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Technical Paper

“Personal Integrity” and Man-Machine Integration

A sense of “personal integrity” blocks pilot use of new information about how he thinks. Research on human performance under stress done over the past fifty years indicates increased rigidity and regression to earlier learned behavior in high stress, and in low Stress a shift in attention to any domestic situation or on the job controversy which is of higher stress than that of the job at hand, all without the pilot's knowledge. Informal surveys of commercial pilot training and commercial pilot attitudes towards these studies indicate that the study findings directly confront learned cultural responses. Pilot and trainer reactions prevent the information from being adequately investigated or formally taught. The findings are not written into training manuals and pilots who are informally given the information do not have adequate access to the knowledge when it is needed.
Technical Paper

“Insert and Fly” Using PCMCIA PC Cards in the Avionics Market

When looking into using PCMCIA PC Cards in the avionics market, three areas must be researched. The first is what are the applications and benefits of using the PC Cards while in flight, followed by the applications and benefits on the ground, and thirdly on how to make a PC Card that would stand up to the rugged avionics environment. PCMCIA PC Cards can be used in all aspects of flight. Three possible applications on the ground are; paperless documentation, modifications, flightline changes. Once airborne, PC Cards can be removed and a different functionality card can be inserted. One PC card socket can be used for many different functions during one flight. Some of the possible applications for PC Cards inflight are; flight plan changes, backup Line Replaceable Units (LRUs), and solid state data collection.
Technical Paper

‘Skins’ by Design: Humans to Habitats

Whether we live on land, underwater, or out there in space, what makes it possible is our ‘skin’. The one we were born with, the one we wear, the one we live in, and the one we travel in. The skin is a response to where we live: it protects as our first line of defense against a hostile environment; it regulates as part of our life-support system; and, it communicates as our interface to everything within and without. In the context of space architecture – we, our space suits, vehicles and habitats are all equipped with highly specialized ‘skins’ that pad us, protect us and become an integral part of the design expression. This paper approaches the subject from a holistic perspective considering ‘skins’ and their manifestation as structure, as vessel, as texture, and as membrane. The paper then goes on to showcase innovative use of materials in practice through two case studies: the ‘spacesuit’ and ‘inflatable habitats’.
Technical Paper

X-Wing: A Low Disc-Loading V/STOL for the Navy

The X-Wing concept employs a single lifting system for all modes of flight. The lifting system is comprised of four very rigid, circulation control wings with blowing for lift modulation and control. For hover and low speed flight, the wings rotate such as the rotor of a helicopter. For high speed flight, the wings are stopped in an “X” configuration across the fuselage - from which the name of the concept is derived - with two forward-swept wings and two aft-swept wings. Such a vehicle is also envisioned to have an integrated gas turbine propulsive system for all flight modes. At low speeds, the gas generators) would drive a shaft to turn the wings and the circulation control compressor as well as a set of propulsive fans. For high-speed flight, the shaft would drive only the compressor and accessories as the fans propel the vehicle. The X-Wing concept has been underdevelopment for over 15 years.
Technical Paper

X-36 Tailless Agility Aircraft Subsystems Integration

The X-36 is a remotely piloted 28% scale model of a two-axis-unstable notional future fighter aircraft with canards, a mid-wing and features the absence of any vertical control surfaces, Figure 1. The aircraft was jointly developed by the NASA Ames Research Center and McDonnell Aircraft & Missile Systems and flight tested at the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center. Objectives of this program were to demonstrate fighter aircraft agility for a vertical tailless configuration and to demonstrate the development of a low cost alternative to full size prototype aircraft. This paper presents some aspects of the subsystem integration methodology used to develop the X-36 Tailless Agility Research Aircraft.
Technical Paper

X-31 Helmet Mounted Visual & Aural Display (HMVAD) System

Agile aircraft (X-29, X-31, F-18 High Alpha Research Vehicle, & F-16 Multi-Axis Thrust Vector) test pilots, while flying at high angles of attack, experience difficulty predicting their flight path trajectory. To compensate for the loss of this critical element of situational awareness, the X-31 International Test Organization (ITO) installed and evaluated a helmet mounted display (HMD) system into an X-31 aircraft and simulator. Also investigated for incorporation within the HMD system and flight evaluation was another candidate technology for improving situational awareness - three dimensional (3D) audio. This was the first flight test evaluating the coupling of visual and audio cueing for aircrew aiding. The focus of the endeavor, which implemented two visual and audio formats, was to examine the extent visual and audio orientation cueing enhanced situational awareness and improved pilot performance during tactical flying.
Technical Paper

X-15: Past and Future

The X-15 is a high-performance, manned research vehicle. The 125 flights made since 1959 have provided valuable research data on hypersonic aerodynamics, aerodynamic and structural heating, the behavior of certain types of structure under aerodynamic heating, and the ability of the man-machine combination to perform assigned tasks. It is planned to extend this work to greater speeds and to continue to use the vehicle as a test bed to lift various scientific experiments into the high-speed flight or near-space environment and return them to the scientists. This capability is almost entirely unique to the X-15.
Technical Paper

X-15 Research Vehicle Auxiliary Power System

The auxiliary power system of the X-15 airplane represents a uniqueness in its application. It must operate continuously in flight, in a space environment, during zero gravity, during reentry heating, and for a period of time which often exceeds the X-15 rocket engine operation by 1400 sec. The X-15 auxiliary power system must provide both hydraulic and closely regulated 400-cycle electrical power for operation of various X-15 systems. This paper describes the system, its functions, and its major components. A brief introduction to an X-15 research mission is included to illustrate the integration requirements of the auxiliary power system to the X-15 and the research system.
Technical Paper

Workload and Automation

Current and future generations of transport aircraft are characterized by a high level of automation. This automation is intended to assist the flight crew and make it possible for a crew of two persons to operate these aircraft for all types of flights, including those of extremely long duration. While one of the design goals of automation is to reduce crew workload, little is known about the true relationship between workload and automation. This paper discusses the approaches taken by Airbus Industrie when designing increasing levels of automation into their aircraft. It also addresses the Airbus program of workload research and the need to direct specific attention to the relationship between workload and automation.
Technical Paper

Workload Assessment: Progress During the Last Decade

Over the last decade, considerable research has been conducted on the construct of operator workload and its measurement. From this research, both theory and methods have evolved to provide valid assessment of this construct. Two classes of assessment methods, secondary tasks and subjective scales, dominate the literature at this time. This paper traces the development of both methods, ties their use to current theories of human processing resources, and evaluates both with respect to five criteria.
Technical Paper

Work Measurement Videotaping Technique as a Means for Estimating Food Preparation Labor Time of a Bioregenerative Diet

A bioregenerative diet is characterized by a high proportion of foods produced on site. The production and processing of foods into either ingredients or recipes entails certain labor requirements. Ideally these labor requirements should be estimated with a high degree of accuracy. Crew time is at premium and any amount of time spent on food preparation and processing is time not spent in conducting research and any other activities devised to improve the quality of life of the astronauts. Moreover, a wide variety of tasks are involved in the food preparation of a bioregenerative diet and the labor times of these tasks do not scale or increase in uniform fashion. Predicting food preparation labor requirements for varying crew sizes will require task specific models and data. Videotape analysis is a work measurement tool used in the manufacturing industry.
Technical Paper

Wings-a Coordinated System of Basic Design

TAKING as basic requirements such fundamental characteristics as can be largely separated from the problem of wing design or assumed as attributes of the complete airplane, the author discusses the independent variables consisting mainly of the geometrical characteristics that can be varied to obtain maximum performance without changing the basic requirements. He develops a weight and a drag equation, each founded on the chosen basic requirements and including in the simplest possible form the combined effect of the independent variables. The terms in these equations are defined and the equations are applied to a low-wing monoplane in power and gliding fight and to a rectangular-wing biplane in gliding flight. The results are tabulated in some instances but are principally shown on charts. The accuracy of the results obtained is stated to depend largely upon the proper choice of approximations with an appreciation of their limitations.
Technical Paper

Wind-Tunnel Investigation of the Forebody Aerodynamics of a Vortex-Lift Fighter Configuration at High Angles of Attack

Results of a recent low-speed wind-tunnel investigation conducted to define the forebody flow on a 16% scale model of the NASA High Angle-of-Attack Research Vehicle (HARV), an F-18 configuration, are presented with analysis. Measurements include force and moment data, oil-flow visualizations, and surface pressure data taken at angles of attack near and above maximum lift (36° to 52°) at a Reynolds number of one million based on mean aerodynamic chord. The results presented identify the key flow-field features on the forebody including the wing-body strake.
Technical Paper

Will the Real Solution Please Stand Up

This technical paper and presentation addresses the need for more refined, pervasive and highly engaged technical leadership in the system safety discipline. Systems engineering disciplines have been led to believe that by following a single industry standard, generic plans, inflexible processes, proven methods and techniques a system with low safety risk will evolve with little rework. The truth is there is no prescriptive one size fits all approach, or a convention that will anticipate and cover all needs. In several domain areas, especially modern military and commercial airborne systems, diverse technology and functionality have been evolving with such high complexity and criticality that collective processes will not work unless seasoned leaders allow creativity and innovation to be part of the safety culture. Leaders must have intuitive engineering and operations judgment to determine how to best allocate effective resources to meet system safety goals and objectives.
Technical Paper

Why Companies Use Air Freight — A Basic Consideration in Air Freight Systems Planning and Traffic Forecasting

Use of air freight depends not on the commodity or industry, as such, but on the combinations of characteristics that enable company to benefit from air shipment in any particular situation. Air freight handling and control systems should augment, not decrease, these benefits. Future air freight traffic must be forecast in terms of the different benefits sought in shipping by air. Research is required to determine the relative importance of different benefits in future traffic generation. Research areas are defined and cooperative research efforts urged.
Technical Paper

Whither All Weather - An Airplane Manufacturer's Point Of View

Automatic landing has been developed to the point where all the wide-bodied jets have it as basic equipment. The techniques presently employed are generally founded upon the technology of the last two decades - especially with respect to analog computation and gyroscope references. Several new techniques are now available which can substantially improve the autoland systems for the next generation of transport aircraft. These include airborne digital computers, the use of integrated air-data and strapdown airplane motion reference systems, expanded use of automatic system test, and the development and employment of the Microwave Landing System (MLS). These new technology developments promise to provide expanded operational benefits, reduced maintenance, and increased availability over that of contemporary autoland systems.
Technical Paper

Weightless Testing of a “Ratchetless” Extravehicular Activity Wrench

Conventional ratcheting tools do not work efficiently in confined spaces and they have other limitations when used in space during extravehicular activity (EVA). The National Aeronautics and Space Administration’s (NASA) Goddard Space Flight Center has developed a three-dimensional (3-D) sprag/roller technology that has many benefits over the ratchet mechanism. The Space Systems Laboratory at the University of Maryland is using this technology in the development of EVA tools. The research discussed here describes the testing of an EVA roller wrench aboard NASA’s Reduced-Gravity Flying Laboratory (the KC-135), evaluation by astronauts in NASA/Johnson Space Center’s Neutral Buoyancy Laboratory, and the flight of a 3-D roller mechanism on Space Shuttle Mission STS-95.
Technical Paper

Weibull/Weibayes Analysis of Hydraulic Pump Malfunction Data

Premature wearout of augmentor hydraulic fuel pumps was being experienced in service on a fighter aircraft engine. The removal times ranged from 150 to 800 engine operating hours. Considerable effort had gone into the understanding of the physics of failure and overcoming this problem in a modified pump. However, there still remained the question of how best to proof test the new pump. The challenge was to demonstrate that the redesigned pump was significantly better than the old pump. The problems faced during design verification will be discussed in this case study. For example, does an accelerated test duplicate the service failure mode? When has an accelerated test run long enough to prove the redesign is in fact better than the old product? This paper illustrates the application of new technology to solve these research and development program problems through the use of Weibull and Weibayes Analysis.
Technical Paper

Wear Resistance of Lunar Wheel Treads Made of Polymeric Fabrics

The purpose of this research is to characterize the wear resistance of wheel treads made of polymeric woven and non-woven fabrics. Experimental research is used to characterize two wear mechanisms: (1) external wear due to large sliding between the tread and rocks, and (2) external wear due to small sliding between the tread and abrasive sand. Experimental setups include an abrasion tester and a small-scale merry-go-round where the tread is attached to a deformable rolling wheel. The wear resistance is characterized using various measures including, quantitatively, by the number of cycles to failure, and qualitatively, by micro-visual inspection of the fibers’ surface. This paper describes the issues related to each experiment and discusses the results obtained with different polymeric materials, fabric densities and sizes. The predominant wear mechanism is identified and should then be used as one of the criteria for further design of the tread.
Journal Article

Weapon Combat Effectiveness Analytics Using Big Data and Simulations: A Literature Review

The Weapon Combat Effectiveness (WCE) analytics is very expensive, time-consuming, and dangerous in the real world because we have to create data from the real operations with a lot of people and weapons in the actual environment. The Modeling and Simulation (M&S) of many techniques are used for overcoming these limitations. Although the era of big data has emerged and achieved a great deal of success in a variety of fields, most of WCE research using the Defense Modeling and Simulation (DM&S) techniques studied have considered a lot of assumptions and limited scenarios without the help of big data technologies. Furthermore, WCE analytics using previous methodologies cannot help but get the bias results. This paper reviews and combines the basic knowledge for the new WCE analytics methodology using big data and M&S to overcome these problems of bias. Then this paper reviews the general overview of WCE, DM&S, and big data.