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Vehicle Duty Cycles and Their Role in the Design and Evaluation of Advanced Vehicle Technologies

2012-04-10
Understanding in-use fleet operating behavior is of paramount importance when evaluating the potential of advanced/alternative vehicle technologies. Accurately characterizing real world vehicle operation assists in properly allocating advanced technologies, playing a role in determining initial payback period and return on investment. In addition, this information contributes to the design and deployment of future technologies as the result of increased awareness regarding tractive power requirements associated with typical operating behavior. In this presentation, the concept of vehicle duty cycles and their relation to advanced technologies will be presented and explored. Additionally, current research attempts to characterize school bus operation will be examined, and existing computational analysis and evaluation tools associated with these efforts discussed. Presenter Adam Duran, National Renewable Energy Laboratory
Video

Using SCADE System for the Design and Integration of Critical Systems

2012-03-14
This presentation shows the SCADE System product line for systems modeling and generation based on the SysML standard and the Eclipse Papyrus open source technology. SCADE System has been developed in the framework of Listerel, a joint laboratory of Esterel Technologies, provider of the SCADE�, and CEA LIST, project leader of the Eclipse component, Papyrus. From an architecture point of view, the Esterel SCADE tools are built on top of the SCADE platform which includes both SCADE Suite�, a model-based development environment dedicated to critical software, and SCADE System enabling model-based system engineering. SCADE System includes Papyrus, an open source component (under EPL license), integrated in the modeling platform of Eclipse. Using this integrated modeling platform, both system and software teams share the same environment for system development. Furthermore, other model-based tools can be added to the environment, due to the use of Eclipse.
Video

Updated SAE Standards (J2012, J1979, J1930, J1699)

2012-01-24
Revisions to the California OBD-II diesel regulations required many updates to various SAE and ISO on-board diagnostic standards; these include major revisions to SAE J1979, J1699-3, J2012 and J1930. This presentation is intended to review the background for these changes as well as the revisions made in these documents. Presenter Robert Gruszczynski, Volkswagen of America
Video

Transesterification of Waste Cooking Oil in Presence of Crushed Seashell as a Support for Solid Heterogeneous Catalyst

2011-12-05
Developing relatively cheap and widely available resources for heterogeneous solid catalyst synthesis is a promising approach for biodiesel fuel industry. Seashell which is essentially calcium carbonate can be used as a basic support for transesterification heterogeneous catalysts. In the present investigation, the alcoholysis of waste frying oil has been carried out using seashell-supported K3 PO4 as solid catalyst. Presenter Essam Oun Al-Zaini, PhD student, UNSW
Video

Toyota's Comprehensive Environmental Technology: Providing Choices for Sustainable Mobility

2012-03-31
Toyota is committed to the development of advanced powertrains to help address concerns with future oil supplies, the impacts of increased carbon dioxide emissions, and air pollution. Towards that end Toyota is planning to bring to market in 2012 a plug-in hybrid vehicle, a short range electric vehicle, a long range electric vehicle and in the 2015 timeframe hydrogen powered fuel cell vehicle. This presentation will focus on our electric vehicle plans and the challenges with bringing electric vehicle to the market. From the 2010 Alt Fuels Study, Toyota has identified that two key barriers for EV adoption are the times to charge the vehicle, and electricity cost. The study finds that the current infrastructure could be sufficient for most driving needs but EV drivers will still need to alter their driving habits slightly.
Video

Teardown-Based Cost Assessment for Use in Setting Greenhouse Gas Emissions Standards

2012-06-18
The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) contracted with FEV, Inc. to estimate the per-vehicle cost of employing selected advanced efficiency-improving technologies in light-duty motor vehicles. The development of transparent, reliable cost analyses that are accessible to all interested stakeholders has played a crucial role in establishing feasible and cost effective standards to improve fuel economy and reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The FEV team, together with engineering staff from EPA's National Vehicle and Fuel Emissions Laboratory, and FEV's subcontractor, Munro & Associates, developed a robust costing methodology based on tearing down, to the piece part level, relevant systems, sub-systems, and assemblies from vehicles ?with and without? the technologies being evaluated.
Video

Study of Materials and Coatings Used for Drilling Carbon Fiber Re-inforced Plastics

2012-03-14
With the increased usage of Carbon Fiber Reinforced Plastics (CFRP) in the aircraft industry, there has been increased pressure to improve cutting tool life. Tungsten carbide tools were the first to be applied to CFRP materials. Poly Crystalline Diamond (PCD) tools also became an acceptable material to be used as a cutting tool material. In recent years, Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) diamond tools have become more popular as a cutting tool material for CFRP. This study compares these possible cutting tool materials in the drilling of CFRP. Wear is measured as well as hole quality. Life is determined by common industry standards with regard to fiber break out in a common CFRP material. An economic analysis is conducted in order to determine cost per hole. Presenter Christophe Petit
Video

Spotlight on Design: Diagnostics and Prognostics: Proactive Maintenance and Failure Prevention

2015-04-16
“Spotlight on Design” features video interviews and case study segments, focusing on the latest technology breakthroughs. Viewers are virtually taken to labs and research centers to learn how design engineers are enhancing product performance/reliability, reducing cost, improving quality, safety or environmental impact, and achieving regulatory compliance. In the episode “Diagnostics and Prognostics: Proactive Maintenance and Failure Prevention” (21:04), Delphi engineers explain how they leverage the growing number of sensors and computing power in vehicles to diagnose and proactively solve emerging mechanical or electronic problems, before a breakdown occurs. This video also looks at the next generation of automotive telematics, with HEM Data demonstrating how in-vehicle data acquisition is used to monitor the inner workings of vehicles.
Video

Spotlight on Design Insight: Diagnostics and Prognostics: Telematics Deep Dive

2015-05-04
“Spotlight on Design: Insight” features an in-depth look at the latest technology breakthroughs impacting mobility. Viewers are virtually taken to labs and research centers to learn how design engineers are enhancing product performance/reliability, reducing cost, improving quality, safety or environmental impact, and achieving regulatory compliance. Telematics, the convergence of telecommunications and informatics, uses electronic and computer technology built in to the vehicle to provide vehicle tracking, satellite navigation, wireless technology, and diagnostic information. In the episode “Diagnostics and Prognostics: Telematics Deep Dive” (8:09), an engineer from Delphi’s Telematics program discusses the advantages and challenges of telematics devices for the automotive industry, demonstrates the installation of an aftermarket telematics device, and shows how telematics can enhance diagnostics and preventative maintenance.
Video

SCR Deactivation Study for OBD Applications

2012-06-18
Selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalysts will be used to reduce oxides of nitrogen (NOx) emissions from internal combustion engines in a number of applications [1,2,3,4]. Southwest Research Institute® (SwRI)® performed an Internal Research & Development project to study SCR catalyst thermal deactivation. The study included a V/W/TiO2 formulation, a Cu-zeolite formulation and an Fe-zeolite formulation. This work describes NOx timed response to ammonia (NH3) transients as a function of thermal aging time and temperature. It has been proposed that the response time of NOx emissions to NH3 transients, effected by changes in diesel emissions fluid (DEF) injection rate, could be used as an on-board diagnostic (OBD) metric. The objective of this study was to evaluate the feasibility and practicality of this OBD approach.
Video

SCR Deactivation Kinetics for Model-Based Control and Accelerated Aging Applications

2012-06-18
Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) catalysts are used to reduce NOx emissions from internal combustion engines in a variety of applications [1,2,3,4]. Southwest Research Institute (SwRI) performed an Internal Research & Development project to study SCR catalyst thermal deactivation. The study included a V/W/TiO2 formulation, a Cu-zeolite formulation and a Fe-zeolite formulation. This work describes NH3 storage capacity measurement data as a function of aging time and temperature. Addressing one objective of the work, these data can be used in model-based control algorithms to calculate the current NH3 storage capacity of an SCR catalyst operating in the field, based on time and temperature history. The model-based control then uses the calculated value for effective DEF control and prevention of excessive NH3 slip. Addressing a second objective of the work, accelerated thermal aging of SCR catalysts may be achieved by elevating temperatures above normal operating temperatures.
Video

Reduction of CO2 Emissions using Variable Compression Ratio MCE-5 VCRi Technology - Facts & Prospects

2012-05-10
Downsizing and downspeeding are two efficient strategies to reduce vehicles CO2 emission, provided that high BMEP can be achieved at any engine speed under clean, safe, stable and efficient combustion. With a 6:1 minimum compression ratio, the MCE-5 VCRi achieves 40 bar peak BMEP at 1200 rpm with no irregular combustion. If peak BMEP is maintained below 35 bar, fuel enrichment is no longer necessary. When running at part loads, the engine operates at high compression ratios (up to 15:1) to minimize BSFC and maximize the sweet spot area on the map. Next generation MCE-5 VCRi engines will combine VCR and stoichiometric charges, highly diluted with external cooled EGR, in order to improve part loads efficiency by means of both the reduction in heat and pumping losses, and the optimization of compression-expansion ratio. This strategy, added to downsizing-donwspeeding, requires high-energy ignition systems to promote repeatable, stable, rapid and complete combustion.
Video

Real time Renewable Energy Availability for EV Charging

2012-03-29
Battery Electric Vehicles and Extended Range Electric Vehicles, like the Chevrolet Volt, can use electrical energy from the Grid to meet the majority of a driver�s transportation needs. This has the positive societal effects of displace petroleum consumption and associated pollutants from combustion on a well to wheels basis, as well as reduced energy costs for the driver. CO2 may also be lower, but this depends upon the nature of the grid energy generation. There is a mix of sources � coal-fired, gas -fired, nuclear or renewables, like hydro, solar, wind or biomass for grid electrical energy. This mix changes by region, and also on the weather and time of day. By monitoring the grid mix and communicating it to drivers (or to their vehicles) in real-time, electrically driven vehicles may be recharged to take advantage of the lowest CO2, and potentially lower cost charging opportunities.
Video

Performance of Particle Oxidation Catalyst and Particle Formation Studies with Sulphur Containing Fuels

2012-06-18
The aim of this paper is to analyse the quantitative impact of fuel sulphur content on particulate oxidation catalyst (POC) functionality, focusing on soot emission reduction and the ability to regenerate. Studies were conducted on fuels containing three different levels of sulphur, covering the range of 6 to 340 parts per million, for a light-duty application. The data presented in this paper provide further insights into the specific issues associated with usage of a POC with fuels of higher sulphur content. A 48-hour loading phase was performed for each fuel, during which filter smoke number, temperature and back-pressure were all observed to vary depending on the fuel sulphur level. The Fuel Sulphur Content (FSC) affected also soot particle size distributions (particle number and size) so that with FSC 6 ppm the soot particle concentration was lower than with FSC 65 and 340, both upstream and downstream of the POC.
Video

PM Sensors

2012-02-01
Watlow and EmiSense Technologies, LLC are commercializing an improved electronic particulate matter (PM) sensor that has real-time measurement capability and improved sensitivity. To demonstrate the capability of this improved sensor of on board diagnostics (OBD) for failure detection of diesel particle filters (DPF), independent measurements were performed by university of California Riverside (UCR) and by Southwest Research Institute (SwRI) to characterize the engine PM emissions and to compare with the PM sensor response. In situ PM measurements from PM sensors correlate well with real-time gravimetric measurements. In addition, particle size and particle number data are presented and discussed.Due to an improved design update, the sensitivity of the sensor could have been significantly increased.
Video

On-Road Evaluation of an Integrated SCR and Continuously Regenerating Trap Exhaust System

2012-06-18
Four-way, integrated, diesel emission control systems that combine selective catalytic reduction for NOx control with a continuously regenerating trap to remove diesel particulate matter were evaluated under real-world, on-road conditions. Tests were conducted using a semi-tractor with an emissions year 2000, 6-cylinder, 12 L, Volvo engine rated at 287 kW at 1800 rpm and 1964 N-m. The emission control system was certified for retrofit application on-highway trucks, model years 1994 through 2002, with 4-stroke, 186-373 kW (250-500 hp) heavy-duty diesel engines without exhaust gas recirculation. The evaluations were unique because the mobile laboratory platform enabled evaluation under real-world exhaust plume dilution conditions as opposed to laboratory dilution conditions. Real-time plume measurements for NOx, particle number concentration and size distribution were made and emission control performance was evaluated on-road.
Video

OBD Experiences: A Ford Perspective

2012-01-24
Some the OBD-II regulations have been around for a long time or seem to be intuitively obvious. It is easy to assume to assume that everyone knows how to implement them correctly, that is, until someone actually reads the words and tries to do it. Most often, these issues come up when modifying existing OBD features, not when creating completely new ones. This presentation contains a few examples of features that should have been easy to implement, but turned out not to be easy or simple. Presenter Paul Algis Baltusis, Ford Motor Co.
Video

OBD Challenges for Plug In Hybrid Electric Vehicles

2012-01-30
Plug-In Hybrid and Extended Range Electric Vehicle's have quickly become the focus of many OEM's and suppliers. Existing regulations and test procedures did not anticipate this rapid adoption of this new technology, resulting in many product development challenges. The lack of clear requirements is further complicated by CARBs consideration of CO2 inclusion in their next light duty OBD regulation. This presentation provides an overview of the regulatory requirements for OBD systems on hybrid vehicles that intend to certify in California. Near term challenges for EREV?s and PHEV?s are discussed, including concerns with the existing denominator and warm-up cycle calculations. Some proposals are made to address these concerns. Presenter Andrew Zettel, General Motors Company
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