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Technical Paper

Thermal Pretreatment of Waste Hygiene Water

1991-07-01
911554
The thermal pretreatment of waste hygiene water was investigated as an approach to reduce the amount of energy required to maintain overall system microbial control. The study was conducted in two phases. The laboratory phase was a series of experiments to quantify the degree of microbial population reduction obtained when hygiene waste water and humidity condensate are heated through various thermal cycles. The laboratory phase also included inoculation of the combined wastewater with a thermophilic bacteria to provide a “worst-case” challenge of the thermal cycle being tested. The large scale system phase determined biofilm formation on the surfaces of a variety of materials with and without thermal cycling. Except for survival of the challenge thermophile and some naturally present thermophiles, thermal treatment above 85° C was successful in eradication of the microbial population in the combined hygiene wastewater and formed biofilms.
Technical Paper

The Telemedicine Instrumentation Pack: A Portable Diagnostic Clinic

1995-07-01
951615
As a more permanent human presence in space is established during future missions, crew health issues will require additional attention. Since a physician will not be a part of most crews, the flight surgeons will require more clinical information than can currently be provided to regularly assess crew health status and direct medical treatment. The Telemedicine Instrumentation Pack (TIP) is being designed to enable the Crew Medical Officers (CMO) in space to acquire the necessary medical information for telemedical consultation with the flight surgeons in the Mission Control Center (MCC). To date, two prototypes of the TIP have been developed, with the first being clinically evaluated in a local telemedicine testbed in the Fall of 1994 and the second prototype being recently completed. The current system concept, progress in the development of the system, plans for future development, and the evolution of the system are described.
Technical Paper

Sterilization of Unibed® Multifiltration Media by Gamma Irradiation

1993-07-01
932045
Unibeds®* are multimedia layered sorption beds baselined for use in the Space Station Freedom (SSF) water reclamation system. Unibeds® must be sterilized prior to use to avoid the introduction of bacteria into the water reclamation system when the Unibeds® are routinely changed out. In the past, Unibeds® were autoclaved in an attempt to achieve sterility. Some sorbent media used in the Unibeds® decompose when exposed to high temperatures for extended periods. Although no significant sorbent decomposition occurs during the routine autoclave time of 30 minutes, it is uncertain whether sufficient sterilization temperatures are achieved at the Unibed® core. Gamma irradiation has been evaluated as a practical alternative method to achieve sterility and eliminate possible sorbent thermal degradation. Sorbent media were inoculated with irradiation resistant spores (106 CFU/ML) of bacterium Bacillus pumilus and subsequently exposed to radiation doses of 1.5, 2.0, and 2.5 megarads (Mrad).
Technical Paper

Space Station Hygiene Water Reclamation By Multifiltration

1991-07-01
911553
The baseline hygiene water reclamation system for Space Station Freedom has been changed from Reverse Osmosis with Multifiltration post-treatment to stand-alone Multifiltration. The Multifiltration concept offers increased system reliability, a decrease in power consumption, and essentially 100% water recovery. Multifiltration is based on well documented sorption technology for removal of contaminant species. System complexity is minimal. Moving parts are limited to one pump and simple valving. Reliable microbial control is obtained by heat sterilization and by the use of iodine as a bactericide. Iodine addition is accomplished in the Unibeds with an iodinated resin which is also used in the Microbial Check Valve (MCV). Microbial Check Valves have proven reliable and effective on board the Space Shuttle since the beginning of the Shuttle program. Power consumption is primarily attributed to heat sterilization. The energy required for the pump and controls is relatively low.
Technical Paper

Solid Phase Extraction of Polar Compounds in Water

1997-07-01
972465
The Water and Food Analytical Laboratory, at the Johnson Space Center is developing an alternative to EPA Method 625 for analyzing semivolatile organic compounds in water. The current EPA method uses liquid-liquid extraction. The alternative method being developed differs in the sample preparation phase by replacing gravity-dependent liquid-liquid extraction with solid phase extraction (SPE). The ultimate goal is to incorporate the optimum SPE conditions into an automated sample preparation process. The method shows promise with regard to anticipated polar compounds. Fourteen SPE resins and nine elution solvents were compared. For typical analytes encountered by our laboratory, a styrene-divinylbenzene SPE resin and an elution solvent mixture of methylene chloride and ethyl ether were found to give the highest extraction recoveries. A study is in progress to remove water from the extracts before GC/MS analysis.
Technical Paper

Single Phase Space Laundry Development

1993-07-01
932092
This paper describes a newly designed, 2.7 Kg (6 pound) capacity, laundry machine called the Single Phase Space Laundry (SPSL). The machine was designed to wash and dry crew clothing in a micro-gravity environment. A prototype unit was fabricated for NASA-JSC under a Small Business Innovative Research (SBIR) contract extending from September 1990 to January 1993. The unit employs liquid jet agitation, microwave vacuum drying, and air jet tumbling, which was perfected by KC-135 zero-g flight testing. Operation is completely automated except for loading and unloading clothes. The unit uses about 20 percent less power than a conventional household appliance.
Technical Paper

Shuttle Sleep Shift Operations Support Program

1991-07-01
911334
Shuttle crewmembers must frequently alter sleep/wake schedules to accommodate launch and mission timelines. These “alterations” tend to maximize sleep disruption and fatigue leading to a decreased operational “safety margin” during inflight operations. Changes in normal sleep/wake cycles have been shown to disrupt physiological circadian rhythm causing fatigue, decreased alertness, increased irritability, altered judgement, and increased vulnerability to performance decrements.1 To minimize the impact of schedule shifts, and maximize sleep and physiological adaptation, the NASA operational environment has implemented a program to address these complex issues. The program plan “operationalizes” the experimental protocol used by Czeisler et al. (1990), which involves timed exposure to bright light during the targeted activity period and complete darkness during the targeted sleep period to rapidly shift crewmembers.
Technical Paper

Setting Spacecraft Maximum Allowable Concentrations for 1 hour or 24 hour Contingency Exposures to Airborne Chemicals

1992-07-01
921410
Since the early years of the manned space program, NASA has developed and used exposure limits called Spacecraft Maximum Allowable Concentrations (SMACs) to help protect astronauts from airborne toxicants. Most of these SMACS are based on an exposure duration of 7 days, since this is the duration of a “typical” mission. A set of “contingency SMACs” is also being developed for scenarios involving brief (1-hour or 24- hour) exposures to relatively high levels of airborne toxicants from event-related “contingency” releases of contaminants. The emergency nature of contingency exposures dictates the use of different criteria for setting exposure limits. The NASA JSC Toxicology Group recently began a program to document the rationales used to set new SMACs and plans to review the older, 7-day SMACs. In cooperation with the National Research Council's Committee on Toxicology, a standard procedure has been developed for researching, setting, and documenting SMAC values.
Technical Paper

Risk Mitigation Water Quality Monitor

1997-07-01
972463
On the International Space Station (ISS), atmospheric humidity condensate and other waste waters will be recycled and treated to produce potable water for use by the crews. Space station requirements include an on-orbit capability for real-time monitoring of key water quality parameters, such as total organic carbon, total inorganic carbon, total carbon, pH, and conductivity, to ensure that crew health is protected for consumption of reclaimed water. The Crew Health Care System for ISS includes a total organic carbon (TOC) analyzer that is currently being designed to meet this requirement. As part of the effort, a spacecraft TOC analyzer was developed to demonstrate the technology in microgravity and mitigate risks associated with its use on station. This analyzer was successfully tested on Shuttle during the STS-81 mission as a risk mitigation experiment. A total of six ground-prepared test samples and two Mir potable water samples were analyzed in flight during the 10-day mission.
Technical Paper

Regenerable Microbial Check Valve: Life Cycle Tests Results

1992-07-01
921316
The Microbial Check Valve (MCV) is a canister containing an iodinated ion exchange resin and is used on the Shuttle Orbiter to provide microbial control of potable water. The MCV provides a significant contact kill, and imparts a biocidal iodine residual to the water. The Orbiter MCV has a design life of 30 days. For longer duration applications, such as Space Station Freedom, an extended life is desirable to avoid resupply penalties. A method of in situ MCV regeneration with elemental iodine is being developed. During regeneration water en route to the MCV first passes through a crystalline iodine bed where a concentration between 200 - 300 mg/L I2 is attained. When introduced into the MCV, this high concentration causes an equilibrium shift towards iodine loading, effecting regeneration of the resin. After regeneration normal flow is re-established. Life cycle regeneration testing is currently in progress.
Technical Paper

Regenerable Biocide Delivery Unit

1991-07-01
911406
The Microbial Check Valve (MCV) is used on the Space Shuttle to impart an iodine residual to the drinking water to maintain microbial control. Approximately twenty MCV locations have been identified in the Space Station Freedom design, each with a 90 day life. This translates to 2400 replacement units in 30 years of operation. An in situ regeneration concept has been demonstrated that will reduce this replacement requirement to less than 300 units based on data to date and potentially fewer as further regenerations are accomplished. A totally automated system will result in significant savings in crew time, resupply requirements and replacement costs. An additional feature of the device is the ability to provide a concentrated biocide source (200 mg/liter of I2) that can be used to superiodinate systems routinely or after a microbial upset. This program was accomplished under NASA Contract Number NAS9-18113.
Technical Paper

Preliminary Design of Health Care Systems for Space Exploration

1991-07-01
911369
Health of space explorers is a requisite for success of human exploration missions and, potentially, for return of explorers to Earth. Continuous, long term existence and complex, potentially hazardous tasks in space environments will challenge health of explorers. Immediate return to Earth will not be possible. Health care systems are being designed to address these concerns, starting from the requirement to maintain health of crew members throughout all mission phases, and the assumption that clinical (medical), preventive, and occupational health care will be necessary in space as on Earth. Systems for medical care, health monitoring and countermeasures, and environmental monitoring and countermeasures are being designed. Basic system definition concepts include an individual crew member, a crew surgeon, remote consultation, equipment, and work area or volume within space habitats that is dedicated for health care.
Technical Paper

Postflight Crew Health Support for U.S. Astronauts Participating in the Shuttle/Mir Program

1996-07-01
961349
A unique rehabilitation team was formed by NASA's Medical Operations Branch (MOB) at Johnson Space Center (JSC) to support the Mir-18 crew, which included the first U.S. astronaut to fly aboard the Mir Space Station. The goal of the rehabilitation team was to safely assist the crew's return to their preflight physical condition by developing and directing a specific rehabilitation program. This paper describes the development and lessons learned regarding rehabilitation of the U.S. astronaut. Since NASA plans a continuous U.S. presence in space through the construction of an International Space Station, lessons learned from this program will be used for improving the program for future returning long-duration crewmembers.
Technical Paper

Operational Psychological Issues for Mars and other Exploration Missions

1997-07-01
972290
Long duration NASA-Mir program missions, and the planned International Space Station missions, have given impetus for NASA to implement an operational program of psychological preparation, monitoring, and support for its crews. For exploration missions measured in years, the importance of psychological issues increases exponentially beyond what is currently done. Psychologists' role should begin during the vehicle design and crew selection phases. Extensive preflight preparation must focus on individual and team adaptation, and leadership. Factors such as lack of resupply options and communication delays will alter in-flight monitoring and support capabilities, and require a more self-sufficient crew. Involvement in postflight recovery will also be necessry to ensure appropriate reintegration to the family and job.
Technical Paper

Microbiology Operations and Facilities Aboard Restructured Space Station Freedom

1992-07-01
921213
With the restructure and funding changes for Space Station Freedom, the Environmental Health System (EHS)/Microbiology Subsystem revised its scheduling and operational requirements for component hardware. The function of the Microbiology Subsystem is to monitor the environmental quality of air, water, and internal surfaces and, in part, crew health on board Space Station. Its critical role shall be the identification of microbial contaminants in the environment that may cause system degradation, produce unsanitary or pathogenic conditions, or reduce crew and mission effectiveness. EHS/Microbiology operations and equipment shall be introduced in concert with a phased assembly sequence, from Man Tended Capability (MTC) through Permanently Manned Capability (PMC). Effective Microbiology operations and subsystem components will assure a safe, habitable, and useful spacecraft environment for life sciences research and long-term manned exploration.
Technical Paper

Microbiological Analysis of Water in Space

1995-07-01
951683
One of the proposed methods for monitoring the microbial quality of the water supply aboard the International Space Station is membrane filtration. We adapted this method for space flight by using an off-the-shelf filter unit developed by Millipore. This sealed unit allows liquid to be filtered through a 0.45 μm cellulose acetate filter that sits atop an absorbent pad to which growth medium is added. We combined a tetrazolium dye with R2A medium to allow microbial colonies to be seen easily, and modified the medium to remain stable over 70 weeks at 25°C. This hardware was assembled and tested in the laboratory and during parabolic flight; a modified version was then flown on STS-66. After the STS-66 mission, a back-up plastic syringe and an all-metal syringe pump were added to the kit, and the hardware was used successfully to evaluate water quality aboard the Russian Mir space station.
Technical Paper

Iodine Addition Using Triiodide Solutions

1992-07-01
921315
The STS water system is treated with iodinated water in order to prevent microbial contamination. This water is prepared by adding a concentrated solution of iodine to Ground Service Equipment (GSE) before adding the water in that unit to the spacecraft system. The solution is prepared by dissolving iodine in ethanol to make a tincture stock solution. While this procedure is rapid, the ethanol increases the carbon levels in the STS potable water and may produce unpleasant odors. The resulting high carbon levels preclude the use of total organic carbon measurements as a water quality monitoring tool. The use of triiodide solutions was studied as a substitute for using ethanol solutions. Two dissolution agents, sodium iodide and hydriodic acid, were investigated. Sodium iodide was studied at molar concentration ratios ranging from 1:1 to 2.5:1 sodium iodide to molecular iodine.
Technical Paper

In Situ Hydrogen Peroxide Generation for Use as a Disinfectant and as an Oxidant for Water Recovery by Aqueous Phase Catalytic Oxidation

1996-07-01
961521
The initial development effort is described for an electrochemical hydrogen peroxide generator and pervaporation module capable of producing and delivering hydrogen peroxide to a contaminated waste water stream as an oxidant or to a pure water stream for use as a disinfectant. A three chambered cell is used to generate hydrogen peroxide by a combined electrodialysis and electrochemical process. Each chamber is separated from its neighbor by a membrane allowing selective production of peroxide anions and hydrogen ions under controlled pH conditions followed by migration to form hydrogen peroxide. Concentrations greater than 6,500mg/L have been produced in this manner. The effects of voltage, pH, membranes, electrode materials, and method of oxygen introduction are delineated. Hydrogen peroxide is then transferred to the end-use stream by pervaporation. The impact of pH, relative flow rates, and ionic strength of sink and source solutions on pervaporation rates is detailed.
Technical Paper

GC/MS and CE Methods for the Analysis of Trace Organic Acids in Reclaimed Water Supplies

1994-06-01
941392
The objective of this study was to investigate combining GC/MS and CE methods to allow sub-mg/L levels of organic acids to be determined in various water samples. This study also served as a basis for evaluating these instruments for in-flight spacecraft water-quality monitoring and to help determine the modifications needed to convert terrestrial hardware for use in microgravity environments. This paper reports on current GC/MS and CE method development and data generated from some recent spacecraft-related water samples. Plans for further method development are also discussed.
Technical Paper

Further Characterization and Multifiltration Treatment of Shuttle Humidity Condensate

1995-07-01
951685
On the International Space Station (ISS), humidity condensate will be collected from the atmosphere and treated by multifiltration to produce potable water for use by the crews. Ground-based development tests have demonstrated that multifiltration beds filled with a series of ion-exchange resins and activated carbons can remove many inorganic and organic contaminants effectively from wastewaters. As a precursor to the use of this technology on the ISS, a demonstration of multifiltration treatment under microgravity conditions was undertaken. On the Space Shuttle, humidity condensate from cabin air is recovered in the atmosphere revitalization system, then stored and periodically vented to space vacuum. A Shuttle Condensate Adsorption Device (SCAD) containing sorbent materials similar to those planned for use on the ISS was developed and flown on STS-68 as a continuation of DSO 317, which was flown initially on STS-45 and STS-47.
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