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Technical Paper

“Personal Integrity” and Man-Machine Integration

1982-02-01
821348
A sense of “personal integrity” blocks pilot use of new information about how he thinks. Research on human performance under stress done over the past fifty years indicates increased rigidity and regression to earlier learned behavior in high stress, and in low Stress a shift in attention to any domestic situation or on the job controversy which is of higher stress than that of the job at hand, all without the pilot's knowledge. Informal surveys of commercial pilot training and commercial pilot attitudes towards these studies indicate that the study findings directly confront learned cultural responses. Pilot and trainer reactions prevent the information from being adequately investigated or formally taught. The findings are not written into training manuals and pilots who are informally given the information do not have adequate access to the knowledge when it is needed.
Technical Paper

“Greater Than the Sum of its Parts” Integrated Flight Training/Aircrew Coordination

1994-10-01
942132
The requirement for crew resource management (CRM), or aircrew coordination training (ACT) in military parlance, has been well documented and attested to. In addition, aircraft systems training has become more intense and more in-depth in the new aircraft designs, especially in multi-crew and complex aircraft such as the MV-22 Osprey Tiltrotor. (see Figure 1) Former training systems detailed training procedures that called for classroom training and simulation/simulator training followed by flight training. Improvements in aircraft flight skills training provide increased flying training capability coupled with reduced training time by integrating a mixed simulation/flight training syllabus, e.g. two to three simulation periods followed by one or two flight training periods covering the same material/skills. In addition, the simulation training will introduce new skills; the following flight periods will further refine/hone those skills.
Technical Paper

“Converticar” - The Roadable Helicopter

1998-09-28
985513
The Boeing Company in Mesa, Arizona, has been conducting a concept design study of a roadable helicopter called the “Converticar” to assess its feasibility. This is a twin-engine vehicle with twin retractable coaxial counter-rotating rotors. The purpose of the study is to describe a vehicle that carries four passengers in the equivalent of a luxury car that also can fly like a helicopter, and can be priced like a luxury car. To come near this cost goal, the production rate must be on the order of 500,000 units a year. At that rate there is no chance of training a comparable number of pilots each year. So the machine must fly and navigate autonomously, with the pilot just dialing in where he/she wants to go. Technologically, the concept appears to be feasible. Modern design processes, new materials, and improved manufacturing process should allow the Converticar to be built at the prescribed rate when the proper infrastructure for manufacturing it is made available.
Technical Paper

‘Bigelow Aerospace® Life Support Laboratory - Planning and Status’

2004-07-19
2004-01-2474
This Life Support Laboratory consists of a simulator of the spacecraft called Nautilus, which houses Air Revitalization Subsystem, Atmospheric Control and Supply, and Fire Detection and Suppression in the Equipment Area. There are supporting facilities including a Human Metabolic Simulator, simulated Low and Moderate Temperature Coolant Loop, chemical analysis bench, purified water supply, vacuum and gas supplies. These facilities are scheduled to be completed and start to operate for demonstration purposes by March 2005. There are an ARES Ground Model (AGM) and a Trace Contaminant Control Assembly in the ARS. The latter will be integrated with the AGM and a Condensing Heat Exchanger. The unit of AGM is being engineered, built, and will be delivered in early 2005 by EADS Space Division. These assemblies will be operated for sensitivity analysis, integration and optimization studies. The main goal is the achievement for optimal recovery of oxygen.
Technical Paper

[Interior] Configuration Options, Habitability and Architectural Aspects for ESA’s AURORA Human Mission to Mars Study

2005-07-11
2005-01-2850
This paper discusses the findings for [Interior] Configuration Options, Habitability and Architectural Aspects of a first human spacecraft to Mars. In 2003 the space architecture office LIQUIFER was invited by the European Space Agency’s (ESA) AURORA program committee to consult the scientists and engineers from the European Space and Technology Center (ESTEC) and other European industrial communities with developing the first human mission to Mars, which will take place in 2030, regarding the architectural issues of crewed habitats. The task was to develop an interior configuration for a Transfer Vehicle (TV) to Mars, especially a Transfer Habitation Module (THM) and a Surface Habitat (SHM) on Mars. The total travel time Earth - Mars and back for a crew of six amounts to approximately 900 days. After a 200-day-flight three crewmembers will land on Mars in the Mars Excursion Vehicle (MEV) and will live and work in the SHM for 30 days.
Technical Paper

ZENITH: A Nano-Satellite for Atmospheric Monitoring

2015-09-15
2015-01-2395
This paper describes the ZENITH Nano-Satellite cum planetary atmospheric entry vehicle, called CanSat, the first Nano-Satellite project that has been developed by Delhi Technological University (Formerly Delhi College of Engineering), India. The satellite will function for monitoring the concentrations of various gases in the atmosphere. For this, the satellite consists of arduino microcontroller interfaced with the various Micro-electromechanical system (MEMS) gas sensors for measuring the concentrations of various gases such as carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, methane, nitrous oxides, ozone, etc. The data obtained from the CanSat will be transmitted to the ground station where all the data will be stored and also the locations will be stored using GPS sensor. The academic goal of this project is to recruit students to the field of space science and technology.
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Your Bridge to Success in the Real World

2018-07-25
Students share how SAE Membership has opened doors for their careers, provided educational opportunities and hands-on experiences that has helped them to become a better engineer.
Technical Paper

XC-142A Control System

1967-02-01
670571
Five XC-142 aircraft have been manufactured to provide operational prototypes of a V/STOL tactical transport for tri-service evaluation. This paper presents a description of the flight control and stability augmentation systems. Special emphasis is placed on the programmed functions which are characteristic of VTOL airplanes. Proposed changes in the control systems of production models of the C-142 are identified, and the simulation and flight test programs are outlined.
Technical Paper

X-31 Helmet Mounted Visual & Aural Display (HMVAD) System

1994-10-01
942116
Agile aircraft (X-29, X-31, F-18 High Alpha Research Vehicle, & F-16 Multi-Axis Thrust Vector) test pilots, while flying at high angles of attack, experience difficulty predicting their flight path trajectory. To compensate for the loss of this critical element of situational awareness, the X-31 International Test Organization (ITO) installed and evaluated a helmet mounted display (HMD) system into an X-31 aircraft and simulator. Also investigated for incorporation within the HMD system and flight evaluation was another candidate technology for improving situational awareness - three dimensional (3D) audio. This was the first flight test evaluating the coupling of visual and audio cueing for aircrew aiding. The focus of the endeavor, which implemented two visual and audio formats, was to examine the extent visual and audio orientation cueing enhanced situational awareness and improved pilot performance during tactical flying.
Technical Paper

Wireless Ground Communication in Support of Aircraft Maintenance and Flight Operations

1995-05-01
951387
The wireless Spread Spectrum Ground Communication (SSGC) system will contribute to the enhancement of aircraft maintenance, flight, dispatch, and cargo operations efficiency. A concept layout of the wireless SSGC system implementation in an airport environment is illustrated in Figure 1. The SSGC system will provide both text/graphics data transmission and voice communication for flight crew, maintenance, and dispatch personnel in the airport gate environment. This system will link ground information system and onboard avionics systems, and provide access by ground crew to an information database through portable graphics terminals. The objective is to integrate both airborne avionics, ground crew, and ground based resources into a seamless operating system.
Technical Paper

Wireless Devices Usage with Adaptive Interfaces in the Context of Aeronautical Maintenance Processes to Reduce the Incidence of the Human Error and Increase Safety

2007-09-17
2007-01-3832
This work falls in the context of aeronautical maintenance processes. The purpose is to increase the effectiveness and the efficiency of the operations carried out during the activities in the processes mentioned above, as well as the reduction of the incidence of the human error in the development of these activities, with consequent implicit increase of the safety of the aircrafts. Human error has been documented as a primary contributor to more than 70 percent of commercial airplane hull-loss accidents. While typically associated with flight operations, human error has also recently become a major concern in maintenance practices and air traffic management. We have tried to obtain an increment of the safety formalizing the information exchange process avoiding ambiguous, inaccurate or incomplete data that can indirectly encourage the deviation of the personnel from established procedures.
Technical Paper

Wind Tunnel Experiments with Anti-Icing Fluids

2011-06-13
2011-38-0078
An experimental methodology for investigating the effects of anti-icing fluids is presented in this paper. A wing model was designed, fabricated, and instrumented for testing anti-icing fluids in a wind tunnel facility. In addition, a video capturing method was developed and used to document fluid behavior during simulated takeoff tests. The experiments were performed at the Wichita State University 2.13-m by 3.05-m (7-ft by 10-ft) wind tunnel facility with two pseudoplastic fluids representative of Type IV anti-icing fluids. The experimental data obtained included fluid wave propagation speeds, chordwise fluid thickness distributions as a function of time, and boundary layer velocity profiles for the clean and fluid contaminated wing model at select chordwise stations. During simulated takeoffs with initial fluid depths of either 4 mm or 2 mm, the fluids were observed to thin in the forward (upstream) regions of the wing model and accumulate in the aft regions.
Technical Paper

Why Simulators are More Difficult to Fly Than Aircraft

1991-09-01
912098
Simulators are typically more difficult to fly than the aircraft they represent. The factors involved include limited field of view, degraded visual acuity, scene distortion, absence of depth perception, attenuation or absence of motion cues, and response delays that are often inconsistent among visual, motion, and instruments. It is suggested that for most training tasks the added difficulty because of these factors is not a drawback, and should not be alleviated at the expense of dynamic fidelity.
Technical Paper

Why Private Carriage - Why Not?

1974-02-01
740776
The decision to adopt private carriage for regular movement of freight by a manufacturer was a two-step process. The first step was the conclusion after study that air transportation had far more cost benefits than surface transport. Once this decision was reached, the various modes of air transportation--scheduled airlines, nonscheduled operators, and private carriage-were surveyed, and it was found that private carriage was the least costly mode. The experiences encountered and lessons learned in six years of private carriage are presented.
Technical Paper

Whither All Weather - An Airplane Manufacturer's Point Of View

1975-02-01
750601
Automatic landing has been developed to the point where all the wide-bodied jets have it as basic equipment. The techniques presently employed are generally founded upon the technology of the last two decades - especially with respect to analog computation and gyroscope references. Several new techniques are now available which can substantially improve the autoland systems for the next generation of transport aircraft. These include airborne digital computers, the use of integrated air-data and strapdown airplane motion reference systems, expanded use of automatic system test, and the development and employment of the Microwave Landing System (MLS). These new technology developments promise to provide expanded operational benefits, reduced maintenance, and increased availability over that of contemporary autoland systems.
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