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Technical Paper

Virtual Testing and Simulation Environment [Micro-HiL] for Engine and Aftertreatment Calibration and Development -Part 2

2012-04-16
2012-01-0928
The growing complexity of powertrain control strategies, software, and hardware is proving to be a significant challenge to the engineering community with regard to managing effective optimization to meet the desired performance. With an increased emphasis on shorter development time and the use of additional sensors and actuators becoming common, the increased dependence on physical models and use of complex interdependent control systems demands a thorough system understanding. This also encourages the use of process improvement tools to assist in an effective engineering process. In this paper, such a tool is discussed in its second phase of development. The Micro-HiL system will be discussed over a wide scope that focuses on the interests of the calibration and development community. The purpose of this paper is to provide an update on the Phase 2 activity of Micro-HiL development; Phase 1 was discussed in-depth at the 2011 SAE World Congress [2011-01-0703].
Technical Paper

Transient Drive Cycle Modeling of Supercharged Powertrains for Medium and Heavy Duty On-Highway Diesel Applications

2012-09-24
2012-01-1962
The problem with traditional drive cycle fuel economy analysis is that kinematic (backward looking) models do not account for transient differences in charge air handling systems. Therefore, dynamic (forward looking) 1D performance simulation models were created to predict drive cycle fuel economy which encompass all the transient elements of fully detailed engine and vehicle models. The transient-capable technology of primary interest was mechanical supercharging which has the benefit of improved boost response and "time to torque." The benefits of a supercharger clutch have also been evaluated. The current US class 6-8 commercial vehicle market exclusively uses turbocharged diesel engines. Three vehicles and baseline powertrains were selected based on a high-level review of vehicle sales and the used truck marketplace. Fuel economy over drive cycles was the principal output of the simulation work. All powertrains are based on EPA 2010 emission regulations.
Technical Paper

Tier 2 Intermediate Useful Life (50,000 Miles) and 4000 Mile Supplemental Federal Test Procedure (SFTP) Exhaust Emission Results for a NOx Adsorber and Diesel Particle Filter Equipped Light-Duty Diesel Vehicle

2005-04-11
2005-01-1755
Due to its high efficiency and superior durability the diesel engine is again becoming a prime candidate for future light-duty vehicle applications within the United States. While in Europe the overall diesel share exceeds 40%, the current diesel share in the U.S. is 1%. Despite the current situation and the very stringent Tier 2 emission standards, efforts are being made to introduce the diesel engine back into the U.S. market. In order to succeed, these vehicles have to comply with emissions standards over a 120,000 miles distance while maintaining their excellent fuel economy. The availability of technologies such as high-pressure common-rail fuel systems, low sulfur diesel fuel, NOx adsorber catalysts (NAC), and diesel particle filters (DPFs) allow the development of powertrain systems that have the potential to comply with the light-duty Tier 2 emission requirements. In support of this, the U.S.
Technical Paper

The Potential of Small DI-Diesel Engines with 250 cm3/Cylinder for Passenger Car Drive Trains

1997-02-24
970838
The demand for fuel-efficient, low-displacement engines for future passenger car applications led to investigations with small DI diesel engines in the advanced engineering department at Mercedes-Benz. Single-cylinder tests were carried out to compare a 2-valve concept with 241 cm3 displacement with a 422 cm3 4-valve design, both operated with a common rail injection system. Mean effective pressures at full load were about 10 % lower with the smaller displacement. With such engines a specific power of 40 kW/I and a specific torque of about 140 Nm/I should be possible. In the current stage of optimization, penalties in fuel economy could be reduced down to values below 3 %. The “4-cylinder DI diesel engine with 1 liter displacement” is an interesting alternative to small 3 cylinder concepts with higher displacement per cylinder. An introduction into series production will not only depend on the potential for further improvement in fuel economy of such small cylinder units.
Technical Paper

Scalable Mean Value Modeling for Real-Time Engine Simulations with Improved Consistency and Adaptability

2019-04-02
2019-01-0195
This article discusses highly flexible and accurate physics-based mean value modeling (MVM) for internal combustion engines and its wide applicability towards virtual vehicle calibration. The requirement to fulfill the challenging Real Driving Emissions (RDE) standards has significantly increased the demand for precise engine models, especially models regarding pollutant emissions and fuel economy. This has led to a large increase in effort required for precise engine modeling and robust model calibration. Two best-practice engine modeling approaches will be introduced here to satisfy these requirements. These are the exclusive MVM approach, and a combination of MVM and a Design of Experiments (DOE) model for heterogeneous multi-domain engine systems.
Journal Article

Reduction of Parasitic Losses in Front-End Accessory Drive Systems: Part 2

2018-04-03
2018-01-0326
Demanding CO2 and fuel economy regulations are continuing to pressure the automotive industry into considering innovative powertrain and vehicle-level solutions. Powertrain engineers continue to minimize engine internal friction and transmission parasitic losses with the aim of reducing overall vehicle fuel consumption. In Part 1 of the study (2017-01-0893) described aspects of the test stand design that provides flexibility for adaptation to various test scenarios. The results from measurements for a number of front-end accessory drive (FEAD) components were shown in the context of scatterbands derived from multiple component tests. Key results from direct drive and belt-driven component tests were compared to illustrate the influence of the belt layout on mechanical efficiency of the FEAD system. The second part of the series will focus exclusively on the operation of the alternator. Two main elements of the study are discussed.
Technical Paper

Reduction of Hydrocarbon Emissions from SI-Engines by Use of Carbon Pistons

1995-10-01
952538
The use of pistons made of fine grain carbon was investigated in a spark-ignition engine within a European Community funded research project (TPRO-CT92-0008). Pistons were designed and manufactured and then tested in a single cylinder engine. Due to the carbon material's lower coefficient of thermal expansion the top land clearance between piston and cylinder can be reduced by a factor of three in comparison to standard aluminium designs. Under steady-state part-load operating conditions the emission of unburned hydrocarbons can be reduced by more than 15% compared to aluminium pistons, without significant penalties in NOx-emissions. Simultaneously, a small improvement in fuel economy of about 2% is observed. At full-load blow-by leakage flow is reduced by more than 50%. The piston crown temperature is about 30°C higher with the carbon piston than with the standard aluminium piston, due to the lower thermal conductivity of the carbon material.
Technical Paper

Potential of Synthetic Fuels in Future Combustion Systems for HSDI Diesel Engines

2006-04-03
2006-01-0232
In view of limited crude oil resources, alternative fuels for internal combustion engines are currently being intensively researched. Synthetic fuels from natural gas offer a promising interim option before the development of CO2-neutral fuels. Up to a certain degree, these fuels can be tailored to the demands of modern engines, thus allowing a concurrent optimization of both the engine and the fuel. This paper summarizes investigations of a Gas-To-Liquid (GTL) diesel fuel in a modern, post-EURO 4 compliant diesel engine. The focus of the investigations was on power output, emissions performance and fuel economy, as well as acoustic performance, in comparison to a commercial EU diesel fuel. The engine investigations were accompanied by injection laboratory studies in order to assist in the performance analyses.
Technical Paper

Potential of Modern Diesel Engines with Lowest Raw Emissions - a Key Factor for Future CO2 Reduction

2009-01-21
2009-26-0025
The high-speed Dl-diesel engine has made a significant advance since the beginning of the 90's in the Western European passenger car market. Apart from the traditional advantage in fuel economy, further factors contributing to this success have been significantly improved performance and power density, as well as the permanent progress made in acoustics and comfort. In addition to the efforts to improve efficiency of automotive powertrains, the requirement for cleaner air increases through the continuous worldwide restriction of emissions by legislative regulations for diesel engines. Against the backdrop of global climate change, significant reduction of CO2 is observed. Hence, for the future, engine and vehicle concepts are needed, that, while maintaining the well-established attractive market attributes, compare more favorably with regard to fuel consumption.
Technical Paper

Performance and Emissions of Lignin and Cellulose Based Oxygenated Fuels in a Compression-Ignition Engine

2015-04-14
2015-01-0910
Lignocellulosic biomass consists of (hemi-) cellulose and lignin. Accordingly, an integrated biorefinery will seek to valorize both streams into higher value fuels and chemicals. To this end, this study evaluated the overall combustion performance of both cellulose- and lignin derivatives, namely the high cetane number (CN) di-n-butyl ether (DnBE) and low CN anisole, respectively. Said compounds were blended both separately and together with EN590 diesel. Experiments were conducted in a single cylinder compression ignition engine, which has been optimized for improved combustion characteristics with respect to low emission levels and at the same time high fuel efficiency. The selected operating conditions have been adopted from previous “Tailor-Made Fuels from Biomass (TMFB)” work.
Technical Paper

Optimized Layout of Gasoline Engines for Hybrid Powertrains

2008-01-09
2008-28-0024
Due to the complex powertrain layout in hybrid vehicles, different configurations concerning internal combustion engine, electric motor and transmission can be combined - as is demonstrated by currently produced hybrid vehicles ([1], [2]). At the Institute for Combustion Engines (VKA) at RWTH Aachen University a combination of simulation, Design of Experiments (DoE) and numerical optimization methods was used to optimize the combustion engine, the powertrain configuration and the operation strategy in hybrid powertrains. A parametric description allows a variation of the main hybrid parameters. Parallel as well as power-split hybrid powertrain configurations were optimized with regard to minimum fuel consumption in the New European Driving Cycle (NEDC). Besides the definition of the optimum configuration for engine, powertrain and operation strategy this approach offers the possibility to predict the fuel consumption for any modifications of the hybrid powertrains.
Journal Article

Optimization of Electrified Powertrains for City Cars

2012-06-01
2011-01-2451
Sustainable and energy-efficient consumption is a main concern in contemporary society. Driven by more stringent international requirements, automobile manufacturers have shifted the focus of development into new technologies such as Hybrid Electric Vehicles (HEVs). These powertrains offer significant improvements in the efficiency of the propulsion system compared to conventional vehicles, but they also lead to higher complexities in the design process and in the control strategy. In order to obtain an optimum powertrain configuration, each component has to be laid out considering the best powertrain efficiency. With such a perspective, a simulation study was performed for the purpose of minimizing well-to-wheel CO2 emissions of a city car through electrification. Three different innovative systems, a Series Hybrid Electric Vehicle (SHEV), a Mixed Hybrid Electric Vehicle (MHEV) and a Battery Electric Vehicle (BEV) were compared to a conventional one.
Technical Paper

New CNG Concepts for Passenger Cars: High Torque Engines with Superior Fuel Consumption

2003-06-23
2003-01-2264
Since the CO2 emissions of passenger car traffic and their greenhouse potential are in the public interest, natural gas (CNG) is discussed as an attractive alternative fuel. The engine concepts that have been applied to date are mainly based upon common gasoline engine technology. In addition, in mono-fuel applications, it is made use of an increased compression ratio -thanks to the RON (Research Octane Number) potential of CNG-, which allows for thermodynamic benefits. This paper presents advanced engine concepts that make further use of the potentials linked to CNG. Above all, the improved knock tolerance, which can be particularly utilized in turbocharged engine concepts. For bi-fuel (CNG/gasoline) power trains, the realization of variable compression ratio is of special interest. Moreover, lean burn technology is a perfect match for CNG engines. Fuel economy and emission level are evaluated basing on test bench and vehicle investigations.
Technical Paper

Meeting 2025 CAFE Standards for LDT with Fuel-Efficient Diesel Powertrains - Approaches and Solutions

2017-03-28
2017-01-0698
In view of changing climatic conditions all over the world, Green House Gas (GHG) saving related initiatives such as reducing the CO2 emissions from the mobility and transportation sectors have gained in importance. Therefore, with respect to the large U.S. market, the corresponding legal authorities have defined aggressive and challenging targets for the upcoming time frame. Due to several aspects and conditions, like hesitantly acting clients regarding electrically powered vehicles or low prices for fossil fuels, convincing and attractive products have to be developed to merge legal requirements with market constraints. This is especially valid for the market segment of Light-Duty vehicles, like SUV’S and Pick-Up trucks, which are in high demand.
Technical Paper

Investigation Regarding the Influence of a Catalytic Combustion Chamber Coating on Gasoline Combustion Characteristics, Emission Formation and Engine Efficiency

2012-04-16
2012-01-1097
Over the past few years, both global warming and rising oil prices led to a significantly increased demand for low fuel consumption in passenger cars. However, the necessity to also meet the limits of today's and future emission regulations makes it more and more difficult to maintain a high engine efficiency without the use of an expensive external exhaust gas after-treatment system. Therefore, new technologies that simultaneously prevent emission formation and reduce fuel consumption inside the internal combustion engine during the combustion process itself are of highest interest. This paper analyzes the influence of a catalytic coating of the combustion chamber on combustion, emission formation and fuel consumption. For this purpose, test runs with a production 2.0-liter, 4-cylinder, 4-valve, double overhead camshaft (DOHC), port fuel injection (PFI) gasoline engine were performed.
Journal Article

Integration of Engine Start/Stop Systems with Emphasis on NVH and Launch Behavior

2013-05-13
2013-01-1899
Automatic engine start/stop systems are becoming more prevalent and increasing market share of these systems is predicted due to demands on improving fuel efficiency of vehicles. Integration of an engine start/stop system into a “conventional” drivetrain with internal combustion engine and 12V board system is a relatively cost effective measure to reduce fuel consumption. Comfort and NVH aspects will continue to play an important role for customer acceptance of these systems. Possible delay during vehicle launch due to the engine re-start is not only a safety relevant issue but a hesitating launch feel characteristic will result in reduced customer acceptance of these systems. The engine stop and re-start behavior should be imperceptible to the driver from both a tactile and acoustic standpoint. The lack of masking effects of the engine during the engine stop phases can cause other “unwanted” noise to become noticeable or more prominent.
Technical Paper

Influence of an Automatic Transmission with a Model Predictive Control and an On-Demand Clutch Actuator on Vehicle Fuel Consumption

2016-04-05
2016-01-1115
The demand for lower CO2 emissions requires not just the optimization of every single component but the complete system. For a transmission system, it is important to optimize the transmission hardware as we well as the interaction of powertrain components. For automatic transmission with wide ratio spreads, the main losses are caused by the actuation system, which can be reduced with use of ondemand actuation systems. In this paper, a new on-demand electromechanical actuation system with validation results on a clutch test bench is presented. The electro-mechanical actuator shows an increase in the efficiency of 4.1 % compared to the conventional hydraulic actuation in a simulated NEDC (New European Driving Cycle) cycle. This increase is based on the powerless end positions of the actuator (engaged and disengaged clutch). The thermal tension and wear are compensated with a disk spring. This allows a stable control over service life.
Journal Article

Influence of Ethanol Blends on Low Speed Pre-Ignition in Turbocharged, Direct-Injection Gasoline Engines

2017-03-28
2017-01-0687
Modern combustion engines must meet increasingly higher requirements concerning emission standards, fuel economy, performance characteristics and comfort. Especially fuel consumption and the related CO2 emissions were moved into public focus within the last years. One possibility to meet those requirements is downsizing. Engine downsizing is intended to achieve a reduction of fuel consumption through measures that allow reducing displacement while simultaneously keeping or increasing power and torque output. However, to reach that goal, downsized engines need high brake mean effective pressure levels which are well in excess of 20bar. When targeting these high output levels at low engine speeds, undesired combustion events with high cylinder peak pressures can occur that can severely damage the engine. These phenomena, typically called low speed pre-ignition (LSPI), set currently an undesired limit to downsizing.
Technical Paper

In-Use Compliance Opportunity for Diesel Powertrains

2018-04-03
2018-01-0877
In-use compliance under LEV III emission standards, GHG, and fuel economy targets beyond 2025 poses a great opportunity for all ICE-based propulsion systems, especially for light-duty diesel powertrain and aftertreatment enhancement. Though diesel powertrains feature excellent fuel-efficiency, robust and complete emissions controls covering any possible operational profiles and duty cycles has always been a challenge. Significant dependency on aftertreatment calibration and configuration has become a norm. With the onset of hybridization and downsizing, small steps of improvement in system stability have shown a promising avenue for enhancing fuel economy while continuously improving emissions robustness. In this paper, a study of current key technologies and associated emissions robustness will be discussed followed by engine and aftertreatment performance target derivations for LEV III compliant powertrains.
Journal Article

Impact of the Future Fuel Economy Targets on Powertrain, Driveline and Vehicle NVH Development

2017-06-05
2017-01-1777
The automotive industry continues to develop new technologies aimed at reducing overall vehicle level fuel consumption. Powertrain and driveline related technologies will play a key role in helping OEM’s meet fleet CO2 reduction targets for 2025 and beyond. Specifically, use of technologies such as downsized engines, idle start-stop systems, aggressive torque converter lock-up schedules, wide-ratio spread transmissions, and electrified propulsion systems are vital towards meeting aggressive fuel economy targets. Judicious combinations of such powertrain and driveline technology packages in conjunction with measures such as the use of low rolling resistance tires and vehicle lightweighting will be required to meet future OEM fleet CO2 targets. Many of the technologies needed for meeting the fuel economy and CO2 targets come with unique NVH challenges. In order to ensure customer acceptance of new vehicles, it is imperative that these NVH challenges be understood and solved.
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