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Technical Paper

“Use Of 75ST In Structural Applications”

The material known as 75ST is a new high strength aluminum alloy that can be used in certain aircraft structural applications to effect a saving in weight or an increase in strength or both over designs using other alloys. However, the structural engineer should be well acquainted with the advantages and limitations of this material before utilizing it in design.
Technical Paper

“Symbiose”: Technology Developments for Bioregeneration in Space

Dedicated technology has been developed to support long-term biological experiments on-board spacecraft. These developments include a microgravity compatible tubular photo bioreactor for the cultivation of micro algae at very high biomass concentrations and with very high gas exchange rates, a microgravity compatible gas / liquid phase separator which also works as a pneumatic low shear-stress pump, a microgravity compatible dehumidifier, and a maltose separating reverse osmosis unit. Integration of these technologies into a partially closed artificial ecosystem form the foundation of the SYMBIOSE concept (System for Microgravity Bioregenerative Support of Experiments).
Technical Paper

“RoHS” Compliant Chrome - Free Conversion Coating for Aerospace Manufacturing

This paper presents, chemistry, test data and processing procedures on a non toxic and environmentally friendly chrome-free conversion coating alternative with the same level of adhesion and secondary corrosion resistance as that found in chrome containing conversion coating systems. Test data from military and independent sources will be presented on secondary coating adhesion, electrical conductivity, filiform and neutral salt-spray corrosion resistance as compared to chromate based systems .on magnesium, aluminum and zinc and their respective alloys. The European “RoSH” initiative will not allow for the presence of any hexavalent chromium on imported electrical components as of July first of 2006. Trivalent chromium based systems generate hexavalent chromium due to the oxidation of the trivalent chromium and as such will not be allowed.
Technical Paper

“Rigidization-on-Command”™ (ROC) Resin Development for Lightweight Isogrid Booms with MLI

The “Rigidization-on-Command”™ (ROC™) resin development has focused on the development of resin systems that use UV light cure for rigidization. Polymeric sensitizers have been incorporated into the resin formulations to promote cure using Pen-Ray lamps and UV light-emitting diodes (LED's). Formulations containing the polymeric sensitizers were examined by FTIR and DSC. Complete cure was observed after 15 min. exposure with the Pen-Ray lamps. Performance of the Pen-Ray lamps and UV LEDs was thoroughly characterized. Thermal models were developed to optimize the performance of the of the MLI insulation thermal oven used for orbital cure of the boom. Results show that -12°C is the lowest temperature required for cure of the ROC™ resin systems.
Technical Paper

“Derivation of Conduction Heat Transfer in Thin Shell Toroids”

This paper presents the derivation of the equations for circumferential, longitudinal and radial heat transfer conductance for a thin shell toroid or a segment of the toroid. A thin shell toroid is one in which the radius to thickness ratio is greater than 10. The equations for the surface area of a toroid or of a toroidal segment will also be derived along with the equation to determine the location of the centroid. The surface area is needed to determine the radial conductance in the toroid or toroidal segment and the centroid is needed to determine the heat transfer center of the toroid or toroidal segment for circumferential and longitudinal conductance. These equations can be used to obtain more accurate results for conductive heat transfer in toroid which is a curved spacecraft components. A comparison will be made (1) using the equations derived in this paper which takes into account the curvature of the toroid (true geometry) and (2) using flat plates to simulate the toroid.
Technical Paper

“Condensation – Why it Needs to be Addressed in Every Aircraft”

A wide body aircraft carries almost a half–ton of water and ice between the cabin and skin of the aircraft. The water can get on wires and connectors, which can cause electrical problems, cause corrosion and rust, and, eventually, “rain in the plane”. The speaker is the CEO of CTT Systems that has developed a system that solves the condensation by using dry air. The speaker will discuss how condensation can be prevented and how airlines can also save maintenance costs in the process. This topic is relevant for the attendees at the Aerospace Expo, as they are decision makers who need to be aware of this issue. It is also important for the MRO shows as the attendees are on the front lines of dealing with this problem.
Technical Paper

‘Skins’ by Design: Humans to Habitats

Whether we live on land, underwater, or out there in space, what makes it possible is our ‘skin’. The one we were born with, the one we wear, the one we live in, and the one we travel in. The skin is a response to where we live: it protects as our first line of defense against a hostile environment; it regulates as part of our life-support system; and, it communicates as our interface to everything within and without. In the context of space architecture – we, our space suits, vehicles and habitats are all equipped with highly specialized ‘skins’ that pad us, protect us and become an integral part of the design expression. This paper approaches the subject from a holistic perspective considering ‘skins’ and their manifestation as structure, as vessel, as texture, and as membrane. The paper then goes on to showcase innovative use of materials in practice through two case studies: the ‘spacesuit’ and ‘inflatable habitats’.
Technical Paper

the development of Refractory Sheet Metal Structures

THIS PAPER REPORTS on the present state of the art in the utilization of refractory metals for air frame and powerplant sheet metal components. By far the most promising of these metals to date is molybdenum. The mechanical and physical properties of molybdenum are well-suited for high-temperature service. The combination of relatively high thermal conductivity, low thermal expansion coefficient, good specific heat, and a reasonably high emissivity of a coated surface make this material suitable for exterior surface application on severely aerodynamically heated components. However, in its usable alloyed forms, molybdenum tends to behave in a brittle manner at room temperature, suffering from a high brittle-to-ductile transition temperature. Other unacceptable properties are the presence of laminations in the material, 45-deg preferred angle cracking, and difficulty of controlling interstitial alloying elements. The authors discuss each of these and the progress made in overcoming them
Technical Paper

the behavior of Radiation-Resistant ANP TURBINE LUBRICANTS

RADIATION can produce almost instantaneous failure of modern aircraft lubricants, tests at Southwest Research Institute show. Two types of failures demonstrated are rapid viscosity rise and loss of heat conductivity. Furthermore, it was found that lubricants can become excessively corrosive under high-level radiation. Generally speaking, the better lubricants appeared to improve in performance while marginal ones deteriorated to a greater extent under radiation. When the better lubricants were subjected to static irradiation prior to the deposition test, there was a minor increase in deposition number as the total dose was increased.
Technical Paper

the Machining of Ultra-Strength Alloys

THE AIR FORCE has set up a program to evaluate the machining characteristics of the more commonly used high-strength thermal-resistant materials. This paper describes the test results to date. Four materials are being tested: SAE 4340 quenched and tempered to 50–55 Rockwell C, SAE designation H11 quenched and tempered to 50–55 Rockwell C, AM-350 solution treated and aged, and A-286 solution treated and aged. Machining tests include: turning milling, drilling, and tapping.*
Technical Paper

some development problems with Large Cryogenic Propellant Systems

HEAT TRANSFER causes loading and starting design problems in large missile systems powered by cryogenic propellants. This manifests itself during loading as effective density variation, violent surface conditions, boiloff, and ice formation — problems which may be solved by insulating the tank. During starting it causes overheating and caviation — effects which may be reduced by recirculators and subcooled charge injections. The study described in this paper centers around liquid oxygen and its variations in heat flux rate, which affect liquid density, surface condition, and replenishing requirements. The problem areas are made apparent by consideration of a hypothetical missile system.*
Technical Paper

properties of Asbestos Reinforced Laminates at elevated temperatures

IF ROCKET OR MISSILE designers were asked to choose one specific property of engineering materials they would like to have improved, the largest percentage would undoubtedly select strength at high temperature. In addition to retaining strength at high temperatures, missile materials must be resistant to erosion and ablation. Missile structures must also be satisfactory when subjected to aerodynamic and acceleration loads, high stresses of vibration, and thermal shock. The need for low-density, easily fabricated, heat-resistant materials has resulted in a continuing search for more effective combinations of known materials, as well as the development of new materials. This paper discusses some interesting results obtained in studies of composite materials that might be used for rocket or missile construction.
Technical Paper

preliminary design considerations for the Structure of a Trisonic Transport

STRUCTURAL MATERIALS for Mach 3 jet transports pose difficult problems for the design engineer. Reasons for this problem are the incomplete information available on the many possible metals and the diversity of critical properties that are added by supersonic requirements. The material properties discussed in this paper include tensile strength, resistance to crack propagation, ease of fabrication, weldability, and thermal expansion. Cost factors are also considered. The structural configuration of the wing and fuselage is an example of the complexity of the material selection problem. The wing may be rigidity-critical, and the fuselage strength-critical; each requires diferent material properties to solve the problem.*
Technical Paper

prediction in new Metal Joining Processes

NEW WELDING processes are dropping costs while providing improvements in weld quality. This paper describes some of the more promising new developments in pressure and fusion welding and brazing. Included in the discussion are ultrasonic, high frequency resistance, foil seam, magnetic force, percussion, friction, and thermopressure welding and diffusion bonding. The description of adhesive bonding includes the development of glass or ceramic materials as structural adhesives.*

Zwick Roell provides flexible materials testing over a wide temperature range

To enable the tests required for development work to be performed with maximum efficiency, the Zwick Roell Group (ZwickRoell) – a global supplier of materials testing machines based out of Ulm, Germany – developed a materials testing machine that can be equipped with both a temperature chamber and a high-temperature furnace.
Technical Paper

Zone of Influence of Porous Suction Tubes in Condensing Heat Exchanger for Space Systems

A “next generation” condensing heat exchanger for space systems has to satisfy demanding operational requirements under variable thermal and moisture loads and reduced gravity conditions. Mathematical models described here are used to investigate transient behavior of wetting and de-wetting dynamics in the binary porous system of porous tubes and porous cold plate. The model is based on the Richard's equation simplified for the zero-gravity conditions. The half-saturation distance or the zone of influence of the porous annular suction tubes on the cold-plate porous material will be in the range of 1 to 10 cm for the time scales ranging from 100 to 10,000 seconds and moisture diffusivity in the range of D = 10-4 to 10-6 m2/s.