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Technical Paper

Towards a Model-Based Energy System Design Process

Advanced modeling and simulation techniques are becoming more important in today's industrial design processes and for aircraft energy systems in specific. They enable early and integrated design as well as validation of finalized system and component designs. This paper describes the main methods and tools that can be applied for different phases of the energy design process. For demonstration, the object-oriented modeling language Modelica was chosen, since it enables convenient modeling of multi-physical systems. Based on this standard, common modeling guidelines, a modeling library template, and common interfaces have been provided. A common modeling infrastructure is proposed with considerations on additional libraries needed for local tasks in the energy design process. The developed methods and tools have been tested by means of some predefined use cases, which are performed in cooperation with diverse aircraft industrial partners.
Technical Paper

Structural Concept of an Adaptive Shock Control Bump Spoiler

Drag reduction technologies in aircraft design are the key enabler for reducing emissions and for sustainable growth of commercial aviation. Laminar wing technologies promise a significant benefit by drag reduction and are therefore under investigation in various European projects. However, of the established moveable concepts and high-lift systems, thus far most do not cope with the requirements for natural laminar flow wings. To this aim new leading edge high-lift systems have been the focus of research activities in the last five years. Such leading edge devices investigated in projects include a laminar flow-compatible Kruger flap [1] and the Droop Nose concept [2, 3] and these can be considered as alternatives to the conventional slat. Hybrid laminar flow concepts are also under investigation at several research institutes in Europe [4].
Technical Paper

Model-Based Thermal Management Functions for Aircraft Systems

This paper describes a novel Thermal Management Function (TMF) and its design process developed in the framework of the Clean Sky project. This TMF is capable of calculating optimized control signals in real-time for thermal management systems by using model-based system knowledge. This can be either a physical model of the system or a data record generated from this model. The TMF provides control signals to the air and vapor cycle which are possible sources of cooling power, as well as load reduction or shedding signals. To determine an optimal cooling split between air cycle, vapor cycle, and its associated ram air channels, trade factors are being used to make electrical power offtake and ram air usage (i.e. drag) comparable, since both have influence on fuel consumption. An associated development process is being elaborated that enables a fast adaptation of the TMF to new architectures and systems. This will be illustrated by means of a bleedless thermal management architecture.
Technical Paper

Advanced Temperature Control in Aircraft Cabins - A Digital Prototype

For thermal cabin control of commercial aircraft, the cabin is usually divided into a small number of temperature zones. Each zone features its own air supply pipe. The necessary installation space for ducting increases significantly with the number of zones. This requires the number of temperature zones to be low. Factors such as seating layout, galley placement and passenger density result in deviations in heat flux throughout the cabin. These deviations cannot be compensated by the control system, if they occur within the same temperature zone. This work presents a novel temperature regulation concept based on local mixing. In this concept, two main ducts span the complete cabin length, and provide moderately warm and cold air. At each temperature zone, cabin supply air is locally mixed using butterfly valves. In this way, the number of temperature zones can be individually scaled up without any additional ducting, only requiring additional valves for each temperature zone.