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Technical Paper

“Condensation – Why it Needs to be Addressed in Every Aircraft”

A wide body aircraft carries almost a half–ton of water and ice between the cabin and skin of the aircraft. The water can get on wires and connectors, which can cause electrical problems, cause corrosion and rust, and, eventually, “rain in the plane”. The speaker is the CEO of CTT Systems that has developed a system that solves the condensation by using dry air. The speaker will discuss how condensation can be prevented and how airlines can also save maintenance costs in the process. This topic is relevant for the attendees at the Aerospace Expo, as they are decision makers who need to be aware of this issue. It is also important for the MRO shows as the attendees are on the front lines of dealing with this problem.
Technical Paper

Zero-G Simulation using Neutral Buoyancy

For human beings who have been reared on the earth with its 1 G gravitational field, the condition of weightlessness is a world with which we are unfamiliar. Even if the layout and equipment configuration of a spacecraft designed to compensate for operation under Zero-G conditions, there are some things which are not effective under actual weightless conditions. In the design of a manned spacecraft, it is necessary to accumulate design data on human performance in a weightless condition, then to undertake design evaluations and verification under weightless conditions. In this paper, testing for the purpose of evaluating the effectiveness of Zero-G simulation using neutral buoyancy, conducted first of all in Japan, and recommendations on the equipment and Facilities required to conduct such simulations, are described.
Technical Paper

XB-70A Laboratory for Progress

The development of the XB-70 research aircraft produced advancements in many fields of technology. This paper covers a few of these advancements in the areas of materials, equipment, and manufacturing. These include honeycomb construction, PH 15-7 alloy steel, vacuum melted H-11 steel, equipment capable of withstanding high temperatures, chemical milling of many different alloys, miniaturized welding equipment, and exothermic brazing techniques.
Technical Paper

XB-70 Ground Servicing and Safety Precautions

Planning for ground servicing and maintenance started in the proposal phase and has been followed by test program experience with the XB-70 Mach 3 air vehicle. Servicing and associated safety requirements are summarized. Discussion of maintenance and support actions includes mention of equipment provided to meet the requirements. Preflight, postflight, and periodic operations are outlined, along with some indication of changes that resulted when plans were put into practice. The demands of a high performance flight test air vehicle limit movements toward simplification.
Technical Paper

X-Ray Rocking Curve Analysis of the Aging and Deformation Characteristics in the Al-Li Alloy

A non-destructive x-ray technique, the double crystal diffractometer method, is presented as a tool to investigate the aging and deformation behavior of the Al-Li alloy. This is a sensitive method for measuring the strain and dislocation density within individual grains through the x-ray rocking curve. In addition, models were developed to describe the aging and deformation characteristics of this alloy.
Technical Paper

X-Ray - A Necessary Tool for Detecting Incipient Structural Failures in Service Aircraft

X-ray is an indispensable aid in locating and determining the extent of incipient failures in structure which is inaccessible by position or covered by multiple layers of metal. It is also the most feasible method for checking oil coolers for contamination; bonded honeycomb panels for water; fuel lines for erosion; and with a 360 deg emission tube, fuselage frames for structural integrity without removing the interior upholstery and panels from the passenger compartment or cargo compartments.

Wrenches; Flare Nut, Crowfoot, 12 Point Non-Distorting

This SAE Aerospace Standard (AS) covers 12 point flare nut crowfoot, flare nut wrenches, double end flare nut wrenches, combination box and flare nut wrenches, and ratcheting flare nut wrenches that are designed with the following requirements: (a) Non-distorting usage; (b) Possessing the strength, clearances, and internal wrenching design to be used on hydraulic tube fittings that conform to the requirements of SAE J514; (c) Transmitting torque to tube fittings without bearing on the apex of fitting wrenching points. Inclusion of dimensional data in this document is not intended to imply that all of the products described herein are stock production sizes. Consumers are requested to consult with manufacturers concerning lists of stock production sizes.

Wrenches, Ratcheting, High Strength

This specification covers high strength ratcheting wrenches used for attachment and detachment of high strength and high temperature aircraft fasteners.

Wrenches, Hand, Twelve Point, High Strength, Thin Wall

This SAE Aerospace Standard (AS) covers high strength thin wall (commercial) sockets, universal sockets, box wrenches and torque adaptors which possess the strength, clearances, and internal wrenching design so configured that, when mated with 12-point fasteners conforming to the requirement of AS870, they shall transmit torque to the fastener without bearing on the outer 5% of the fastener's wrenching points. Inclusion of dimensional data in this document is not intended to imply that all of the products described herein are stock production sizes. Consumers are requested to consult with manufacturers concerning lists of stock production sizes. The dimensional limits of box and combination wrench lengths have been established to provide configuration control for tool storage applications.

Wrenches, Box and Open End Combination Twelve Point, High Strength, Thin Wall, Metric

This SAE Metric Aerospace Standard (MA) provides dimensional, performance, testing and other requirements for high strength, thin wall, double head box and combination wrenches which possess an internal wrenching design so configured that, when mated with hexagon (6 point) fasteners, they shall transmit torque to the fastener without bearing on the apex of the fastener's wrenching points. This standard provides additional requirements beyond ANSI B107.9 appropriate for aerospace use. Inclusion of dimensional data in this document is not intended to imply all of the products described therein are stock production sizes. Consumers are requested to consult with manufacturers concerning lists of stock production sizes.
Technical Paper

Workload and Situation Awareness in Future Aircraft

Cockpits have changed dramatically over the last ten years. The electro-mechanical instruments have largely been replaced with electro-optical controls and displays. This change in the pilot-vehicle interface, coupled with a second development, the emergence of a very powerful airborne computer system, an Electronic Crewmember, has had a significant impact on workload in the cockpit. Workload has shifted from physical to mental, and many workload measurement tools applied previously may no longer be appropriate. This paper discusses the prediction, real time measurement and dynamic allocation of cockpit workload in an aircraft with a crew of two -- one human and one electronic.
Technical Paper

Working Activity in Space: Preparation of the Scientific Experiments' Performance

One of the most unsolved problems in space projects, where human beings are involved, is the impossibility of simulating on the ground the effects of microgravity on astronauts' operability in space. [1] In particular, this is traceable in the performance of work activities, such as performing physiological scientific experiments. [2] This paper focuses on a study of the gap between the two operational scenarios: the ground test simulation and the in-flight space performance of complex physiological experiments. The major differences between the two operational scenarios are highlighted, and recommendations for improvement are suggested. The main finding of this paper is that, in order to make experiment performance not only possible but also easy and efficient, it is necessary to consider all human factors involved. With this perspective, the author's aim has been to find an effective way to consider all human factors of the ground and space operational conditions.
Technical Paper

Work Measurement Videotaping Technique as a Means for Estimating Food Preparation Labor Time of a Bioregenerative Diet

A bioregenerative diet is characterized by a high proportion of foods produced on site. The production and processing of foods into either ingredients or recipes entails certain labor requirements. Ideally these labor requirements should be estimated with a high degree of accuracy. Crew time is at premium and any amount of time spent on food preparation and processing is time not spent in conducting research and any other activities devised to improve the quality of life of the astronauts. Moreover, a wide variety of tasks are involved in the food preparation of a bioregenerative diet and the labor times of these tasks do not scale or increase in uniform fashion. Predicting food preparation labor requirements for varying crew sizes will require task specific models and data. Videotape analysis is a work measurement tool used in the manufacturing industry.