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Technical Paper

“Flexible” Cargo Handling Systems for Standard-Body Airplanes

The manner in which the lower deck cargo compartments of standard-body airplanes are designed, equipped, and serviced has not changed appreciably over the past 50 years. A number of factors now at work within the air transportation industry are causing carriers and airplane manufacturers to explore alternative approaches to these tasks. This paper reviews these factors, presents a new approach to lower deck cargo handling systems design, and describes how this approach can be applied to standard-body airplanes.
Training / Education

Wrought Aluminum Metallurgy

There are a wide variety of wrought aluminum alloys, each developed to provide specific properties. Getting the strength you need in an aluminum alloy requires knowledge of the effects of alloy composition, cold-working, and heat treating on aluminum metallurgy and properties. A good understanding of how aluminum alloys behave and what can be done to modify their properties is critical for being more productive and profitable. The course takes about one hour to complete and consists of one module and a final exam. Also, quizzes and problems give you opportunities to apply the concepts taught.
Technical Paper

Womb to Tomb SPC Control of Fasteners from Rivet Manufacture to Installation using Existing Software

Controlling rivet tolerances, and the hole tolerances that these rivets are inserted into, are some of the most important requirements in the manufacture of aircraft. Because of the laminar air flow over the outside of the skin in all aircraft, and the stealth requirements of military aircraft, the rivets must sit flush with the Outside Mode Line of the exterior skin. This countersink depth must be tightly controlled in tolerance, both in the hole diameter & countersink, and also in the manufacture of the rivets. In the past, the aircraft OEM's have driven, independently, the rivet manufacturer and the machine manufacturer drilling the holes, to control tighter and tighter tolerances. The conventional way to get better performance is to implement SPC independently into the rivet manufacturing process and also into the machine hole drilling process. Let's consider first the rivet manufacturing process.

Wire, Electrical, Crosslinked Polyalkene, Crosslinked Alkane-Imide Polymer, or Polyarlyene Insulated, Copper or Copper Alloy

AS81044 covers single conductor electric wires made as specified in the applicable detail specification with tin-coated, silver-coated, or nickel-coated copper or copper alloy conductors insulated with crosslinked polyalkene, crosslinked alkane-imide polymer, or polyarylene. The crosslinked polyalkene, crosslinked alkane-imide polymer, or polyarylene may be used alone or in combination with other insulation materials as specified in the detail specification.

Wipes, Cotton, Loosely Woven

This specification covers a loosely-woven cotton in the form of wipes supplied in rolls or cut sheets.
Technical Paper

Windows Based Software Development Platform for AUTOSAR ECUs

As the amount of embedded software in the vehicle increases dramatically, the software design and development tasks are daunting. Over the past few years, the automotive industry has taken measures to increase software re-use and promote competition among basic software vendors. If AUTOSAR has emerged as the de-facto standard for embedded automotive software development, there are numerous challenges ahead as the standard assumes the availability of both the hardware and the associated abstraction layer among others. This can be problematic for developers. Furthermore, engineers may be interested in performing early what if tests - early functional tests - to ensure that their strategies will not cause problems later in the development process. As always, errors are less costly to fix if they can be caught early. With AUTOSAR several thousand parameters have to be configured in about 60 modules.
Technical Paper

Why Private Carriage - Why Not?

The decision to adopt private carriage for regular movement of freight by a manufacturer was a two-step process. The first step was the conclusion after study that air transportation had far more cost benefits than surface transport. Once this decision was reached, the various modes of air transportation--scheduled airlines, nonscheduled operators, and private carriage-were surveyed, and it was found that private carriage was the least costly mode. The experiences encountered and lessons learned in six years of private carriage are presented.
Technical Paper

Whither All Weather - An Airplane Manufacturer's Point Of View

Automatic landing has been developed to the point where all the wide-bodied jets have it as basic equipment. The techniques presently employed are generally founded upon the technology of the last two decades - especially with respect to analog computation and gyroscope references. Several new techniques are now available which can substantially improve the autoland systems for the next generation of transport aircraft. These include airborne digital computers, the use of integrated air-data and strapdown airplane motion reference systems, expanded use of automatic system test, and the development and employment of the Microwave Landing System (MLS). These new technology developments promise to provide expanded operational benefits, reduced maintenance, and increased availability over that of contemporary autoland systems.