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Thermal Anti-Icing Equipment, Wing and Empennage

2001-07-01
CURRENT
AS18607A
This specification covers the general requirements for the design, installation, and performance of thermal anti-icing equipment for the wings and empennage surfaces in aircraft.
Standard

THERMAL ANTI-ICING EQUIPMENT, WING AND EMPENNAGE

1997-08-01
HISTORICAL
AS18607
This specification covers the general requirements for the design, installation, and performance of thermal anti-icing equipment for the wings and empennage surfaces in aircraft.
Standard

Summary of Icing Simulation Test Facilities

2015-09-25
CURRENT
AIR5320A
This SAE Aerospace Information Report (AIR) contains information on most of the major icing simulation ground facilities. An effort was made to obtain data from as many facilities as possible over a two year time period. The data in this document represents the state of the facilities in calendar year 1996. Facilities are constantly changing and upgrading and, therefore, some facility specifications may change during the life of this report. Of the 27 facilities described in this report, the primary use is split with approximately half for engine testing and half for wind tunnel testing. The facilities are limited to ground facilities and, therefore, icing tankers have not been included.
Standard

Summary of Icing Simulation Test Facilities

1999-07-01
HISTORICAL
AIR5320
This SAE Aerospace Information Report (AIR) contains information on most of the major icing simulation ground facilities. An effort was made to obtain data from as many facilities as possible over a two year time period. The data in this document represents the state of the facilities in calendar year 1996. Facilities are constantly changing and upgrading and, therefore, some facility specifications may change during the life of this report. Of the 27 facilities described in this report, the primary use is split with approximately half for engine testing and half for wind tunnel testing. The facilities are limited to ground facilities and, therefore, icing tankers have not been included.
Standard

SLD capabilities of icing wind tunnels

2015-07-09
WIP
AIR6341
The purpose of this AIR is to compile in one definitive source, commonly accepted calibration, acceptance criteria and procedures for simulation of Supercooled Large Droplet (SLD) conditions within icing wind tunnels. Facilities that meet the criteria for either some or all of the recognized conditions will have known SLD icing simulation capability.
Standard

SAE Aerospace Applied Thermodynamics Manual Ice, Rain, Fog, and Frost Protection

2016-08-29
CURRENT
AIR1168/4B
This section presents the basic equations for computing ice protection requirements for nontransparent and transparent surfaces and for fog and frost protection of windshields. Simplified graphical presentations suitable for preliminary design and a description of various types of ice, fog, frost, and rain protection systems are also presented.
Standard

SAE Aerospace Applied Thermodynamics Manual Ice, Rain, Fog, and Frost Protection

2014-01-14
HISTORICAL
AIR1168/4A
This section presents the basic equations for computing ice protection requirements for nontransparent and transparent surfaces and for fog and frost protection of windshields. Simplified graphical presentations suitable for preliminary design and a description of various types of ice, fog, frost, and rain protection systems are also presented.
Standard

Rotor Blade Electrothermal Ice Protection Design Considerations

2019-06-14
WIP
AIR1667B
This SAE Aerospace Information Report (AIR) identifies and summarizes the various factors that should be considered during design, development, certification, or testing of helicopter rotor blade ice protection systems. Although various concepts of ice protection are mentioned in this report, the text is limited generally to those factors associated with design and substantiation of cyclic electrothermal ice protection systems as applicable to the protection of helicopter rotor blades. Other systems are described briefly in Appendix A. Applications consider main rotor blades, conventional tail rotor blades, and other types of antitorque devices. The information contained in this report is also limited to the identification of factors that should be considered and why the factor is important. Specific design, analysis and test methodologies are not included. For additional information refer to the references listed in 2.1.
Standard

Rotor Blade Electrothermal Ice Protection Design Considerations

2002-09-30
CURRENT
AIR1667A
This SAE Aerospace Information Report (AIR) identifies and summarizes the various factors that should be considered during design, development, certification, or testing of helicopter rotor blade ice protection systems. Although various concepts of ice protection are mentioned in this report, the text is limited generally to those factors associated with design and substantiation of cyclic electrothermal ice protection systems as applicable to the protection of helicopter rotor blades. Other systems are described briefly in Appendix A. Applications consider main rotor blades, conventional tail rotor blades, and other types of antitorque devices. The information contained in this report is also limited to the identification of factors that should be considered and why the factor is important. Specific design, analysis and test methodologies are not included. For additional information refer to the references listed in 2.1.
Standard

ROTOR BLADE ELECTROTHERMAL ICE PROTECTION DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS

1989-10-01
HISTORICAL
AIR1667
This Aerospace Information Report (AIR) identifies and summarizes the various factors that should be considered during design, development, certification, or testing of helicopter rotor blade ice protection. Although various concepts of ice protection are mentioned in this report, the text is limited generally to those factors associated with design and substantiation of cyclic electrothermal ice protection systems as applicable to the protection of helicopter rotor blades. Other systems are described briefly in Appendix A. Applications consider main rotor blades, conventional tail rotor blades, and other types of antitorque devices. The information contained in this report is also limited to the identification of factors that should be considered and why the factor is important. Specific design, analysis and test methodologies are not included. For additional information refer to the references in Section 7.
Standard

Particle Sizing Instrumentation for Icing Cloud Characterization

2016-04-19
WIP
AIR4906A
This information report provides a review of liquid drop and ice crystal particle sizing instruments used for facility based icing research and in-flight testing commonly used for aircraft certification icing envelopes. This report will provide an overview of the theory of operation of these instruments and practical considerations when using them for cloud characterization. Methods in use for data reduction (including combining output from multiple probes) as well as potential error sources are provided for information. Measurement methods from prior revisions of this AIR that are no longer commonly used (e.g. oil slides and rotating cylinders) will be retained for reference. This document does not include other icing cloud measurements such as liquid or total water contents, or measurement of other types of phenomena such as snow, sleet or hail.
Standard

Minimum Operational Performance Specification for Inflight Icing Detection Systems

2001-10-01
HISTORICAL
AS5498
The objective of this Minimum Operational Performance Specification is to specify the minimum performance of onboard inflight icing detection systems. Throughout the document, these devices are referred to as Flight Icing Detection Systems (FIDS). These systems are intended to either provide information which indicates the presence of ice accreted in flight on monitored surfaces or indicate the presence of icing conditions in the atmosphere. They may operate the airplane anti-ice/ deice systems. Detection of ice accreted on the ground is not considered in this document but can be found in ED-104. This MOPS was written for the use of FIDS on airplanes only, as defined in paragraph 1.5. Use on other aircraft may require additional considerations. Chapter 1 of this document provides information required to understand the need for the equipment characteristics and tests defined in the remaining chapters.
Standard

Icing Wind Tunnel Interfacility Comparison Tests

2012-10-03
HISTORICAL
AIR5666
This SAE Aerospace Information Report (AIR) presents and discusses the results of tests of three models in six icing wind tunnels in North America and Europe. This testing activity was initiated by the Facility Standardization Panel of the SAE AC-9C Aircraft Icing Technology Subcommittee. The objective of the testing activity was to establish a benchmark that compared ice shapes produced by icing wind tunnels available for use by the aviation industry and to use that benchmark as a basis for dialogue between facility owners to improve the state-of-the-art of icing wind tunnel technology.
Standard

Icing Wind Tunnel Interfacility Comparison Tests

2018-10-16
CURRENT
AIR5666A
This SAE Aerospace Information Report (AIR) presents and discusses the results of tests of three models in six icing wind tunnels in North America and Europe. This testing activity was initiated by the Facility Standardization Panel of the SAE AC-9C Aircraft Icing Technology Subcommittee. The objective of the testing activity was to establish a benchmark that compared ice shapes produced by icing wind tunnels available for use by the aviation industry and to use that benchmark as a basis for dialogue between facility owners to improve the state-of-the-art of icing wind tunnel technology.
Standard

Icing Tunnel Tests for Thermal Ice Protection Systems

2010-05-11
WIP
AIR6440
This document is intended to provide guidance for conducting icing tunnel tests for assessment and design of thermal anti-ice systems for wing, stabilizers and engine inlets (considering both hot air and electrical power as a heat source).
Standard

Icing Technology Bibliography

2013-03-15
CURRENT
AIR4015D
This Icing Technology Bibliography is a compendium of references from the open literature that were published prior to the original 1987 issuance of the AIR, including both national and foreign sources. Due to the generality of the subject, and the difficulty of fully investigating every available source, the Bibliography in this document is not intended to be complete.
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