This Life Support Laboratory consists of a simulator of the spacecraft called Nautilus, which houses Air Revitalization Subsystem, Atmospheric Control and Supply, and Fire Detection and Suppression in the Equipment Area. There are supporting facilities including a Human Metabolic Simulator, simulated Low and Moderate Temperature Coolant Loop, chemical analysis bench, purified water supply, vacuum and gas supplies. These facilities are scheduled to be completed and start to operate for demonstration purposes by March 2005. There are an ARES Ground Model (AGM) and a Trace Contaminant Control Assembly in the ARS. The latter will be integrated with the AGM and a Condensing Heat Exchanger. The unit of AGM is being engineered, built, and will be delivered in early 2005 by EADS Space Division. These assemblies will be operated for sensitivity analysis, integration and optimization studies. The main goal is the achievement for optimal recovery of oxygen.
SOME POSSIBILITIES for shortening the field length requirements of present-day jet aircraft are: Install leading-edge, high-lift devices which are retrofitable to present-day aircraft. Retrofit — or purchase new — aircraft powered by turbofan engines. These have an inherently higher take-off thrust to cruise thrust ratio than the jets, which vastly improves the take-off acceleration. Use boundary-layer control actuated by turbine discharge gas for immediate consideration in new aircraft engines. Use direct-lift jet engines. These will improve the block speed characteristics of the aircraft and also give vertical take-off and landing capabilities. This paper discusses the advantages of each of these possibilities. The author also describes the problem of airport location within a city, and its effect of total travel time.*
THE FIRST YEAR of jet airline operation has brought many problems — and satisfactions — to the industry. Here the author discusses some of the more serious problems: 1. Scheduling. American Airlines used the “Monte Carlo” method to calculate payloads and flight times. 2. Baggage handling. Almost nothing annoys a passenger more than long waits for baggage at the end of a flight. One approach to the problem is the baggage expediter system. 3. Mechanical shutdowns. 4. Runway length. 5. Noise. Noise suppressors have not been effective enough, from the standpoint of communities surroundings airports. Development of the turbofan engine offers some hope in this area.*
THE optimum mode of control for an aircraft engine is dependent on both the configuration of the engine and its application. Each engine application requires several detail modes of control, one for each definable regime of operation of the engine. Discussions of control requirements can be simplified by classifying these regimes by objectives: physical limiting, thrust, and transient control. The turbojet engine is the basis for the discussion in this paper. Acceptable modes of control can often be selected by inspection of the engine and its application. Selection of an “optimum” control mode requires investigation of the operation of the engine and weapons system at every stage of its use. The selection of a “mode” of control requires a compromise between performance and other design factors. The need for simplicity and accuracy must be balanced against the stability requirements. The availability and flexibility of control components may limit the modes of control considered.
eROSITA (extended ROentgen Survey with an Imaging Telescope Array) is a powerful X-ray telescope under development by the Max-Planck-Institut für extraterrestrische Physik (MPE) in Garching, Germany. eROSITA is the core instrument on the Russian SRG1 mission which is planned for launch in 2011. It comprises seven nested Wolter-I grazing incidence telescopes, each equipped with its own CCD camera. The mirror modules have to be maintained at 20°C while the cameras are operated at -80°C. Both, mirrors and CCDs have to be kept within tight limits. The CCD cooling system consists of passive thermal control components only: two radiators, variable conductance heat pipes (VCHP) and two special thermal storage units. The orbit scenario imposes severe challenges on the thermal control system and also on the attitude control system.
THE performance characteristics of various devices applicable for jet directional control, lift augmentation, and VTOL-STOL studied at the NACA Lewis Laboratory are discussed, including jet deflection devices applicable to the conventonal round nozzle and novel nozzle configurations. The results indicate that many of the deflection devices applicable to conventional nozzles can readily be used for directional control or lift augmentation. Other deflection devices, such as movable plug, internal flap, cylindrical thrust reverser, swiveled primary with fixed shroud, and 90 deg side-bleed nozzle, are limited in application to jet directional control or aircraft trim because the loss in axial thrust for a given deflection force is prohibitive or the maximum deflected force obtainable is limited.
SUBSTANTIAL POWER is necessary to start the modern jet engine. Thus, starting equipment has become a major concern of air transport operators. This paper discusses the equipment used with self-contained starting systems. The authors discuss and evaluate a variety of self-contained systems: combustor, fuel-air combustion, cartridge, liquid propellant, hydraulic supported by auxiliary power units, and electric supported by APU. Possible future systems are: self-breathing systems, oxygen combustors, and liquid-oxygen-water-fuel combustors. It is emphasized that the choice of a starting system for a particular aircraft will depend on aircraft characteristics and the aircraft's intended use.*
The likelihood of transmission of potential disease agents between animals and man during spaceflight is a real concern. Development of disease exclusion lists for animals and refinement of animal containment units have been the principal means of providing protection to the crew members. Awareness of potential latent infections and a judicious use of the higher risk category of animals such as wild-caught nonhuman primates provides another level of protection. Use of high efficiency filters, gasketing, and differential air pressures have all enabled increasing levels of safety through containment of potential aerosol escape from animal habitats.
Future space exploration missions will require a lightweight spacesuit that expends no consumables. This paper describes the design and performance of a prototype heat rejection system that weighs less than current systems and vents zero water. The system uses regenerable LiCl/water absorption cooling. Absorption cooling boosts the heat absorbed from the crew member to a high temperature for rejection to space from a compact, non-venting radiator. The system is regenerated by heating to 100°C for two hours. The system provides refrigeration at 17°C and rejects heat at temperatures greater than 50°C. The overall cooling capacity is over 100 W-hr/kg.
Conventional attribute sampling plans based upon nonzero acceptance numbers are no longer desirable. In addition, emphasis is now placed on the quality level that is received by the customer. This relates directly to the Lot Tolerance Percent Defective (LTPD) value or the Limiting Quality Protection of MIL-STD-105. Measuring quality levels in percent nonconforming, although not incorrect, has been replaced with quality levels measured in parts per million (PPM). As a result, this standard addresses the need for sampling plans that can augment MIL-STD-105, are based upon a zero acceptance number, and address quality (nonconformance) levels in the parts per million range. This document does not address minor nonconformances, which are defined as nonconformances that are not likely to reduce materially the usability of the unit of product for its intended purpose.
The X-Wing concept employs a single lifting system for all modes of flight. The lifting system is comprised of four very rigid, circulation control wings with blowing for lift modulation and control. For hover and low speed flight, the wings rotate such as the rotor of a helicopter. For high speed flight, the wings are stopped in an “X” configuration across the fuselage - from which the name of the concept is derived - with two forward-swept wings and two aft-swept wings. Such a vehicle is also envisioned to have an integrated gas turbine propulsive system for all flight modes. At low speeds, the gas generators) would drive a shaft to turn the wings and the circulation control compressor as well as a set of propulsive fans. For high-speed flight, the shaft would drive only the compressor and accessories as the fans propel the vehicle. The X-Wing concept has been underdevelopment for over 15 years.
The auxiliary power system of the X-15 airplane represents a uniqueness in its application. It must operate continuously in flight, in a space environment, during zero gravity, during reentry heating, and for a period of time which often exceeds the X-15 rocket engine operation by 1400 sec. The X-15 auxiliary power system must provide both hydraulic and closely regulated 400-cycle electrical power for operation of various X-15 systems. This paper describes the system, its functions, and its major components. A brief introduction to an X-15 research mission is included to illustrate the integration requirements of the auxiliary power system to the X-15 and the research system.
This SAE Aerospace Standard (AS) covers 12 point flare nut crowfoot, flare nut wrenches, double end flare nut wrenches, combination box and flare nut wrenches, and ratcheting flare nut wrenches that are designed with the following requirements: (a) Non-distorting usage; (b) Possessing the strength, clearances, and internal wrenching design to be used on hydraulic tube fittings that conform to the requirements of SAE J514; (c) Transmitting torque to tube fittings without bearing on the apex of fitting wrenching points. Inclusion of dimensional data in this document is not intended to imply that all of the products described herein are stock production sizes. Consumers are requested to consult with manufacturers concerning lists of stock production sizes.
This SAE Aerospace Standard (AS) covers high strength thin wall (commercial) sockets, universal sockets, box wrenches and torque adaptors which possess the strength, clearances, and internal wrenching design so configured that, when mated with 12-point fasteners conforming to the requirement of AS870, they shall transmit torque to the fastener without bearing on the outer 5% of the fastener's wrenching points. Inclusion of dimensional data in this document is not intended to imply that all of the products described herein are stock production sizes. Consumers are requested to consult with manufacturers concerning lists of stock production sizes. The dimensional limits of box and combination wrench lengths have been established to provide configuration control for tool storage applications.
This SAE Aerospace Standard (AS) covers adjustable and non-adjustable spanner wrenches generally used for aerospace machinery maintenance and for tightening and loosening hose couplings and hydrant caps. Inclusion of dimensional data in this document is not intended to imply all of the products described therein are stock production sizes. Consumers are requested to consult with manufacturers concerning lists of stock production sizes.
The substantiation of heat pipe usage in passive radiative cooling systems on temperature level (190…240) K for space optical sensors is presented. Heat pipes can be sound practice like heat conducting lines between sensor and radiator particularly at distances more 0.2 m and irreplaceable at distances (0.5…2) m. Embedding heat pipe with radiator allows to create the uniform temperature basis in case of several sensors connection to single radiator and to improve radiator efficiency. It is analyzed approach to design of thermocontrol and cooling radiative systems with heat pipes to reduce sensitiveness to external light disturbances and to enlarge area of radiative system application. The results of design, thermovacuum test and flight operation of thermocontrol radiative system samples are under discussion as well.