due to its high efficiency and superior durability the diesel engine is again becoming a prime candidate for future light-duty vehicle applications within the United States. While in Europe the overall diesel share exceeds 40%, the current diesel share in the U.S. is 1%. Despite the current situation and the very stringent Tier 2 emission standards, efforts are being made to introduce the diesel engine back into the U.S. market. In order to succeed, these vehicles have to comply with emissions standards over a 120,000 miles distance while maintaining their excellent fuel economy. The availability of technologies such as high-pressure common-rail fuel systems, low sulfur diesel fuel, NOx adsorber catalysts (NAC), and diesel particle filters (DPFs) allow the development of powertrain systems that have the potential to comply with the light-duty Tier 2 emission requirements. In support of this, the U.S.
Journal Article

The Oxidation Potential Number: An Index to Evaluate Inherent Soot Reduction in D.I. Diesel Spray Plumes

2015-09-01
2015-01-1934
A new index to evaluate the inherent soot reduction in a diesel-like spray plume is proposed in this study. The index is named “Oxidation Potential Number” and was derived with the help of a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) software. C8 - C16 n-alkanes, 1-alcohols and di-n-ethers were studied with the help of this index over four part load engine operating conditions, representative of a C-class diesel vehicle. The CFD modelling results have shown that C8 molecules feature a higher potentiality to reduce the soot. Thus, C8 molecules were tested in a single cylinder diesel engine over the same operating conditions. In conclusion, the proposed index is compared with the soot engine out emission.
Technical Paper

The Impact of Different Biofuel Components in Diesel Blends on Engine Efficiency and Emission Performance

2010-10-25
2010-01-2119
Within the Cluster of Excellence “Tailor-Made Fuels from Biomass” at RWTH Aachen University, the Institute for Combustion Engines carried out an investigation program to explore the potential of future biofuel components in Diesel blends. In this paper, thermodynamic single cylinder engine results of today's and future biofuel components are presented with respect to their engine-out emissions and engine efficiency. The investigations were divided into two phases: In the first phase, investigations were performed with rapeseed oil methyl ester (B100) and an Ethanol-Gasoline blend (E85). In order to analyze the impact of different fuel blends, mixtures with 10 vol-% of B100 or E85 and 90 vol-% of standardized EN590 Diesel were investigated. Due to the low cetane number of E85, it cannot be used purely in a Diesel engine.
Technical Paper

Tailor-Made Fuels: The Potential of Oxygen Content in Fuels for Advanced Diesel Combustion Systems

2009-11-02
2009-01-2765
Fuels derived from biomass will most likely contain oxygen due to the high amount of hydrogen needed to remove oxygen in the production process. Today, alcohol fuels (e. g. ethanol) are well understood for spark ignition engines. The Institute for Combustion Engines at RWTH Aachen University carried out a fuel investigation program to explore the potential of alcohol fuels as candidates for future compression ignition engines to reduce engine-out emissions while maintaining engine efficiency and an acceptable noise level. The soot formation and oxidation process when using alcohol fuels in diesel engines is not yet sufficiently understood. Depending on the chain length, alcohol fuels vary in cetane number and boiling temperature. Decanol possesses a diesel-like cetane number and a boiling point in the range of the diesel boiling curve. Thus, decanol was selected as an alcohol representative to investigate the influence of the oxygen content of an alcohol on the combustion performance.
Technical Paper

Tailor-Made Fuels from Biomass: Influence of Molecular Structures on the Exhaust Gas Emissions of Compression Ignition Engines

2013-10-07
2013-36-0571
In order to deeply investigate and improve the complete path from biofuel production to combustion, the cluster of excellence “Tailor-Made Fuels from Biomass” was installed at RWTH Aachen University in 2007. Recently, new pathways have been discovered to synthesize octanol [1] and di-n-butylether (DNBE). These molecules are identical in the number of included hydrogen, oxygen and carbon atoms, but differ in the molecular structure: for octanol, the oxygen atom is at the end of the molecule, whereas for DNBE it is located in the middle. In this paper the utilization of octanol and DNBE in a state-of-the-art single cylinder diesel research engine will be discussed. The major interest has been on engine emissions (NOx, PM, HC, CO, noise) compared to conventional diesel fuel.
Technical Paper

Tailor-Made Fuels for Future Advanced Diesel Combustion Engines

2009-06-15
2009-01-1811
The finite nature and instability of fossil fuel supply has led to an increasing and enduring investigation demand of alternative and regenerative fuels. The Institute for Combustion Engines at the RWTH Aachen University carried out an investigation program to explore the potential of tailor made fuels to reduce engine-out emissions while maintaining engine efficiency and an acceptable noise level. To enable optimum engine performance a range of different hydrocarbons having different fuel properties like cetane number, boiling temperature and different molecular compositions have been investigated. Paraffines and naphthenes were selected in order to better understand the effects of molecular composition and chain length on emissions and performance of an engine that was already optimized for advanced combustion performance. The diesel single-cylinder research engine used in this study will be used to meet Euro 6 emissions limits and beyond.
Journal Article

Strategies for Meeting Phase 2 GHG and Ultra-Low NOx Emission Standards for Heavy-Duty Diesel Engines

2018-04-03
2018-01-1429
When considered along with Phase 2 Greenhouse Gas (GHG) requirements, the proposed Air Resource Board (ARB) nitrogen oxide (NOx) emission limit of 0.02 g/bhp-hr will be very challenging to achieve as the trade-off between fuel consumption and NOx emissions is not favorable. To meet any future ultra-low NOx emission regulation, the NOx conversion efficiency during the cold start of the emission test cycles needs to be improved. In such a scenario, apart from changes in aftertreatment layout and formulation, additional heating measures will be required. In this article, a physics-based model for an advanced aftertreatment system comprising of a diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC), an SCR-catalyzed diesel particulate filter (SDPF), a stand-alone selective catalytic reduction (SCR), and an ammonia slip catalyst (ASC) was calibrated against experimental data.
Technical Paper

Start-Up Behavior of Fuel Processors for PEM Fuel Cell Applications

2003-03-03
2003-01-0420
This paper focuses on start-up technology for fuel processing systems with special emphasis on gasoline fueled burners. Initially two different fuel processing systems, an autothermal reformer with preferential oxidation and a steam reformer with membrane, are introduced and their possible starting strategies are discussed. Energy consumption for preheating up to light-off temperature and the start-up time is estimated. Subsequently electrical preheating is compared with start-up burners and the different types of heat generation are rated with respect to the requirements on start-up systems. Preheating power for fuel cell propulsion systems necessarily reaches up to the magnitude of the electrical fuel cell power output. A gasoline fueled burner with thermal combustion has been build-up, which covers the required preheating power.
Technical Paper

SOLID SCR®: Demonstrating an Improved Approach to NOx Reduction via a Solid Reductant

2011-09-13
2011-01-2207
Stringent global emissions legislation demands effective NOx reduction strategies, particularly for the aftertreatment, and current typical liquid urea SCR systems achieve efficiencies greater than 90% [1]. However, with such high-performing systems comes the trade-off of requiring a tank of reductant (urea water solution) to be filled regularly, usually as soon as the fuel fillings or as far as oil changes. Advantages of solid reductants, particularly ammonium carbamate, include greater ammonia densities, enabling the reductant refill interval to be extended several multiples versus a given reductant volume of urea, or diesel exhaust fluid (DEF) [2]. An additional advantage is direct gaseous ammonia dosing, enabling reductant injection at lower exhaust temperatures to widen its operational coverage achieving greater emissions reduction potential [3], as well as eliminating deposits, reducing mixing lengths, and avoiding freeze/thaw risks and investments.
Technical Paper

Relationship between Fuel Properties and Sensitivity Analysis of Non-Aromatic and Aromatic Fuels Used in a Single Cylinder Heavy Duty Diesel Engine

2011-04-12
2011-01-0333
Fuel properties are always considered as one of the main factors to diesel engines concerning performance and emission discussions. There are still challenges for researchers to identify the most correlating and non-correlating fuel properties and their effects on engine behavior. Statistical analyses have been applied in this study to derive the most un-correlating properties. In parallel, sensitivity analysis was performed for the fuel properties as well as to the emission and performance of the engine. On one hand, two different analyses were implemented; one with consideration of both, non-aromatic and aromatic fuels, and the other were performed separately for each individual fuel group. The results offer a different influence on each type of analysis. Finally, by considering both methods, most common correlating and non-correlating properties have been derived.
Technical Paper

Reduction of Hydrocarbon Emissions from SI-Engines by Use of Carbon Pistons

1995-10-01
952538
The use of pistons made of fine grain carbon was investigated in a spark-ignition engine within a European Community funded research project (TPRO-CT92-0008). Pistons were designed and manufactured and then tested in a single cylinder engine. Due to the carbon material's lower coefficient of thermal expansion the top land clearance between piston and cylinder can be reduced by a factor of three in comparison to standard aluminium designs. Under steady-state part-load operating conditions the emission of unburned hydrocarbons can be reduced by more than 15% compared to aluminium pistons, without significant penalties in NOx-emissions. Simultaneously, a small improvement in fuel economy of about 2% is observed. At full-load blow-by leakage flow is reduced by more than 50%. The piston crown temperature is about 30°C higher with the carbon piston than with the standard aluminium piston, due to the lower thermal conductivity of the carbon material.
Journal Article

Quantitative Fuel-Air-Mixing Measurements in Diesel-Like Sprays Emanating from Convergent and Divergent Multi-Layer Nozzles

2012-04-16
2012-01-0464
It is the objective of this work to characterize mixture formation in the sprays emanating from Multi-Layer (ML) nozzles under approximately engine-like conditions by quantitative, spatially, and temporally resolved fuel-air ratio and temperature measurements. ML nozzles are cluster nozzles which have more than one circle of orifices. They were introduced previously, in order to overcome the limitations of conventional nozzles. In particular, the ML design yields the potential of variable spray interaction, so that mixture formation could be controlled according to the operating condition. In general, it was also a primary aim of the cluster-nozzle concepts to combine the enhanced atomization and pre-mixing of small nozzle holes with the longer spray penetration lengths of large holes. The applied diagnostic, which is based on 1d spontaneous Raman scattering, yields the quantitative stoichiometric ratio and the temperature in the vapor phase.
Journal Article

Probing Species Formed by Pilot Injection During Re-Compression in a Controlled Auto-Ignition Engine by H2CO LIF and Chemiluminescence Imaging

2014-04-01
2014-01-1275
Pilot injection (PI) during the negative-valve-overlap (NVO) period is one method to improve control of combustion in gasoline controlled auto-ignition engines. This is generally attributed to both chemical and thermal effects. However, there are little experimental data on active species formed by the combusting PI and their effect on main combustion in real engines. Thus, it is the objective of the current study to apply and assess optical in-cylinder diagnostics for these species. Firstly, the occurrence and nature of combustion during the NVO period is investigated by spectrally-resolved multi-species flame luminescence measurements. OH*, CH*, HCO*, CO-continuum chemiluminescence, and soot luminosity are recorded. Secondly, spectrally-, spatially-, and cycle-resolved laser-induced fluorescence measurements of formaldehyde are conducted. It is attempted to find a cycle-resolved measure of the chemical effect of PI.
Technical Paper

Potential of Synthetic Fuels in Future Combustion Systems for HSDI Diesel Engines

2006-04-03
2006-01-0232
In view of limited crude oil resources, alternative fuels for internal combustion engines are currently being intensively researched. Synthetic fuels from natural gas offer a promising interim option before the development of CO2-neutral fuels. Up to a certain degree, these fuels can be tailored to the demands of modern engines, thus allowing a concurrent optimization of both the engine and the fuel. This paper summarizes investigations of a Gas-To-Liquid (GTL) diesel fuel in a modern, post-EURO 4 compliant diesel engine. The focus of the investigations was on power output, emissions performance and fuel economy, as well as acoustic performance, in comparison to a commercial EU diesel fuel. The engine investigations were accompanied by injection laboratory studies in order to assist in the performance analyses.
Journal Article

Potential of Cellulose-Derived Biofuels for Soot Free Diesel Combustion

2010-04-12
2010-01-0335
Today's biofuels require large amounts of energy in the production process for the conversion from biomass into fuels with conventional properties. To reduce the amounts of energy needed, future fuels derived from biomass will have a molecular structure which is more similar to the respective feedstock. Butyl levulinate can be gained easily from levulinic acid which is produced by acid hydrolysis of cellulose. Thus, the Institute for Combustion Engines at RWTH Aachen University carried out a fuel investigation program to explore the potential of this biofuel compound, as a candidate for future compression ignition engines to reduce engine-out emissions while maintaining engine efficiency and an acceptable noise level. Previous investigations identified most desirable fuel properties like a reduced cetane number, an increased amount of oxygen content and a low boiling temperature for compression ignition engine conditions.
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