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Standard

Summary of Icing Simulation Test Facilities

2015-09-25
CURRENT
AIR5320A
This SAE Aerospace Information Report (AIR) contains information on most of the major icing simulation ground facilities. An effort was made to obtain data from as many facilities as possible over a two year time period. The data in this document represents the state of the facilities in calendar year 1996. Facilities are constantly changing and upgrading and, therefore, some facility specifications may change during the life of this report. Of the 27 facilities described in this report, the primary use is split with approximately half for engine testing and half for wind tunnel testing. The facilities are limited to ground facilities and, therefore, icing tankers have not been included.
Standard

Summary of Icing Simulation Test Facilities

1999-07-01
HISTORICAL
AIR5320
This SAE Aerospace Information Report (AIR) contains information on most of the major icing simulation ground facilities. An effort was made to obtain data from as many facilities as possible over a two year time period. The data in this document represents the state of the facilities in calendar year 1996. Facilities are constantly changing and upgrading and, therefore, some facility specifications may change during the life of this report. Of the 27 facilities described in this report, the primary use is split with approximately half for engine testing and half for wind tunnel testing. The facilities are limited to ground facilities and, therefore, icing tankers have not been included.
Standard

SLD capabilities of icing wind tunnels

2015-07-09
WIP
AIR6341
The purpose of this AIR is to compile in one definitive source, commonly accepted calibration, acceptance criteria and procedures for simulation of Supercooled Large Droplet (SLD) conditions within icing wind tunnels. Facilities that meet the criteria for either some or all of the recognized conditions will have known SLD icing simulation capability.
Standard

Rotor Blade Electrothermal Ice Protection Design Considerations

2019-06-14
WIP
AIR1667B
This SAE Aerospace Information Report (AIR) identifies and summarizes the various factors that should be considered during design, development, certification, or testing of helicopter rotor blade ice protection systems. Although various concepts of ice protection are mentioned in this report, the text is limited generally to those factors associated with design and substantiation of cyclic electrothermal ice protection systems as applicable to the protection of helicopter rotor blades. Other systems are described briefly in Appendix A. Applications consider main rotor blades, conventional tail rotor blades, and other types of antitorque devices. The information contained in this report is also limited to the identification of factors that should be considered and why the factor is important. Specific design, analysis and test methodologies are not included. For additional information refer to the references listed in 2.1.
Standard

Rotor Blade Electrothermal Ice Protection Design Considerations

2002-09-30
CURRENT
AIR1667A
This SAE Aerospace Information Report (AIR) identifies and summarizes the various factors that should be considered during design, development, certification, or testing of helicopter rotor blade ice protection systems. Although various concepts of ice protection are mentioned in this report, the text is limited generally to those factors associated with design and substantiation of cyclic electrothermal ice protection systems as applicable to the protection of helicopter rotor blades. Other systems are described briefly in Appendix A. Applications consider main rotor blades, conventional tail rotor blades, and other types of antitorque devices. The information contained in this report is also limited to the identification of factors that should be considered and why the factor is important. Specific design, analysis and test methodologies are not included. For additional information refer to the references listed in 2.1.
Standard

ROTOR BLADE ELECTROTHERMAL ICE PROTECTION DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS

1989-10-01
HISTORICAL
AIR1667
This Aerospace Information Report (AIR) identifies and summarizes the various factors that should be considered during design, development, certification, or testing of helicopter rotor blade ice protection. Although various concepts of ice protection are mentioned in this report, the text is limited generally to those factors associated with design and substantiation of cyclic electrothermal ice protection systems as applicable to the protection of helicopter rotor blades. Other systems are described briefly in Appendix A. Applications consider main rotor blades, conventional tail rotor blades, and other types of antitorque devices. The information contained in this report is also limited to the identification of factors that should be considered and why the factor is important. Specific design, analysis and test methodologies are not included. For additional information refer to the references in Section 7.
Standard

Icing Wind Tunnel Interfacility Comparison Tests

2012-10-03
HISTORICAL
AIR5666
This SAE Aerospace Information Report (AIR) presents and discusses the results of tests of three models in six icing wind tunnels in North America and Europe. This testing activity was initiated by the Facility Standardization Panel of the SAE AC-9C Aircraft Icing Technology Subcommittee. The objective of the testing activity was to establish a benchmark that compared ice shapes produced by icing wind tunnels available for use by the aviation industry and to use that benchmark as a basis for dialogue between facility owners to improve the state-of-the-art of icing wind tunnel technology.
Standard

Icing Wind Tunnel Interfacility Comparison Tests

2018-10-16
CURRENT
AIR5666A
This SAE Aerospace Information Report (AIR) presents and discusses the results of tests of three models in six icing wind tunnels in North America and Europe. This testing activity was initiated by the Facility Standardization Panel of the SAE AC-9C Aircraft Icing Technology Subcommittee. The objective of the testing activity was to establish a benchmark that compared ice shapes produced by icing wind tunnels available for use by the aviation industry and to use that benchmark as a basis for dialogue between facility owners to improve the state-of-the-art of icing wind tunnel technology.
Standard

Ice and Rain Minimum Qualification Standards for Pitot and Pitot-static Probes

2015-08-07
CURRENT
AS5562
This SAE Aerospace Standard (AS) establishes minimum ice and rain performance criteria for electrically-heated pitot and pitot-static probes intended for use on the following classes of fixed-wing aircraft and rotorcraft. The classes of fixed-wing aircraft are defined by aircraft flight envelopes and are shown in Figure 1. The flight envelopes generally fall into the classes as shown below: The user of this standard must evaluate the aircraft level installation requirements for the probe against the class definition criteria to ensure adequate coverage for the application. It may be necessary to step up in class or modify the test conditions in order to meet the applicable installation requirements. NOTE: Class 2 is divided into two subgroups identified as either Class 2a or Class 2b. Class 2a probe applications typically include aircraft that operate within the mid to lower end of the Class 2 altitude range and that only use probe output to display basic airspeed and/or altitude.
Standard

Ice Protection for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles

2017-09-22
WIP
AIR6962
A review of icing materials that would be educational to a designer of a UAV ice protection system is provided. Additionally, the differences between unmanned and manned ice protection systems are explored along with a discussion on how these differences can be addressed.
Standard

Ice Crystal and Mixed Phase Icing Tunnel Testing of Air Data Probes

2018-04-16
WIP
AIR6974
This document provides information on current practices for testing air data probes to 14 CFR Part 33 Appendix D ice crystal and mixed phase icing conditions. This AIR is primarily concerned with techniques for measuring the flow and icing environment in the test facility. While the focus of this report is the testing of air data probes, techniques described may be applicable to Appendix D tests of other aerospace equipment as well.
Standard

Guidance on Selecting a Ground-based Icing Simulation Facility

2013-04-24
WIP
AIR6247
This document is intended to serve two purposes: (1) provide a list of topics for potential customers to ask of the facility to aid their selection decision-making, and (2) provide a list of icing wind tunnel and engine test stand facilities that simulate flight through icing or ice crystal clouds.
Standard

Droplet Sizing Instrumentation Used in Icing Facilities

1995-03-01
CURRENT
AIR4906
A review of droplet sizing instruments used for icing research is presented. These instruments include the Forward Scattering Spectrometer Probe, the Optical Array Probe, the Phase Doppler Particle Analyzer, the Malvern Particle Size Analyzer, the oil slide technique, and the rotating multicylinder. The report focuses on the theory of operation of these instruments and practical considerations when using them in icing facilities.
Standard

Characterizations of Aircraft Icing Conditions

2001-03-01
HISTORICAL
AIR5396
This SAE Aerospace Information Report (AIR) provides various graphical displays of atmospheric variables related to aircraft icing conditions in natural clouds. It is intended as a review of recent developments on the subject, and for stimulating thought on novel ways to arrange and use the available data. Included in this Report is FAR 25 (JAR 25) Appendix C, the established Aircraft Icing Atmospheric Characterization used for engineering design, development, testing and certification of civilian aircraft to fly in aircraft icing conditions.
Standard

Characterizations of Aircraft Icing Conditions

2015-08-24
CURRENT
AIR5396A
This SAE Aerospace Information Report (AIR) provides various graphical displays of atmospheric variables related to aircraft icing conditions in natural clouds. It is intended as a review of recent developments on the subject, and for stimulating thought on novel ways to arrange and use the available data. Included in this Report is FAR 25 (JAR 25) Appendix C, the established Aircraft Icing Atmospheric Characterization used for engineering design, development, testing and certification of civilian aircraft to fly in aircraft icing conditions.
Standard

Calibration and Acceptance of Icing Wind Tunnels

2003-09-18
CURRENT
ARP5905
This SAE Aerospace Recommended Practice (ARP) document provides recommended practices for the calibration and acceptance of icing wind tunnels to be used in testing of aircraft components and systems and for the development of simulated ice shapes. This document is not applicable to air-breathing propulsion test facilities configured for the purposes of engine icing tests. Use of facilities as part of an aircraft’s ice protection Certification Plan should be reviewed and accepted by the applicable regulatory agency prior to testing. Following acceptance of a test plan, data generated in these facilities may be submitted to regulatory agencies for use in the certification of aircraft ice protection systems and components. Certain types of tests may be appropriate in facilities with capabilities that are not as rigorously characterized as by the practices defined herein, and the acceptability of these tests should be coordinated with the applicable regulatory agency.
Standard

Aircraft Inflight Ice Detectors and Icing Rate Measuring Instruments

2018-06-11
WIP
AIR4367B
This document provides information regarding ice detector technology, design and operating requirements. The SAE document AS5498 provides detailed information regarding the requirements, specifications, qualification, and certification of icing detection systems. This document is not meant to replace AS5498 but to enhance it by considering unique aspects of sensing technology and in particular those that may not be certificated at the time of this revision. To that end an effort has been made not to duplicate information contained in AS5498. Icing rate information is included where applicable. The primary application is associated with ice forming on the leading edges of airfoils and inlets while the aircraft is in flight. Information related to detection of ice over cold fuel tanks and icing at low velocity operation is included. The material is primarily applicable to fixed-wing aircraft. Unique requirements for engine inlets and rotorcraft are also provided.
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