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Technical Paper

“Symbiose”: Technology Developments for Bioregeneration in Space

1994-06-01
941348
Dedicated technology has been developed to support long-term biological experiments on-board spacecraft. These developments include a microgravity compatible tubular photo bioreactor for the cultivation of micro algae at very high biomass concentrations and with very high gas exchange rates, a microgravity compatible gas / liquid phase separator which also works as a pneumatic low shear-stress pump, a microgravity compatible dehumidifier, and a maltose separating reverse osmosis unit. Integration of these technologies into a partially closed artificial ecosystem form the foundation of the SYMBIOSE concept (System for Microgravity Bioregenerative Support of Experiments).
Technical Paper

“Space-BEE: Space Biomedical Exercise Environment” A Personal Centrifuge within an Inflatable Structure

2005-07-11
2005-01-3049
This paper presents a conceptual design of a short-radius centrifuge for orbital application, contained in an inflatable structure. The objectives of this design are: to support the physical effectiveness of the crew by offering an exercise facility; to provide a test bed for biomedical experiments on human centrifugation in orbit; and to offer recreational benefits during long periods of confinement. The use of a pneumatic structure that can expand in orbit allows maximizing the radius of the centrifuge within mass and launch constraints. The proposed project is composed of elements with standard interfaces; its environmental design is based on human factor considerations from biomedical literature, and it respects current ergonomics and NASA standards.
Technical Paper

“Smart Panel” Electronic Circuit Breaker Control Technology

2008-11-11
2008-01-2880
This paper will discuss using Astronics “Smart Panel” illuminated control panels to control an electronic power distribution system. A discussion of wiring simplification, automatic control possibilities and real time load monitoring is presented. The challenges of retrofitting the system into older aircraft will be covered as well. The paper also explains Electronic Circuit Breaker technology, arc fault protection, panel lighting technologies, control bus options, displays, and human input technology (buttons and knobs).
Technical Paper

“RoHS” Compliant Chrome - Free Conversion Coating for Aerospace Manufacturing

2006-09-12
2006-01-3130
This paper presents, chemistry, test data and processing procedures on a non toxic and environmentally friendly chrome-free conversion coating alternative with the same level of adhesion and secondary corrosion resistance as that found in chrome containing conversion coating systems. Test data from military and independent sources will be presented on secondary coating adhesion, electrical conductivity, filiform and neutral salt-spray corrosion resistance as compared to chromate based systems .on magnesium, aluminum and zinc and their respective alloys. The European “RoSH” initiative will not allow for the presence of any hexavalent chromium on imported electrical components as of July first of 2006. Trivalent chromium based systems generate hexavalent chromium due to the oxidation of the trivalent chromium and as such will not be allowed.
Technical Paper

“Posture and Gait Control Enhancement Using Dermal Optical Sensitivity”

2004-07-19
2004-01-2484
Posture and gait controls underlie the fundamental physical and cognitive human factors necessary for astronauts’ safety and performance in Space. This central subsystem is adversely affected when exposed to an extreme or hostile environment. A specific stimulation, using dermal optical sensitivity, can be provided to the central nervous system to counteract peripheral stimulations due to microgravity as well as other negative stressors. We believe using dermal optical sensitivity-based stimulation can be key in the performance enhancement necessary to ensure human based space mission viability and success.
Technical Paper

“Personal Integrity” and Man-Machine Integration

1982-02-01
821348
A sense of “personal integrity” blocks pilot use of new information about how he thinks. Research on human performance under stress done over the past fifty years indicates increased rigidity and regression to earlier learned behavior in high stress, and in low Stress a shift in attention to any domestic situation or on the job controversy which is of higher stress than that of the job at hand, all without the pilot's knowledge. Informal surveys of commercial pilot training and commercial pilot attitudes towards these studies indicate that the study findings directly confront learned cultural responses. Pilot and trainer reactions prevent the information from being adequately investigated or formally taught. The findings are not written into training manuals and pilots who are informally given the information do not have adequate access to the knowledge when it is needed.
Technical Paper

“Model Based Predictive Control of MELISSA Photobioreactors. Steady State Determination”

1994-06-01
941411
Mathematical modeling and control of artificial ecosystems, such as MELISSA, require first the study of physical and biological characteristics in optimal and limiting conditions. Following the previous determination of the stoichiometric equations (Spirulina compartment) and regarding the two phototrophic compartments of MELISSA (Rhodospirillaceae and Spirulina), we have first to focus our control study on the growth kinetics for the light source. In this paper, we recall the theoretical equations of microbial growth kinetics and emphasise the problem of the light transfer in a photobioreactor. We present their adaptations to our pilot plant taking into account technological and biological specifics (lamp spectrum, working illuminated volume, growth rate,…). We then develop the principles and structure of the control system and describe tests of both the hardware and software for several steady state configurations.
Technical Paper

“Greater Than the Sum of its Parts” Integrated Flight Training/Aircrew Coordination

1994-10-01
942132
The requirement for crew resource management (CRM), or aircrew coordination training (ACT) in military parlance, has been well documented and attested to. In addition, aircraft systems training has become more intense and more in-depth in the new aircraft designs, especially in multi-crew and complex aircraft such as the MV-22 Osprey Tiltrotor. (see Figure 1) Former training systems detailed training procedures that called for classroom training and simulation/simulator training followed by flight training. Improvements in aircraft flight skills training provide increased flying training capability coupled with reduced training time by integrating a mixed simulation/flight training syllabus, e.g. two to three simulation periods followed by one or two flight training periods covering the same material/skills. In addition, the simulation training will introduce new skills; the following flight periods will further refine/hone those skills.
Technical Paper

“Flexible” Cargo Handling Systems for Standard-Body Airplanes

1986-09-01
861153
The manner in which the lower deck cargo compartments of standard-body airplanes are designed, equipped, and serviced has not changed appreciably over the past 50 years. A number of factors now at work within the air transportation industry are causing carriers and airplane manufacturers to explore alternative approaches to these tasks. This paper reviews these factors, presents a new approach to lower deck cargo handling systems design, and describes how this approach can be applied to standard-body airplanes.
Technical Paper

“Condensation – Why it Needs to be Addressed in Every Aircraft”

2003-09-08
2003-01-3000
A wide body aircraft carries almost a half–ton of water and ice between the cabin and skin of the aircraft. The water can get on wires and connectors, which can cause electrical problems, cause corrosion and rust, and, eventually, “rain in the plane”. The speaker is the CEO of CTT Systems that has developed a system that solves the condensation by using dry air. The speaker will discuss how condensation can be prevented and how airlines can also save maintenance costs in the process. This topic is relevant for the attendees at the Aerospace Expo, as they are decision makers who need to be aware of this issue. It is also important for the MRO shows as the attendees are on the front lines of dealing with this problem.
Technical Paper

‘Skins’ by Design: Humans to Habitats

2003-07-07
2003-01-2655
Whether we live on land, underwater, or out there in space, what makes it possible is our ‘skin’. The one we were born with, the one we wear, the one we live in, and the one we travel in. The skin is a response to where we live: it protects as our first line of defense against a hostile environment; it regulates as part of our life-support system; and, it communicates as our interface to everything within and without. In the context of space architecture – we, our space suits, vehicles and habitats are all equipped with highly specialized ‘skins’ that pad us, protect us and become an integral part of the design expression. This paper approaches the subject from a holistic perspective considering ‘skins’ and their manifestation as structure, as vessel, as texture, and as membrane. The paper then goes on to showcase innovative use of materials in practice through two case studies: the ‘spacesuit’ and ‘inflatable habitats’.
Technical Paper

‘Bigelow Aerospace® Life Support Laboratory - Planning and Status’

2004-07-19
2004-01-2474
This Life Support Laboratory consists of a simulator of the spacecraft called Nautilus, which houses Air Revitalization Subsystem, Atmospheric Control and Supply, and Fire Detection and Suppression in the Equipment Area. There are supporting facilities including a Human Metabolic Simulator, simulated Low and Moderate Temperature Coolant Loop, chemical analysis bench, purified water supply, vacuum and gas supplies. These facilities are scheduled to be completed and start to operate for demonstration purposes by March 2005. There are an ARES Ground Model (AGM) and a Trace Contaminant Control Assembly in the ARS. The latter will be integrated with the AGM and a Condensing Heat Exchanger. The unit of AGM is being engineered, built, and will be delivered in early 2005 by EADS Space Division. These assemblies will be operated for sensitivity analysis, integration and optimization studies. The main goal is the achievement for optimal recovery of oxygen.
Technical Paper

ways of improving TAKE-OFF AND LANDING

1960-01-01
600026
SOME POSSIBILITIES for shortening the field length requirements of present-day jet aircraft are: Install leading-edge, high-lift devices which are retrofitable to present-day aircraft. Retrofit — or purchase new — aircraft powered by turbofan engines. These have an inherently higher take-off thrust to cruise thrust ratio than the jets, which vastly improves the take-off acceleration. Use boundary-layer control actuated by turbine discharge gas for immediate consideration in new aircraft engines. Use direct-lift jet engines. These will improve the block speed characteristics of the aircraft and also give vertical take-off and landing capabilities. This paper discusses the advantages of each of these possibilities. The author also describes the problem of airport location within a city, and its effect of total travel time.*
Technical Paper

the first year of the JET AGE . . . .reflections

1960-01-01
600059
THE FIRST YEAR of jet airline operation has brought many problems — and satisfactions — to the industry. Here the author discusses some of the more serious problems: 1. Scheduling. American Airlines used the “Monte Carlo” method to calculate payloads and flight times. 2. Baggage handling. Almost nothing annoys a passenger more than long waits for baggage at the end of a flight. One approach to the problem is the baggage expediter system. 3. Mechanical shutdowns. 4. Runway length. 5. Noise. Noise suppressors have not been effective enough, from the standpoint of communities surroundings airports. Development of the turbofan engine offers some hope in this area.*
Technical Paper

srv-k Status Aboard the International Space Station During Missions 15 and 16

2008-06-29
2008-01-2191
The paper summarizes the experience gained on the ISS water management system during the missions of ISS-1 through ISS-16 (since November 2 2000, through December 31, 2007). The water supply sources and structure, consumption and supply balance at various phases of space station operation are reviewed. The performance data of the system for water recovery from humidity condensate SRV-K and urine feed and pretreatment system SPK-U in the Russian orbital segment are presented. The key role of water recovery on a board the ISS and the need to supplement the station's water supply hardware with a system for water reclamation from urine, water from a carbon dioxide reduction system and hygiene water is shown.
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