Correlating the Diesel Spray Behavior to Nozzle Design
This paper studies the effect of nozzle geometry on the flow characteristics inside a diesel fuel injection nozzle and correlates to the subsequent atomization process under different operating conditions, using simple turbulent breakup model. Two kinds of nozzles, valve covered orifice (VCO) and mini-SAC nozzle, with various nozzle design parameters were studied. The internal flow inside the nozzle was simulated using 3-D computational fluid dynamics software with k-ε turbulence model. The flow field at the nozzle exit was characterized by two parameters: the fuel discharge coefficient Cd and the initial amplitude parameter amp0. The latter parameter represents the turbulence characteristics of the exit flow. The effects of nozzle geometry on the mean velocity and turbulent energy distribution of the exit flow were also studied. The characteristics of the exit flow were then incorporated into the spray model in KIVA-II to study the effect of nozzle design on diesel spray behavior.