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Technical Paper

System Concept Effectiveness

1966-02-01
660728
Frequently, a choice between system concepts must be made on the basis of something other than a detailed evaluation of the design effectiveness of these systems. This paper develops a rudimentary analysis process for use in addressing this problem.
Technical Paper

Simultaneous Design and Control Optimization of a Series Hybrid Military Truck

2018-04-03
2018-01-1109
This paper investigates the fuel saving potential of a series hybrid military truck using a simultaneous battery pack design and powertrain supervisory control optimization algorithm. The design optimization refers to the sizing of the Lithium-ion battery pack in the hybridized configuration. On the other hand, the powertrain supervisory control optimization finds the most efficient way to split power demands between the battery pack and the engine. Most of the previous literatures implement them separately. In contrast, combining the sizing and energy management problem into a single optimization problem produces the global optimal solution. This study proposes a novel unified framework to couple Genetic Algorithm (GA) with Pontryagin’s Minimum Principle (PMP) to determine the battery pack sizing and the power split control sequence simultaneously.
Technical Paper

Optimizing Occupant Restraint Systems for Tactical Vehicles in Frontal Crashes

2018-04-03
2018-01-0621
The objective of this study was to optimize the occupant restraint systems for a light tactical vehicle in frontal crashes. A combination of sled testing and computational modeling were performed to find the optimal seatbelt and airbag designs for protecting occupants represented by three size of ATDs and two military gear configurations. This study started with 20 sled frontal crash tests to setup the baseline performance of existing seatbelts, which have been presented previously; followed by parametric computational simulations to find the best combinations of seatbelt and airbag designs for different sizes of ATDs and military gear configurations involving both driver and passengers. Then 12 sled tests were conducted with the simulation-recommended restraint designs. The test results were further used to validate the models. Another series of computational simulations and 4 sled tests were performed to fine-tune the optimal restraint design solutions.
Technical Paper

On Simulating Sloshing in Vehicle Dynamics

2018-04-03
2018-01-1110
We present an approach in which we use simulation to capture the two-way coupling between the dynamics of a vehicle and that of a fluid that sloshes in a tank attached to the vehicle. The simulation is carried out in and builds on support provided by two modules: Chrono::FSI (Fluid-Solid Interaction) and Chrono::Vehicle. The dynamics of the fluid phase is governed by the mass and momentum (Navier-Stokes) equations, which are discretized in space via a Lagrangian approach called Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics. The vehicle dynamics is the solution of a set of differential algebraic equations of motion. All equations are discretized in time via a half-implicit symplectic Euler method. This solution approach is general - it allows for fully three dimensional (3D) motion and nonlinear transients. We demonstrate the solution in conjunction with the simulation of a vehicle model that performs a constant radius turn and double lane change maneuver.
Technical Paper

Navy Command Culture Assessments and Error Reduction in Aviation and Aviation Maintenance

2005-10-03
2005-01-3256
In 1996 a series of costly and preventable mishaps in Naval Aviation were determined to be the cause of dysfunctional cultures that existed within the mishap squadrons. Soon after, the Navy implemented a two-part process to root out dysfunctional cultures before they could cause further mishaps. The first step is for the squadron to complete a Climate Survey. The Climate Survey is an indicator of potential problems. The next step is for a trained Senior Naval Aviator to conduct a Culture Assessment of the squadron to accurately define the current culture of safety as well as any dysfunctional subcultures. Over the last five years, the Navy has saved $1.1 billion from the implementation of this program.1
Technical Paper

Multi-Layer Framework for Synthesis and Evaluation of Heterogeneous System-of-Systems Composed of Manned and Unmanned Vehicles

2018-10-30
2018-01-1964
The advancement of both sensory and unmanned technology, combined with increased utilization of autonomous platforms in complex teaming scenarios, has created a need for practical design space exploration tools to aid in the synthesis of effective System-of-Systems (SoS). The presented work describes a modular, flexible, and extensible framework, referred to herein as the Technologies and Teaming Evaluation (TATE) framework, for straightforward identification of high-quality SoS, which may include both manned and autonomous elements, through quantitative evaluation of system-level and SoS-level attributes against a set of user-defined reference tasks.
Technical Paper

Influence of the distances between the axles in the vertical dynamics of a military vehicle equipped with magnetorheological dampers

2018-09-03
2018-36-0232
While traveling on any type of ground, the damper of a vehicle has the critical task of attenuating the vibrations generated by its irregularities, to promote safety, stability, and comfort to the occupants. To reach that goal, several passive dampers projects are optimized to embrace a bigger frequency range, but, by its limitations, many studies in semiactive and active dampers stands out by promoting better control of the vehicle dynamics behavior. In the case of military vehicles, which usually have more significant dimensions than the common ones and can run on rough or unpaved lands, the use of semi-active or active dampers reveals itself as a promising alternative. Motivated by that, the present study performs an analysis of the vertical dynamics of a wheeled military vehicle with four axles, using magnetorheological dampers. This study is made using a configuration of the distances between the axles of the vehicle, which is chosen from five available options.
Technical Paper

Implementation of Active & Passive Safety for Heavy Article Tilter and Positioner (HATP)

2019-01-09
2019-26-0003
Mobile heavy article tilter and positioner (HATP) is special purpose vehicle designed to level, articulate and positioning of very heavy load within the accuracy of arc minutes and in a stipulated time in fully auto mode. HATP system uses sophisticated electronic controller system to carry out required task in auto mode. This electronic controller system comprises of various types of electronic hardware, software, sensors and actuators. As this system is dealing with heavy load, any failure in any of subsystem of HATP can result into catastrophe. Therefore active and passive safety measure at various levels must be incorporated into system which firstly prevents the failure and reduce the effect of failure. The safety system for HATP system has been divided in three major levels: 1. Access level safety 2. Operational safety 3. Preventive safety. All three levels of safety is incorporated at appropriate subsystem based on Risk Priority Number (RPN) and failure mode effect analysis.
Technical Paper

Human Foot-Ankle Injuries and Associated Risk Curves from Under Body Blast Loading Conditions

2017-11-13
2017-22-0006
Under body blast (UBB) loading to military transport vehicles is known to cause foot-ankle fractures to occupants due to energy transfer from the vehicle floor to the feet of the soldier. The soldier posture, the proximity of the event with respect to the soldier, the personal protective equipment (PPE) and age/sex of the soldier are some variables that can influence injury severity and injury patterns. Recently conducted experiments to simulate the loading environment to the human foot/ankle in UBB events (~5ms rise time) with variables such as posture, age and PPE were used for the current study. The objective of this study was to determine statistically if these variables affected the primary injury predictors, and develop injury risk curves. Fifty below-knee post mortem human surrogate (PMHS) legs were used for statistical analysis. Injuries to specimens involved isolated and multiple fractures of varying severity.
Technical Paper

Guiding Framework for Feasibility Evaluation of Localised Production and Drop in Blending of Aviation Turbine Fuel with Bio Derivatives for Non-civilian Air Bases

2011-10-18
2011-01-2792
The potential for small scale local production of Bio fuel derivatives and their partial blending with aviation turbine fuel in non-civilian bases has been investigated. A feasibility study on technical readiness levels for process viability is presented in the paper. Demand side analysis for various blend mixes and corresponding requirement for production facilities and land area requirements are performed. Sustainable production and blending operations are the basis for selection of key performance indicators for the air base. Guiding framework and readiness evaluation processes are delineated for the base. Qualitative inference is combined with quantitative scoring system within the framework.
Technical Paper

Future Military APU Requirements

1991-09-01
912176
Future tactical aircraft will have increased capabilities that will place greater demands on their secondary power systems. Added capabilities such as low observability or internal weapons storage are being planned for without significantly increasing the aircraft's size and weight. The power system must therefore have reduced volume, weight, and complexity, while also being more reliable and maintainable. The auxiliary power unit (APU) is a critical component that must be improved to upgrade the capabilities of the power system. Increasing the APU's power density is one important way for reducing the power system's size and weight. Increased power density, however, will require a power unit operating with higher gas generator temperatures, so this condition will be the major challenge for new APU designs.
Technical Paper

Experimental Stress/Strain Analysis of a Standardized Sensor Platform for a C-130 Aircraft

2005-10-03
2005-01-3426
Project Oculus is an in-flight deployable mechanical arm/pod system that will accommodate 500 pounds of sensor payload, developed for a C-130 military aircraft. The system is designed for use in counter narco-terrorism and surveillance applications by the Department of Defense and the National Guard [1]. A prototype of the system has been built and is in the testing/analysis phase. The purpose of this study was to analyze the actual stresses and strains in the critical areas found using previous Finite Element (FE) simulations and to ensure that acceptable safety requirements have been met. The system components tested will be redesigned, tested, and reconstructed in the case of unacceptable safety factors or if more reliable methods can be implemented. The system was built to be deployed and retracted in flight, to avoid causing any problems in take off and landing.
Technical Paper

Enhanced HUD Symbology Associated with Recovery from Unusual Attitudes

1990-09-01
901919
The present study examined the degree of spatial awareness obtained using what has been called an Augie Arrow, enabled so that it could be displayed as either a “nearest horizon pointer” (NH) or an “up arrow” (UP) indicator. Another issue investigated concerned the usefulness of analog dials vice digital readouts of airspeed and altitude as an aid to recovery. During simulated flight, twelve subjects were required to recover from six unusual attitudes employing one of four HUD formats: (1) Standard HUD, (2) Augie Arrow, (3) Analog Dials, and (4) Augie Arrow with Analog Dials. Results revealed that the Augie Arrow produced the most rapid recovery time. The Augie Arrow configuration was optimal at the most severe unusual attitudes, especially for the NH mechanization. The Dials only HUD was not particularly helpful in recovery, and the Arrow with Dials HUD was rated as a significant clutter problem.
Technical Paper

Development of the CAVEMAN Human Body Model: Validation of Lower Extremity Sub-Injurious Response to Vertical Accelerative Loading

2017-11-13
2017-22-0007
Improving injury prediction accuracy and fidelity for mounted Warfighters has become an area of focus for the U.S. military in response to improvised explosive device (IED) use in both Iraq and Afghanistan. Although the Hybrid III anthropomorphic test device (ATD) has historically been used for crew injury analysis, it is only capable of predicting a few select skeletal injuries. The Computational Anthropomorphic Virtual Experiment Man (CAVEMAN) human body model is being developed to expand the injury analysis capability to both skeletal and soft tissues. The CAVEMAN model is built upon the Zygote 50th percentile male human CAD model and uses a finite element modeling approach developed for high performance computing (HPC). The lower extremity subset of the CAVEMAN human body model presented herein includes: 28 bones, 26 muscles, 40 ligaments, fascia, cartilage and skin.
Technical Paper

Computing Remaining Fatigue Life Under Incrementally Updated Loading Histories

2018-04-03
2018-01-0623
After manufacture, every military vehicle experiences a unique history of dynamic loads, depending on loads carried, missions completed, etc. Damage accumulates in vehicle structures and components accordingly, leading eventually to failures that can be difficult to anticipate, and to unpredictable consequences for mission objectives. The advent of simulation-based fatigue life prediction tools opens a path to Digital Twin based solutions for tracking damage, and for gaining control over vehicle reliability. An incremental damage updating feature has now been implemented in the Endurica CL fatigue solver with the aim of supporting such applications for elastomer components. The incremental updating feature is demonstrated via the example of a simple transmission mount component. The damage state of the mount is computed as it progresses towards failure under a series of typical loading histories.
Technical Paper

Challenging Power Density Requirements for Future Fighter APUs

1991-09-01
912177
Future fighters will require more compact, lighter weight, small gas turbine auxiliary power units (APUs) capable of faster starting, and operation, up to altitudes of 50,000 ft. The US Air Force is currently supporting an Advanced Components Auxiliary Power Unit (ACAPU) research program to demonstrate the technologies that will be required to accomplish projected secondary power requirements for these advanced fighters. The requirements of the ACAPU Program represent a challenging task requiring significant technical advancements over the current state-of-the-art, prominent among which are: Small high heat release high altitude airbreathing combustors. High temperature monolithic ceramic and metallic small turbines. Capability to operate, and transition from non-airbreathing to airbreathing modes. This paper discusses these challenging requirements and establishes technology paths to match and exceed the required goals.
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