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Journal Article

Wheel Bearing Brinelling and a Vehicle Curb Impact DOE to Understand Factors Affecting Bearing Loads

As material cleanliness and bearing lubrication have improved, wheel bearings are experiencing less raceway spalling failures from rotating fatigue. Warranty part reviews have shown that two of the larger failure modes for wheel bearings are contaminant ingress and Brinell damage from curb and pothole impacts. Warranty has also shown that larger wheels have higher rates of Brinell warranty. This paper discusses the Brinell failure mode for bearings. It reviews a vehicle test used to evaluate Brinell performance for wheel bearings. The paper also discusses a design of experiments to study the effects of factors such as wheel size, vehicle loading and vehicle position versus the bearing load from a vehicle side impact to the wheel. As the trend in vehicle styling is moving to larger wheels and low profile tires, understanding the impact load can help properly size wheel bearings.
Technical Paper

Virtual Traffic Simulator for Connected and Automated Vehicles

Connected and automated vehicle (CAV) technologies promise a substantial decrease in traffic accidents and traffic jams, and bring new opportunities for improving vehicle’s fuel economy. However, testing autonomous vehicles in a real world traffic environment is costly, and covering all corner cases is nearly impossible. Furthermore, it is very challenging to create a controlled real traffic environment that vehicle tests can be conducted repeatedly and compared fairly. With the capability of allowing testing more scenarios than those that would be possible with real world testing, simulations are deemed safer, more efficient, and more cost-effective. In this work, a full-scale simulation platform was developed to simulate the infrastructure, traffic, vehicle, powertrain, and their interactions. It is used as an effective tool to facilitate control algorithm development for improving CAV’s fuel economy in real world driving scenarios.
Technical Paper

Virtual Powertrain Calibration at GM Becomes a Reality

GM's R oad-to- L ab-to- M ath (RLM) initiative is a fundamental engineering strategy leading to higher quality design, reduced structural cost, and improved product development time. GM started the RLM initiative several years ago and the RLM initiative has already provided successful results. The purpose of this paper is to detail the specific RLM efforts at GM related to powertrain controls development and calibration. This paper will focus on the current state of the art but will also examine the history and the future of these related activities. This paper will present a controls development environment and methodology for providing powertrain controls developers with virtual (in the absence of ECU and vehicle hardware) calibration capabilities within their current desktop controls development environment.
Journal Article

Valve Guide for High Temperature Applications

Sintered valve guides are increasingly used in various engine applications due to their superior durability and cost. Typical valve guide materials are low alloyed materials of the type Fe-Cu-C. More severe applications may require higher alloying content. One such application is EGR where the exhaust temperatures are much higher as compared to the conventional automotive valve guide. A new material was developed to work in this harsh environment. The object of this paper is to report development of this material including material properties and durability test results.
Technical Paper

Validating Prototype Connected Vehicle-to-Infrastructure Safety Applications in Real- World Settings

This paper summarizes the validation of prototype vehicle-to-infrastructure (V2I) safety applications based on Dedicated Short Range Communications (DSRC) in the United States under a cooperative agreement between the Crash Avoidance Metrics Partners LLC (CAMP) and the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA). After consideration of a number of V2I safety applications, Red Light Violation Warning (RLVW), Curve Speed Warning (CSW) and Reduced Speed Zone Warning with Lane Closure Warning (RSZW/LC) were developed, validated and demonstrated using seven different vehicles (six passenger vehicles and one Class 8 truck) leveraging DSRC-based messages from a Road Side Unit (RSU). The developed V2I safety applications were validated for more than 20 distinct scenarios and over 100 test runs using both light- and heavy-duty vehicles over a period of seven months. Subsequently, additional on-road testing of CSW on public roads and RSZW/LC in live work zones were conducted in Southeast Michigan.
Technical Paper

Timing Gear Whine Noise Reduction Methodology and Application in Superchargers

Extensive experimental and numerical investigations were done to improve the vibration and acoustic performance due to excitation at the timing gears of automotive supercharger. Gear excitation, system response, and covers have been studied to find the most cost efficient method for reducing gear whine noise. Initially, gear excitation was studied where it was found that transmission error due to profile quality was the dominant source parameter for gear whine noise. To investigate the system effects on gear noise, a parametric study was carried using FEM model of the supercharger, with special interests in optimizing dynamic characteristics of internal components and the coupling to supercharger housing. The BEM model of the corresponding supercharger was built to predict the noise improvement after dynamic optimization of the system. Good correlations were observed between experimental and numerical results in both dynamic and acoustic parameters.
Journal Article

The Effect of Outer Ring Distortion on Wheel Bearing Friction Torque

Wheel bearing friction torque (“drag”) directly contributes to vehicle fuel economy and CO2 emissions. At the same time, one of the most important factors for long-term durability of wheel bearings is effective seal performance. Since these two factors are often in conflict, it is important to balance the desire for low friction with the need for optimal sealing. One factor that affects wheel bearing sealing performance is the distortion of the outer ring that occurs when the bearing is mounted to the steering knuckle with fasteners. Minimizing this distortion is not just important for sealing, however. This paper explores the relationship between the outer ring distortion and the resulting friction torque. A design of experiments (DOE) approach was used in order to study the effects of the fastening bolt torque, constant velocity joint (CVJ) fastening torque, and outer ring distortion on component-level drag.
Technical Paper

Tensile Material Properties of Fabrics for Vehicle Interiors from Digital Image Correlation

Fabric materials have diverse applications in the automotive industry which include upholstery, carpeting, safety devices, and interior trim components. The textile industry has invested substantial effort toward development of standard testing techniques for characterizing mechanical properties of different fabric types (e.g. woven and knitted). However, there are presently no standards for determination of Young's modulus, Poisson's ratio and tensile stress-strain properties required for the detailed modeling of fabric materials in vehicle structural simulations. This paper presents results from uniaxial tensile tests of different automotive seat cover fabric materials. Digital image correlation, a full field optical method for measuring surface deformation, was used to determine tensile properties in both the warp/wale and the weft/course directions. The fabrics were tested with and without the foam backing.
Technical Paper

Switching Roller Finger Follower Meets Lifetime Passenger Car Durability Requirements

An advanced variable valve actuation (VVA) system is characterized following end-of-life testing to enable fuel economy solutions for passenger car applications. The system consists of a switching roller finger follower (SRFF) combined with a dual feed hydraulic lash adjuster and an oil control valve that are integrated into a four cylinder gasoline engine. The SRFF provides discrete valve lift capability on the intake valves. The motivation for designing this type of VVA system is targeted to improve fuel economy by reducing the air pumping losses during part load engine operation. This paper addresses the durability of a SRFF for meeting passenger car durability requirements. Extensive durability tests were conducted for high speed, low speed, switching, and cold start operation. High engine speed test results show stable valvetrain dynamics above 7000 engine rpm. System wear requirements met end-of-life criteria for the switching, sliding, rolling and torsion spring interfaces.
Technical Paper

Studies on Drivers’ Driving Styles Based on Inverse Reinforcement Learning

Although advanced driver assistance systems (ADAS) have been widely introduced in automotive industry to enhance driving safety and comfort, and to reduce drivers’ driving burden, they do not in general reflect different drivers’ driving styles or customized with individual personalities. This can be important to comfort and enjoyable driving experience, and to improved market acceptance. However, it is challenging to understand and further identify drivers’ driving styles due to large number and great variations of driving population. Previous research has mainly adopted physical approaches in modeling drivers’ driving behavior, which however are often very much limited, if not impossible, in capturing human drivers’ driving characteristics. This paper proposes a reinforcement learning based approach, in which the driving styles are formulated through drivers’ learning processes from interaction with surrounding environment.
Technical Paper

Stress Analysis of an Automotive Engine Valve by Finite Element Methods

A detailed study, by finite element method (FEM), was conducted on an automotive engine exhaust valve subject to various loads (i.e. spring load, combustion pressure load, temperature profile and valve impact closing velocity). The 3D nonlinear (contact element and temperature-dependent) thermal-mechanical model was constructed and implicit time integration method was employed in transient dynamics under impact velocity. The predicted temperatures and maximum valve stress under impact velocity via FEM were compared with the measured test data, which were in good agreement. In addition, this study finds that the energy transfer during valve closing in normal engine operation is mainly conservative, and a linear relation exists between valve closing velocity and maximum stem stress, that was also confirmed by both test data and analytical expression presented using elastic wave and vibration theory.
Technical Paper

Simulation of an Engine Valve Stress/Strain Response During a Closing Event

Using an implicit transient FEA models of an intake engine valve, the dynamic stress/strain response of a valve closing (impact) on the valve seat was simulated. Key dynamic events during the closing process were identified and their corresponding physics accounted for in the model including: valve seat contact, valve tilt, rocker arm separation, material properties, shock wave and stem seal damping. Empirical tests were conducted to characterize the stem seal damping as a function of valve stem velocity. In addition, a simplified dynamics equation approach was developed. The results were successfully correlated to recorded strain gauge data.
Technical Paper

Simulation and Experimental Study of Torque Vectoring on Vehicle Handling and Stability

This paper discusses the effect of torque vectoring differential on improving vehicle handling and stability performance. The torque vectoring concept has been analyzed. The vehicle discussed in this paper is an AWD vehicle with torque vectoring differential in the rear and a torque biasing center differential. First, simulation results with vehicle model in CarSim® and torque vectoring control algorithm in Matlab®/Simulink® is discussed. Then, experimental results for vehicle tested at winter and summer test facility is presented. Both simulation and experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of torque vectoring differential on vehicle handling & stability.
Technical Paper

Scavenge Ports Ooptimization of a 2-Stroke Opposed Piston Diesel Engine

This work reports a CFD study on a 2-stroke (2-S) opposed piston high speed direct injection (HSDI) Diesel engine. The engine main features (bore, stroke, port timings, et cetera) are defined in a previous stage of the project, while the current analysis is focused on the assembly made up of scavenge ports, manifold and cylinder. The first step of the study consists in the construction of a parametric mesh on a simplified geometry. Two geometric parameters and three different operating conditions are considered. A CFD-3D simulation by using a customized version of the KIVA-4 code is performed on a set of 243 different cases, sweeping all the most interesting combinations of geometric parameters and operating conditions. The post-processing of this huge amount of data allow us to define the most effective geometric configuration, named baseline.
Technical Paper

Preliminary Numerical Analysis of Valve Fatigue in a Checkball Pump for Driveline Applications

Recent studies have shown that hydraulic hybrid drivelines can significantly improve fuel savings for medium weight vehicles on stop-start drive cycles. In a series hydraulic hybrid (SHH) architecture, the conventional mechanical driveline is replaced with a hydraulic driveline that decouples vehicle speed from engine speed. In an effort to increase the design space, this paper explores the use of a fixed displacement checkball piston pump in an SHH driveline. This paper identifies the potential life-limiting components of a fixed displacement checkball piston pump and examines the likelihood of surface fatigue in the check valves themselves. Numerical analysis in ABAQUS software suggests that under worst case operating conditions, cyclic pressure loading will result in low-cycle plastic deformation of check valve surfaces.
Journal Article

Performance of a Fuel Reformer, LNT and SCR Aftertreatment System Following 500 LNT Desulfation Events

An advanced exhaust aftertreatment system is characterized following end-of-life catalyst aging to meet final Tier 4 off-highway emission requirements. This system consists of a fuel dosing system, mixing elements, fuel reformer, lean NOx trap (LNT), diesel particulate filter (DPF), and a selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalyst. The fuel reformer is used to generate hydrogen (H2) and carbon monoxide (CO) from injected diesel fuel. These reductants are used to regenerate and desulfate the LNT catalyst. NOx emissions are reduced using the combination of the LNT and SCR catalysts. During LNT regeneration, ammonia (NH3) is intentionally released from the LNT and stored on the downstream SCR catalyst to further reduce NOx that passed through the LNT catalyst. This paper addresses system durability as the catalysts were aged to 500 desulfation events using an off-highway diesel engine.
Technical Paper

Nonlinear Modeling of an Electromagnetic Valve Actuator

This paper presents the modeling of an Electromagnetic Valve Actuator (EMV). A nonlinear model is formulated and presented that takes into account secondary nonlinearities like hysteresis, saturation, bounce and mutual inductance. The uniqueness of the model is contained in the method used in modeling hysteresis, saturation and mutual inductance. Theoretical and experimental methods for identifying parameters of the model are presented. The nonlinear model is experimentally validated. Simulation and experimental results are presented for an EMV designed and built in our laboratory. The experimental results show that sensorless estimation could be a possible solution for position control.
Technical Paper

Multi-Objective Design Optimization Using a Damage Material Model Applied to Light Weighting a Formula SAE Car Suspension Component

The Mississippi State University Formula SAE race car upright was optimized using radial basis function metamodels and an internal state variable (ISV) plasticity damage material model. The weight reduction of the upright was part of a goal to reduce the weight of the vehicle by 25 percent. Using an optimization routine provided an upright design that is lighter that helps to improve vehicle fuel economy, acceleration, and handling. Finite element (FE) models of the upright were produced using quadratic tetrahedral elements. Using tetrahedral elements provided a quick way to produce the multiple FE models of the upright required for the multi-objective optimization. A design of experiments was used to determine how many simulations were required for the optimization. The loads for the simulations included braking, acceleration, and corning loads seen by the car under track conditions.
Technical Paper

Modified Experimental Approach to Investigate Coefficient of Friction and Wear under Lubricated Fretting Condition by Utilizing SRV Test Machine

Fretting is an important phenomenon that happens in many mechanical parts. It is the main reason in deadly failures in automobiles, airliners, and turbine engines. The damage is noticed between two surfaces clamped together by bolts or rivets that are nominally at rest, but have a small amplitude oscillation because of vibration or local cyclic loading. Fretting damage can be divided into two types. The first type is the fretting fatigue damage where a crack would initiate and propagate at specific location at the interface of the mating surfaces. Cracks usually initiate in the material with lower strength because of the local cyclic loading conditions which eventually lead to full failure. The second type is the fretting wear damage because of external vibration. Researchers have investigated this phenomenon by theoretical modeling and experimental approaches. Although a lot of research has been done on fretting damage, some of the parameters have not been well studied.
Technical Paper

Modeling the Stiffness and Damping Properties of Styrene-Butadiene Rubber

Styrene-Butadiene Rubber (SBR), a copolymer of butadiene and styrene, is widely used in the automotive industry due to its high durability and resistance to abrasion, oils and oxidation. Some of the common applications include tires, vibration isolators, and gaskets, among others. This paper characterizes the dynamic behavior of SBR and discusses the suitability of a visco-elastic model of elastomers, known as the Kelvin model, from a mathematical and physical point of view. An optimization algorithm is used to estimate the parameters of the Kelvin model. The resulting model was shown to produce reasonable approximations of measured dynamic stiffness. The model was also used to calculate the self heating of the elastomer due to energy dissipation by the viscous damping components in the model. Developing such a predictive capability is essential in understanding the dynamic behavior of elastomers considering that their dynamic stiffness can in general depend on temperature.