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Standard

The Preparation and Use of Chromel-Alumel Thermocouples for Aircraft Gas Turbine Engines

1956-03-01
HISTORICAL
AIR46
This SAE Aerospace Information Report (AIR) reviews the precautions which must be taken and the corrections which must be evaluated and applied if the experimental error in measuring the temperature of a hot gas stream with a thermocouple is to be kept to a practicable minimum. Discussions will focus on Type K thermocouples. These are defined in NBS Monograph 125 as nickel-chromium alloy versus nickel-aluminum alloy thermocouples.
Standard

Temperature Measuring Devices Nomenclature

1996-06-01
CURRENT
ARP485A
This SAE Aerospace Recommended Practice (ARP) defines the nomenclature of temperature measuring devices. General temperature measurement related terms are defined first, followed by nomenclature specific to temperature measuring devices, particularly thermocouples.
Standard

Software Interfaces for Ground-Based Monitoring Systems

2001-09-01
HISTORICAL
AS4831
To establish a specification for software input and output interfaces for condition monitoring and performance programs used to monitor equipment from multiple manufacturers. The purpose of standardizing these interfaces is to improve operational flexibility and efficiency of monitoring systems as an aid to cost effectiveness (e.g., easier implementation).
Standard

Lessons Learned from Developing, Implementing, and Operating a Health Management System for Propulsion and Drive Train Systems

2011-01-03
CURRENT
AIR1871C
SAE Aerospace Information Report AIR1871 provides valuable insight into lessons learned in the development, implementation, and operation of various health monitoring systems for propulsion engines and drive train systems. This document provides an overview of the lessons learned for ground-based systems, oil debris monitoring systems, lubrication systems, and Health and Usage Monitoring Systems (HUMS) for military and commercial programs. For each case study, this document presents a brief technical description, the design requirements, accomplishments, lessons learned, and future recommendations. The lessons learned presented in this document represent a fragment of the knowledge gained through experience when developing and implementing a propulsion health management system. Previous versions of this document contain additional lessons learned during the 1980’s and 1990’s that may be of additional value to the reader.
Standard

Guidelines for Integration of Engine Monitoring Functions With On-Board Aircraft Systems

1996-06-01
HISTORICAL
AIR4061A
This SAE Aerospace Information Report (AIR) discusses physical and functional integration of main engine and auxiliary power unit (APU) monitoring with other on-board systems. It includes General Considerations, Parameter Selection and Requirements, Signal Sources, Signal Conditioning, Data Processing, Data Storage, and Data Retrieval. Engine monitoring hardware and software are discussed so that they may be properly considered in an integrated design. Civil and military aviation applications are included and delineated where requirements differ.
Standard

Guidelines for Integrating Typical Engine Health Management Functions Within Aircraft Systems

2016-11-12
CURRENT
AIR4061C
SAE Aerospace Information Report (AIR) 4061 provides best practice guidelines for the integration of Engine Health Management (EHM) system functions within aircraft systems to include both its main engine(s) and any Auxiliary Power Unit(s) (APU). This document provides an overview of some of the functions EHM typically integrates, offers some system variations encountered with different aircraft, and suggests general considerations involved with integration. It presents a sample EHM parameter coverage matrix to show the types of parameters with which a typical EHM system might interface, offers insight into signal and data processing and retrieval, and offers a view of typical EHM parameter requirements by function. Where practical, this document delineates between military and commercial practices.
Standard

Guide to Limited Engine Monitoring Systems for Aircraft Gas Turbine Engines

2016-11-29
CURRENT
AIR1873A
This Aerospace Information Report (AIR) describes a Limited Engine Monitoring System that can be used by the flight crew or the maintenance staff, or both, to monitor the health of gas turbine engines in aircraft. This AIR considers monitoring of gas path performance and mechanical parameters, and systems such as low cycle fatigue counters and engine history recorders. It also considers typical measurement system accuracies and their impact. This AIR is intended as a technical guide. It is not intended to be used as a legal document or standard. AIR 1873 supplements ARP 1587, Aircraft Gas Turbine Engine Monitoring System Guide.
Standard

Guide to Life Usage Monitoring and Parts Management for Aircraft Gas Turbine Engines

1998-05-01
HISTORICAL
AIR1872A
The effectiveness of Engine Life Usage Monitoring and Parts Management systems is largely determined by the aircraft-specific requirements. This document addresses the following areas: a Safety b Life-limiting criteria c Life usage algorithm development d Data acquisition and management e Parts life tracking f Design feedback g Cost effectiveness It primarily examines the requirements and techniques currently in use, and considers the potential impact of new technology to the following areas: a Parts classification and control requirements b Failure causes of life-limited parts c Engine life prediction and usage measurement techniques d Method validation e Parts life usage data management f Lessons learned g Life usage tracking benefits
Standard

Guide to Life Usage Monitoring and Parts Management for Aircraft Gas Turbine Engines

2011-09-29
CURRENT
AIR1872B
The effectiveness of Engine Life Usage Monitoring and Parts Management systems is largely determined by the aircraft-specific requirements. This document addresses the following areas: safety, life-limiting criteria, life usage algorithm development, data acquisition and management, parts life tracking, design feedback, and cost effectiveness. It primarily examines the requirements and techniques currently in use, and considers the potential impact of new technolog to the following areas: parts classification and control requirements, failure causes of life-limited parts, engine life prediction and usage measurement techniques, method validation, parts life usage data management, lessons learned, and life usage tracking benefits. SAE ARP1587 provides general guidance on the design consideration and objectives of monitoring systems for aircraft gas turbine engines.
Standard

Guide to Engine Lubrication System Monitoring

2005-06-27
HISTORICAL
AIR1828B
The purpose of this SAE Aerospace Information Report (AIR) is to provide information and guidance for the selection and use of lubrication system monitoring methods. This AIR is intended to be used as a technical guide. It is not intended to be used as a legal document or standard. The scope of this document is limited to those inspection and analysis methods and devices that can be considered appropriate for routine maintenance.
Standard

Guide to Engine Lubrication System Monitoring

2018-04-10
CURRENT
AIR1828C
This SAE Aerospace Information Report (AIR) provides information and guidance for the selection and use of technologies and methods for lubrication system monitoring of gas turbine aircraft engines. This AIR describes technologies and methods covering oil system performance monitoring, oil debris monitoring, and oil condition monitoring. Both on-aircraft and off-aircraft applications are presented. A higher-level view of lubrication system monitoring as part of an overall engine monitoring system (EMS), is discussed in ARP1587. The scope of this document is limited to those lubrication system monitoring, inspection and analysis methods and devices that can be considered appropriate for health monitoring and routine maintenance. This AIR is intended to be used as a technical guide. It is not intended to be used as a legal document or standard.
Standard

GUIDELINES FOR INTEGRATION OF ENGINE MONITORING FUNCTIONS WITH ON-BOARD AIRCRAFT SYSTEMS

1990-01-01
HISTORICAL
AIR4061
This Aerospace Information Report (AIR) discusses physical and functional integration of main engine and auxiliary power unit (APU) monitoring with other on-board systems. It includes General Considerations, Parameter Selection and Requirements, Signal Sources, Signal Conditioning, Data Processing, Data Storage, and Data Retrieval. Engine monitoring hardware and software are discussed so that they may be properly considered in an integrated design. Civil and military aviation applications are included and delineated where requirements differ.
Standard

GUIDE TO OIL SYSTEM MONITORING IN AIRCRAFT GAS TURBINE ENGINES

1984-03-01
HISTORICAL
AIR1828
The purpose of this Aerospace Information Report (AIR) is to provide information and guidance for the selection and use of oil system monitoring devices and methods. This AIR is intended to be used as a technical guide. It is not intended to be used as a legal document or standard. The scope of this document is limited to those inspection and analysis methods and devices which can be considered appropriate for routine maintenance. In agreement with industry usage, wear particle size ranges are given in μm (1 μm = 10-3 millimeter = 10-6 meter). Other dimensions are given in millimeters, with inches in parenthesis.
Standard

GUIDE TO LIFE USAGE MONITORING AND PARTS MANAGEMENT FOR AIRCRAFT GAS TURBINE ENGINES

1988-02-29
HISTORICAL
AIR1872
The effectiveness of Engine Life Usage Monitoring and Parts Management systems is largely determined by the aircraft-specific requirements. This AIR addresses the following areas: a Safety. b Life-limiting criteria. c Life usage algorithm development. d Data acquisition and management. e Parts life tracking. f Design feedback. g Cost effectiveness. This AIR primarily examines the requirements and techniques currently in use, including: a Parts classification and control requirements. b Failure causes of life-limited parts. c Engine life prediction and usage measurement techniques. d Method validation. e Parts life usage data management. f Lessons learned. g Life usage tracking benefits.
Standard

GUIDE TO ENGINE OIL SYSTEM MONITORING

1992-01-22
HISTORICAL
AIR1828A
The purpose of this SAE Aerospace Information Report (AIR) is to provide information and guidance for the selection and use of oil system monitoring devices and methods. This AIR is intended to be used as a technical guide. It is not intended to be used as a legal document or standard. The scope of this document is limited to those inspection and analysis methods and devices that can be considered appropriate for routine maintenance. In agreement with industry usage, wear particle size ranges are given in micrometers (1 μm = 10-3 mm = 10-6 m).
Standard

Determination of Costs and Benefits from Implementing an Engine Health Management System

2013-02-05
HISTORICAL
ARP4176
This ARP provides an insight into how to approach a cost benefit analysis (CBA) to determine the return on investment (ROI) that would result from implementing a propulsion Prognostics and Health Management (PHM) system on an air vehicle. It describes the complexity of features that can be considered in the analysis, the different tools and approaches for conducting a CBA and differentiates between military and commercial applications. This document is intended to help those who might not necessarily have a deep technical understanding or familiarity with PHM systems but want to either quantify or understand the economic benefits (i.e., the value proposition) that a PHM system could provide.
Standard

Determination of Costs and Benefits from Implementing an Engine Health Management System

2020-04-28
CURRENT
ARP4176A
This ARP provides an insight into how to approach a cost benefit analysis (CBA) to determine the return on investment (ROI) that would result from implementing a propulsion Prognostics and Health Management (PHM) system on an air vehicle. It describes the complexity of features that can be considered in the analysis, the different tools and approaches for conducting a CBA and differentiates between military and commercial applications. This document is intended to help those who might not necessarily have a deep technical understanding or familiarity with PHM systems but want to either quantify or understand the economic benefits (i.e., the value proposition) that a PHM system could provide.
Standard

Cost Versus Benefits of Engine Monitoring Systems

1995-10-01
HISTORICAL
AIR4176
The purpose of this SAE Aerospace Information Report (AIR) is to provide information that would be useful to potential users/operators and decision makers for evaluating and quantifying the benefits of an Engine Monitoring Systems (EMS) versus its cost of implementation. This document presents excerpts from reports developed to analyze “actual aircraft cost/benefits results”. These are presented as follows: a First, to outline the benefits and cost elements pertaining to EMS that may be used in performing a cost versus benefits analysis. b Second, to present considerations for use in conducting the analysis. c Third, to provide examples of analyses and results as they relate to the user/operator and decision-maker community. The document encompasses helicopters and fixed wing aircraft and distinguishes between civilian and military considerations.
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