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Technical Paper

Validation Studies of the GRNTRN Code for Radiation Transport

2007-07-09
2007-01-3118
To meet the challenge of future deep space programs an accurate and efficient engineering code for analyzing the shielding requirements against high-energy galactic heavy radiations is needed. Such engineering design codes require establishing validation processes using laboratory ion beams and space flight measurements in realistic geometries. In consequence, a new version of the HZETRN code capable of simulating HZE ions with either laboratory or space boundary conditions is currently under development. The new code, GRNTRN, is based on a Green's function approach to the solution of Boltzmann's transport equation and like its predecessor is deterministic in nature. Code validation in the laboratory environment is addressed by showing that GRNTRN accurately predicts energy loss spectra as measured by solid-state detectors in ion beam experiments.
Technical Paper

Towards a 3D Space Radiation Transport Code

2002-07-15
2002-01-2333
High-speed computational procedures for space radiation shielding have relied on asymptotic expansions in terms of the off-axis scatter and replacement of the general geometry problem by a collection of flat plates. This type of solution was derived for application to human rated systems in which the radius of the shielded volume is large compared to the off-axis diffusion limiting leakage at lateral boundaries. Over the decades these computational codes are relatively complete and lateral diffusion effects are now being added. The analysis for developing a practical full 3D space shielding code is presented.
Technical Paper

Test Results of Improved Spacesuit Shielding Components

2003-07-07
2003-01-2330
Prior studies have been performed where basic fabric lay-ups of the current Shuttle spacesuit were tested for radiation shielding capabilities. It was found that the fabric portions of the suit give far less protection from radiation than previously estimated. This is due to the porosity and non-uniformity of the fabrics and LCVG components. These findings were incorporated into the spacesuit model developed at NASA Langley Research Center to estimate exposures for mission planning and evaluation of safety during radiation field disturbance. Overall material transmission properties were also less than optimal. In order to evaluate the radiation protection characteristics of some proposed new spacesuit materials, fifteen test target combinations of current baseline and new proposed spacesuit materials were exposed to a low-energy proton beam at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. Each target combination contained all of the necessary spacesuit layers, i.e.
Technical Paper

Steps Toward Developing a Multi-layer Green’s Function Code for Ion Beam Transport

2006-07-17
2006-01-2148
Recently, a new Green’s function code (GRNTRN) for simulation of HZE ion beams in the laboratory setting has been developed. Once fully developed and experimentally verified, GRNTRN will be a great asset in assessing radiation exposures in both the laboratory and space settings. The computational model consists of combinations of physical perturbation expansions based on the scales of atomic interaction, multiple elastic scattering, and nuclear reactive processes with use of Neumann-series expansions with non-perturbative corrections. The code contains energy loss with straggling, nuclear attenuation, nuclear fragmentation with energy dispersion and down shifts. Previous reports show that the new code accurately models the transport of ion beams through a single slab of material. Current research efforts are focused on enabling the code to handle multiple layers of material and the present paper reports on progress made towards that end.
Technical Paper

Standardized Radiation Shield Design Method: 2005 HZETRN

2006-07-17
2006-01-2109
Research committed by the Langley Research Center through 1995 resulting in the HZETRN code provides the current basis for shield design methods according to NASA STD-3000 (2005). With this new prominence, the database, basic numerical procedures, and algorithms are being re-examined with new methods of verification and validation being implemented to capture a well defined algorithm for engineering design processes to be used in this early development phase of the Bush initiative. This process provides the methodology to transform the 1995 HZETRN research code into the 2005 HZETRN engineering code to be available for these early design processes. In this paper, we will review the basic derivations including new corrections to the codes to insure improved numerical stability and provide benchmarks for code verification.
Technical Paper

Spacesuit Radiation Shield Design Methods

2006-07-17
2006-01-2110
Meeting radiation protection requirements during EVA is predominantly an operational issue with some potential considerations for temporary shelter. The issue of spacesuit shielding is mainly guided by the potential of accidental exposure when operational and temporary shelter considerations fail to maintain exposures within operational limits. In this case, very high exposure levels are possible which could result in observable health effects and even be life threatening. Under these assumptions, potential spacesuit radiation exposures have been studied using known historical solar particle events to gain insight on the usefulness of modification of spacesuit design in which the control of skin exposure is a critical design issue and reduction of blood forming organ exposure is desirable.
Technical Paper

Some New Results in the Green’s Function Method for Ion Beam Transport

2004-07-19
2004-01-2322
The development of a Green’s function approach to ion transport greatly facilitates the modeling of laboratory radiation environments and allows for the direct testing of transport approximations of material transmission properties. Using this approach radiation investigators at the NASA Langley Research Center have established that simple solutions can be found for HZE ions by ignoring nuclear energy downshifts and dispersion. Such solutions were found to be supported by experimental evidence with HZE ion beams when multiple scattering was added. Lacking from the prior solutions were range and energy straggling and energy downshift and dispersion associated with nuclear events. In a more recent publication it was shown how these effects can be incorporated into the multiple fragmentation perturbation series. Analytical approximations for the first two perturbation terms were presented and the third term was evaluated numerically.
Technical Paper

Solutions to the Low Energy Neutron Boltzmann Equation for Space Applications

2003-07-07
2003-01-2351
One goal of space radiation research is to reduce the computational time and increase the accuracy of various radiation calculations to aid in their use in a collaborative engineering environment. For example, a fast turn around time is a feature needed for comparison of radiation shielding effects associated with various design configurations of the International Space Station. Research toward this effort has been conducted on various forms of the low energy neutron Boltzmann equation. Simplified models involving the straight ahead approximation, which have fast computational speeds, have been developed at NASA Langley Research Center during the late 1980's as part of a larger high energy ion transport code. Various modifications to improve the accuracy of these computer codes have been an ongoing project. The goal to increase the accuracy of low energy neutron transport without effecting the fast computational times has been a successful ongoing research effort.
Technical Paper

Shuttle Spacesuit: Fabric/LCVG Model Validation

2001-07-09
2001-01-2372
A detailed spacesuit computational model is being developed at the Langley Research Center for radiation exposure evaluation studies. The details of the construction of the spacesuit are critical to estimation of exposures and assessing the risk to the astronaut on EVA. Past evaluations of spacesuit shielding properties assumed the basic fabric lay-up (Thermal Micrometeroid Garment, fabric restraints, and pressure envelope) and Liquid Cooling and Ventilation Garment (LCVG) could be homogenized as a single layer overestimating the protective properties over 60 percent of the fabric area. The present spacesuit model represents the inhomogeneous distributions of LCVG materials (mainly the water filled cooling tubes). An experimental test is performed using a 34-MeV proton beam and high-resolution detectors to compare with model-predicted transmission factors. Some suggestions are made on possible improved construction methods to improve the spacesuit’s protection properties.
Technical Paper

Shuttle Induced Neutron Environment: Computational Requirements and Validation

2002-07-15
2002-01-2460
Most of the neutrons seen in the habitable environment of spacecraft in LEO are produced in local materials of the spacecraft structures by the impact of the LEO radiation environment. There are two components of the neutron spectra: one produced near the forward direction and a diffuse isotropic component. The forward component satisfies a Volterra equation and is solved by standard marching procedures. The diffuse component is generally of lower energy and nearly isotropically scattered as they diffuse through the spacecraft structures. Leakage at near boundaries marks the diffusion process and solutions are strongly dependent on forward and backward boundaries with minor contributions from lateral diffusion along spacecraft wall structures. The diffuse neutron equation is solved using multigroup methods with impressed forward and backward boundary conditions.
Technical Paper

Shielding Transmission Validation with Solid State Detectors

2003-07-07
2003-01-2331
As shielding materials are developed for protection against the hazards of galactic cosmic rays, it is desirable to develop a protocol for rapid assessment of shielding properties. Solid state energy loss detectors are often used to estimate the charge and energy of particles in ion beam experiments. The direct measurement is energy deposited in the detector. As a means of separating the charge components in typical shield transmission studies with observation, a stack of many such detectors is used. With high-energy beams and thin targets, surviving primaries and fragments emerging from the target have nearly-equal velocities and deposited energy scales with the square of the charge, simplifying the data analysis. The development of a transport model for the shield and detector arrangement and evaluation of prediction of the energy loss spectrum for direct comparison with the experimentally derived data allows a rapid assessment of the shield transmission characteristics.
Technical Paper

Shield Optimization in Simple Geometry for the Gateway Concept

2002-07-15
2002-01-2332
The great cost of added radiation shielding is a potential limiting factor in many deep space missions. For this enabling technology, we are developing tools for optimized shield design over multi-segmented missions involving multiple work and living areas in the transport and duty phase of various space missions. The total shield mass over all pieces of equipment and habitats is optimized subject to career dose and dose rate constraints. Preliminary studies of deep space missions indicate that for long duration space missions, improved shield materials will be required. The details of this new method and its impact on space missions and other technologies will be discussed. This study will provide a vital tool for evaluating Gateway designs in their usage context. Providing protection against the hazards of space radiation is one of the challenges to the Gateway infrastructure designs.
Technical Paper

Risk Assessment and Shielding Design for Long-Term Exposure to Ionizing Space Radiation

2006-07-17
2006-01-2108
NASA is now focused on the agency's vision for space exploration encompassing a broad range of human and robotic missions including missions to Moon, Mars and beyond. As a result, there is a focus on long duration space missions. NASA is committed to the safety of the missions and the crew, and there is an overwhelming emphasis on the reliability issues for space missions and the habitat. The cost effective design of the spacecraft demands a very stringent requirement on the optimization process. Exposure from the hazards of severe space radiation in deep space and/or long duration missions is ‘the show stopper.’ Thus, protection from the hazards of severe space radiation is of paramount importance to the new vision. It is envisioned to have long duration human presence on the Moon for deep space exploration. As NASA is looking forward to exploration in deep space, there is a need to go beyond current technology to the technology of the future.
Technical Paper

Radiation Shielding Issues in Highly Inclined Low Earth Orbits

1996-07-01
961581
The highly inclined orbit of the International Space Station Alpha exhibits significant radiation exposure contributions from the galactic cosmic rays penetrating the earth's magnetic field. In the absence of an accepted method for estimating the corresponding astronaut risk, we examined the attenuation characteristics using conventional LET dependent quality factors (as one means of representing RBE) and a track-structure repair model fit to cell transformation (and inactivation) data in the C3H10T1/2 mouse cell system obtained by T. C. Yang and coworkers for various ion beams. Although the usual aluminum spacecraft shield is effective in reducing dose equivalent with increasing shield thickness, cell transformation rates are increased for thin aluminum shields providing increased risk rather than protection to large shield thickness.
Technical Paper

Radiation Protection Effectiveness of a Proposed Magnetic Shielding Concept for Manned Mars Missions

1990-07-01
901343
The effectiveness of a proposed concept for shielding a manned Mars vehicle using a confined magnetic field configuration is evaluated by computing estimated crew radiation exposures resulting from galactic cosmic rays and a large solar flare event. In the study the incident radiation spectra are transported through the spacecraft structure/magnetic shield using the deterministic space radiation transport computer codes developed at Langley Research Center. The calculated exposures unequivocally demonstrate that magnetic shielding could provide an effective barrier against solar flare protons but is virtually transparent to the more energetic galactic cosmic rays. It is then demonstrated that through proper selection of materials and shield configuration, adequate and reliable bulk material shielding can be provided for the same total mass as needed to generate and support the more risky magnetic field configuration.
Technical Paper

Neutrons in Space: Shield Models and Design Issues

2000-07-10
2000-01-2414
The normal working and living areas of the astronaut are designed to provide an acceptable level of protection against the hazards of ionizing space radiation. Attempts to reduce the exposures require intervening shield materials to reduce the transmitted radiation. An unwelcome side effect of the shielding is the production of neutrons, which are themselves dangerous particles that can be (but are not always) more hazardous than the particles that produced them. This is especially true depending on the choice of shield materials. Although neutrons are not a normal part of the space environment, they can be a principle component of astronaut exposure in the massive spacecraft's required for human space travel and habitation near planetary surfaces or other large bodies of material in space.
Technical Paper

Neutron Environment Calculations for Low Earth Orbit

2001-07-09
2001-01-2327
The long term exposure of astronauts on the developing International Space Station (ISS) requires an accurate knowledge of the internal exposure environment for human risk assessment and other onboard processes. The natural environment is moderated by the solar wind, which varies over the solar cycle. The HZETRN high charge and energy transport code developed at NASA Langley Research Center can be used to evaluate the neutron environment on ISS. A time dependent model for the ambient environment in low earth orbit is used. This model includes GCR radiation moderated by the Earth’s magnetic field, trapped protons, and a recently completed model of the albedo neutron environment formed through the interaction of galactic cosmic rays with the Earth’s atmosphere. Using this code, the neutron environments for space shuttle missions were calculated and comparisons were made to measurements by the Johnson Space Center with onboard detectors.
Technical Paper

Modeling of the Shuttle Tissue-Equivalent Proportional Counters Using Computer Automated Design Techniques and Radial Frequency Distributions

2001-07-09
2001-01-2371
A higher fidelity shield model and response model have been developed for the Shuttle TEPC. The shield model was built using a CAD package in conjunction with a ray tracer. The response model considers the spatial restriction on the mean-energy imparted and the variance for direct particle effects and combines the radial distribution of the electron energy and flux about incoming ions with the distribution of electron frequencies from Monte Carlo simulations. The latter model accounts for secondary electrons entering the sensitive area of the TEPC. The new models are compared against measurements of a variety of shielding depths of aluminum and polyethylene that were acquired on the Shuttle during STS-81 and STS-89. Good agreement is obtained between the models and the measurements for trapped proton effects.
Technical Paper

Ionizing Radiation: Multifunctionality and MDO Processes

2002-07-15
2002-01-2334
Traditionally radiation protection is left for evaluation after the completion of other engineering design processes followed by design changes to improve protection leading to off-optimum solutions of design problems. This project is a first attempt to develop optimization procedures with radiation constraint components from the beginning of the design process allowing performance optimization at reduced costs. The traditional limitation of radiation constraint analysis has been the slow computation time and the main focus thus far has been to apply high-performance computing to shielding analysis in preparation for MDO processes. We will describe the problem formulation, the framework for optimization, and progress towards developing highspeed computational procedures.
Technical Paper

International Space Station Radiation Shielding Model Development

2001-07-09
2001-01-2370
The projected radiation levels within the International Space Station (ISS) have been criticized by the Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel in their report to the NASA Administrator. Methods for optimal reconfiguration and augmentation of the ISS shielding are now being developed. The initial steps are to develop reconfigurable and realistic radiation shield models of the ISS modules, develop computational procedures for the highly anisotropic radiation environment, and implement parametric and organizational optimization procedures. The targets of the redesign process are the crew quarters where the astronauts sleep and determining the effects of ISS shadow shielding of an astronaut in a spacesuit. The ISS model as developed will be reconfigurable to follow the ISS. Swapping internal equipment rack assemblies via location mapping tables will be one option for shield optimization.
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