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Technical Paper

“Melmoth”-An Experimental Private Aircraft

1975-02-01
750546
“Melmoth,” an amateur-designed and built light airplane, has a number of features unusual in general aviation aircraft, aiming to combine comfort, high cruising speed, aerobatic capability and transoceanic range in a single compact machine. Among these are high wing loading, large internal fuel capacity, variable aileron incidence, double-slotted Fowler flap, automatic fuel tank switching, internal cowl flaps, and an all-flying T-tail.
Technical Paper

‘Bigelow Aerospace® Life Support Laboratory - Planning and Status’

2004-07-19
2004-01-2474
This Life Support Laboratory consists of a simulator of the spacecraft called Nautilus, which houses Air Revitalization Subsystem, Atmospheric Control and Supply, and Fire Detection and Suppression in the Equipment Area. There are supporting facilities including a Human Metabolic Simulator, simulated Low and Moderate Temperature Coolant Loop, chemical analysis bench, purified water supply, vacuum and gas supplies. These facilities are scheduled to be completed and start to operate for demonstration purposes by March 2005. There are an ARES Ground Model (AGM) and a Trace Contaminant Control Assembly in the ARS. The latter will be integrated with the AGM and a Condensing Heat Exchanger. The unit of AGM is being engineered, built, and will be delivered in early 2005 by EADS Space Division. These assemblies will be operated for sensitivity analysis, integration and optimization studies. The main goal is the achievement for optimal recovery of oxygen.
Technical Paper

ways of improving TAKE-OFF AND LANDING

1960-01-01
600026
SOME POSSIBILITIES for shortening the field length requirements of present-day jet aircraft are: Install leading-edge, high-lift devices which are retrofitable to present-day aircraft. Retrofit — or purchase new — aircraft powered by turbofan engines. These have an inherently higher take-off thrust to cruise thrust ratio than the jets, which vastly improves the take-off acceleration. Use boundary-layer control actuated by turbine discharge gas for immediate consideration in new aircraft engines. Use direct-lift jet engines. These will improve the block speed characteristics of the aircraft and also give vertical take-off and landing capabilities. This paper discusses the advantages of each of these possibilities. The author also describes the problem of airport location within a city, and its effect of total travel time.*
Technical Paper

the first year of the JET AGE . . . .reflections

1960-01-01
600059
THE FIRST YEAR of jet airline operation has brought many problems — and satisfactions — to the industry. Here the author discusses some of the more serious problems: 1. Scheduling. American Airlines used the “Monte Carlo” method to calculate payloads and flight times. 2. Baggage handling. Almost nothing annoys a passenger more than long waits for baggage at the end of a flight. One approach to the problem is the baggage expediter system. 3. Mechanical shutdowns. 4. Runway length. 5. Noise. Noise suppressors have not been effective enough, from the standpoint of communities surroundings airports. Development of the turbofan engine offers some hope in this area.*
Technical Paper

selection of Optimum Modes of Control for aircraft engines

1959-01-01
590047
THE optimum mode of control for an aircraft engine is dependent on both the configuration of the engine and its application. Each engine application requires several detail modes of control, one for each definable regime of operation of the engine. Discussions of control requirements can be simplified by classifying these regimes by objectives: physical limiting, thrust, and transient control. The turbojet engine is the basis for the discussion in this paper. Acceptable modes of control can often be selected by inspection of the engine and its application. Selection of an “optimum” control mode requires investigation of the operation of the engine and weapons system at every stage of its use. The selection of a “mode” of control requires a compromise between performance and other design factors. The need for simplicity and accuracy must be balanced against the stability requirements. The availability and flexibility of control components may limit the modes of control considered.
Article

magniX and AeroTEC to fly all-electric eCaravan May 28

2020-05-21
Mobility is in the midst of an electric revolution, propelled by industry innovators such as magniX. Headquartered in Redmond, Washington, the magniX team is focused on revolutionizing electric motors for commercial aviation applications.
Technical Paper

eROSITA Camera Low Temperature Thermal Control

2008-06-29
2008-01-1957
eROSITA (extended ROentgen Survey with an Imaging Telescope Array) is a powerful X-ray telescope under development by the Max-Planck-Institut für extraterrestrische Physik (MPE) in Garching, Germany. eROSITA is the core instrument on the Russian SRG1 mission which is planned for launch in 2011. It comprises seven nested Wolter-I grazing incidence telescopes, each equipped with its own CCD camera. The mirror modules have to be maintained at 20°C while the cameras are operated at -80°C. Both, mirrors and CCDs have to be kept within tight limits. The CCD cooling system consists of passive thermal control components only: two radiators, variable conductance heat pipes (VCHP) and two special thermal storage units. The orbit scenario imposes severe challenges on the thermal control system and also on the attitude control system.
Technical Paper

considerations of some JET-DEFLECTION PRINCIPLES for - - directional control - - lift

1958-01-01
580062
THE performance characteristics of various devices applicable for jet directional control, lift augmentation, and VTOL-STOL studied at the NACA Lewis Laboratory are discussed, including jet deflection devices applicable to the conventonal round nozzle and novel nozzle configurations. The results indicate that many of the deflection devices applicable to conventional nozzles can readily be used for directional control or lift augmentation. Other deflection devices, such as movable plug, internal flap, cylindrical thrust reverser, swiveled primary with fixed shroud, and 90 deg side-bleed nozzle, are limited in application to jet directional control or aircraft trim because the loss in axial thrust for a given deflection force is prohibitive or the maximum deflected force obtainable is limited.
Technical Paper

a study of Self-Contained Starting Systems for Turbojet and Turboprop Engines

1960-01-01
600011
SUBSTANTIAL POWER is necessary to start the modern jet engine. Thus, starting equipment has become a major concern of air transport operators. This paper discusses the equipment used with self-contained starting systems. The authors discuss and evaluate a variety of self-contained systems: combustor, fuel-air combustion, cartridge, liquid propellant, hydraulic supported by auxiliary power units, and electric supported by APU. Possible future systems are: self-breathing systems, oxygen combustors, and liquid-oxygen-water-fuel combustors. It is emphasized that the choice of a starting system for a particular aircraft will depend on aircraft characteristics and the aircraft's intended use.*
Article

Zwick Roell provides flexible materials testing over a wide temperature range

2018-10-19
To enable the tests required for development work to be performed with maximum efficiency, the Zwick Roell Group (ZwickRoell) – a global supplier of materials testing machines based out of Ulm, Germany – developed a materials testing machine that can be equipped with both a temperature chamber and a high-temperature furnace.
Technical Paper

Zoonoses and Enclosed Environments

1991-07-01
911513
The likelihood of transmission of potential disease agents between animals and man during spaceflight is a real concern. Development of disease exclusion lists for animals and refinement of animal containment units have been the principal means of providing protection to the crew members. Awareness of potential latent infections and a judicious use of the higher risk category of animals such as wild-caught nonhuman primates provides another level of protection. Use of high efficiency filters, gasketing, and differential air pressures have all enabled increasing levels of safety through containment of potential aerosol escape from animal habitats.
Technical Paper

Zero-Venting, Regenerable, Lightweight Heat Rejection for EVA Suits

2005-07-11
2005-01-2974
Future space exploration missions will require a lightweight spacesuit that expends no consumables. This paper describes the design and performance of a prototype heat rejection system that weighs less than current systems and vents zero water. The system uses regenerable LiCl/water absorption cooling. Absorption cooling boosts the heat absorbed from the crew member to a high temperature for rejection to space from a compact, non-venting radiator. The system is regenerated by heating to 100°C for two hours. The system provides refrigeration at 17°C and rejects heat at temperatures greater than 50°C. The overall cooling capacity is over 100 W-hr/kg.
Technical Paper

Zero-G Water Selection Separator: A Performance Tradeoff

1969-02-01
690642
This paper presents a trade-off study to select a water separator system for a 3-man, 140-day, zero-g mission. Included is a summary of feasible concepts, a compilation of data on existing hardware, and a comparison of the performance characteristics of each with respect to the overall system. Six approaches to zero-g water separation were considered and are discussed: hydrophobic/hydrophilic screens; integrated condenser-water separators; centrifugal separators; cellular sponges; vortex separators; and elbow separators. Some of these techniques have high-performance characteristics with regard to water removal efficiency. However, when reduced to hardware, these same techniques may not integrate well with the overall system. The system selected was the integrated condenser-water-separator. This system requires no power, has no moving parts, and has a very small envelope.
Technical Paper

YF-23A HYDRAULIC MANAGEMENT SYSTEM

1992-10-01
922028
The YF-23A Advanced Tactical prototype Fighter was a revolutionary statically unstable, twin engine aircraft that cruised at supersonic speeds without afterburner and was designed to out maneuver opponents at subsonic and supersonic speeds. Combining these capabilities into a chosen aircraft configuration demanded a flight control hydraulic system of unprecedented power and performance. Increased system reliability, and reduced maintenance also presented a challenging system design. The YF-23A's unique flight and maneuvering envelope required high surface rates and large actuator excursions at low flight speeds, as well as power to generate increased hinge moments at supersonic speeds. To achieve these specifications, Northrop developed a hydraulic system that utilized flow conservation and prioritization techniques. The hydraulic system configuration was maintained by using hydrologic, as well as electronic control.
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