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Journal Article

Valve Guide for High Temperature Applications

Sintered valve guides are increasingly used in various engine applications due to their superior durability and cost. Typical valve guide materials are low alloyed materials of the type Fe-Cu-C. More severe applications may require higher alloying content. One such application is EGR where the exhaust temperatures are much higher as compared to the conventional automotive valve guide. A new material was developed to work in this harsh environment. The object of this paper is to report development of this material including material properties and durability test results.
Technical Paper

Timing Gear Whine Noise Reduction Methodology and Application in Superchargers

Extensive experimental and numerical investigations were done to improve the vibration and acoustic performance due to excitation at the timing gears of automotive supercharger. Gear excitation, system response, and covers have been studied to find the most cost efficient method for reducing gear whine noise. Initially, gear excitation was studied where it was found that transmission error due to profile quality was the dominant source parameter for gear whine noise. To investigate the system effects on gear noise, a parametric study was carried using FEM model of the supercharger, with special interests in optimizing dynamic characteristics of internal components and the coupling to supercharger housing. The BEM model of the corresponding supercharger was built to predict the noise improvement after dynamic optimization of the system. Good correlations were observed between experimental and numerical results in both dynamic and acoustic parameters.
Technical Paper

Switching Roller Finger Follower Meets Lifetime Passenger Car Durability Requirements

An advanced variable valve actuation (VVA) system is characterized following end-of-life testing to enable fuel economy solutions for passenger car applications. The system consists of a switching roller finger follower (SRFF) combined with a dual feed hydraulic lash adjuster and an oil control valve that are integrated into a four cylinder gasoline engine. The SRFF provides discrete valve lift capability on the intake valves. The motivation for designing this type of VVA system is targeted to improve fuel economy by reducing the air pumping losses during part load engine operation. This paper addresses the durability of a SRFF for meeting passenger car durability requirements. Extensive durability tests were conducted for high speed, low speed, switching, and cold start operation. High engine speed test results show stable valvetrain dynamics above 7000 engine rpm. System wear requirements met end-of-life criteria for the switching, sliding, rolling and torsion spring interfaces.
Technical Paper

Stress Analysis of an Automotive Engine Valve by Finite Element Methods

A detailed study, by finite element method (FEM), was conducted on an automotive engine exhaust valve subject to various loads (i.e. spring load, combustion pressure load, temperature profile and valve impact closing velocity). The 3D nonlinear (contact element and temperature-dependent) thermal-mechanical model was constructed and implicit time integration method was employed in transient dynamics under impact velocity. The predicted temperatures and maximum valve stress under impact velocity via FEM were compared with the measured test data, which were in good agreement. In addition, this study finds that the energy transfer during valve closing in normal engine operation is mainly conservative, and a linear relation exists between valve closing velocity and maximum stem stress, that was also confirmed by both test data and analytical expression presented using elastic wave and vibration theory.
Technical Paper

Simulation of an Engine Valve Stress/Strain Response During a Closing Event

Using an implicit transient FEA models of an intake engine valve, the dynamic stress/strain response of a valve closing (impact) on the valve seat was simulated. Key dynamic events during the closing process were identified and their corresponding physics accounted for in the model including: valve seat contact, valve tilt, rocker arm separation, material properties, shock wave and stem seal damping. Empirical tests were conducted to characterize the stem seal damping as a function of valve stem velocity. In addition, a simplified dynamics equation approach was developed. The results were successfully correlated to recorded strain gauge data.
Technical Paper

Simulation and Experimental Study of Torque Vectoring on Vehicle Handling and Stability

This paper discusses the effect of torque vectoring differential on improving vehicle handling and stability performance. The torque vectoring concept has been analyzed. The vehicle discussed in this paper is an AWD vehicle with torque vectoring differential in the rear and a torque biasing center differential. First, simulation results with vehicle model in CarSim® and torque vectoring control algorithm in Matlab®/Simulink® is discussed. Then, experimental results for vehicle tested at winter and summer test facility is presented. Both simulation and experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of torque vectoring differential on vehicle handling & stability.
Technical Paper

Preliminary Numerical Analysis of Valve Fatigue in a Checkball Pump for Driveline Applications

Recent studies have shown that hydraulic hybrid drivelines can significantly improve fuel savings for medium weight vehicles on stop-start drive cycles. In a series hydraulic hybrid (SHH) architecture, the conventional mechanical driveline is replaced with a hydraulic driveline that decouples vehicle speed from engine speed. In an effort to increase the design space, this paper explores the use of a fixed displacement checkball piston pump in an SHH driveline. This paper identifies the potential life-limiting components of a fixed displacement checkball piston pump and examines the likelihood of surface fatigue in the check valves themselves. Numerical analysis in ABAQUS software suggests that under worst case operating conditions, cyclic pressure loading will result in low-cycle plastic deformation of check valve surfaces.
Journal Article

Performance of a Fuel Reformer, LNT and SCR Aftertreatment System Following 500 LNT Desulfation Events

An advanced exhaust aftertreatment system is characterized following end-of-life catalyst aging to meet final Tier 4 off-highway emission requirements. This system consists of a fuel dosing system, mixing elements, fuel reformer, lean NOx trap (LNT), diesel particulate filter (DPF), and a selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalyst. The fuel reformer is used to generate hydrogen (H2) and carbon monoxide (CO) from injected diesel fuel. These reductants are used to regenerate and desulfate the LNT catalyst. NOx emissions are reduced using the combination of the LNT and SCR catalysts. During LNT regeneration, ammonia (NH3) is intentionally released from the LNT and stored on the downstream SCR catalyst to further reduce NOx that passed through the LNT catalyst. This paper addresses system durability as the catalysts were aged to 500 desulfation events using an off-highway diesel engine.
Technical Paper

Nonlinear Modeling of an Electromagnetic Valve Actuator

This paper presents the modeling of an Electromagnetic Valve Actuator (EMV). A nonlinear model is formulated and presented that takes into account secondary nonlinearities like hysteresis, saturation, bounce and mutual inductance. The uniqueness of the model is contained in the method used in modeling hysteresis, saturation and mutual inductance. Theoretical and experimental methods for identifying parameters of the model are presented. The nonlinear model is experimentally validated. Simulation and experimental results are presented for an EMV designed and built in our laboratory. The experimental results show that sensorless estimation could be a possible solution for position control.
Technical Paper

Multi-Objective Design Optimization Using a Damage Material Model Applied to Light Weighting a Formula SAE Car Suspension Component

The Mississippi State University Formula SAE race car upright was optimized using radial basis function metamodels and an internal state variable (ISV) plasticity damage material model. The weight reduction of the upright was part of a goal to reduce the weight of the vehicle by 25 percent. Using an optimization routine provided an upright design that is lighter that helps to improve vehicle fuel economy, acceleration, and handling. Finite element (FE) models of the upright were produced using quadratic tetrahedral elements. Using tetrahedral elements provided a quick way to produce the multiple FE models of the upright required for the multi-objective optimization. A design of experiments was used to determine how many simulations were required for the optimization. The loads for the simulations included braking, acceleration, and corning loads seen by the car under track conditions.
Technical Paper

Modeling and Experimentation of GDI-Sized Particulate Filtration and Pressure-Drop Behavior in Uncoated Commercial DPF Substrates

Gasoline Direct Injection (GDI) is known to produce lower concentrations of smaller particulate matter (PM) compared to diesel combustion [1]. The lower concentration results in the absence of soot-cake formation on the filter channel wall and therefore filtration behavior deviates from the expected diesel particulate filter (DPF) performance. Therefore, studies of cake-less filtration regimes for smaller sized particulates is of interest for GDI PM mitigation. This work investigates the filtration efficiency of laboratory-generated particulates, representative of GDI-sized PM, in uncoated, commercial DPF cordierite substrates of varying porosities. Size-dependent particulate concentrations were measured using a Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer (SMPS), both upstream and downstream of the filters. By comparing these measured concentrations, the particle size-dependent filtration efficiency of filter samples was calculated.
Technical Paper

Key Outcomes of Year One of EcoCAR 2: Plugging in to the Future

EcoCAR 2: Plugging In to the Future (EcoCAR) is North America's premier collegiate automotive engineering competition, challenging students with systems-level advanced powertrain design and integration. The three-year Advanced Vehicle Technology Competition (AVTC) series is organized by Argonne National Laboratory, headline sponsored by the U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) and General Motors (GM), and sponsored by more than 28 industry and government leaders. Fifteen university teams from across North America are challenged to reduce the environmental impact of a 2013 Chevrolet Malibu by redesigning the vehicle powertrain without compromising performance, safety, or consumer acceptability. During the three-year program, EcoCAR teams follow a real-world Vehicle Development Process (VDP) modeled after GM's own VDP. The VDP serves as a roadmap for the engineering process of designing, building and refining advanced technology vehicles.
Technical Paper

Hardware-In-the-Loop (HIL) Modeling and Simulation for Diesel Aftertreatment Controls Devlopment

This paper addresses Hardware-In-the-Loop modeling and simulation for Diesel aftertreatment controls system development. Lean NOx Trap (LNT) based aftertreatment system is an efficient way to reduce NOx emission from diesel engines. From control system perspective, the main challenge in aftertreatment system is to predict temperature at various locations and estimate the stored NOx in LNT. Accurate estimation of temperatures and NOx stored in the LNT will result in an efficient system control with less fuel penalty while still maintaining the emission requirements. The optimization of the controls will prolong the lifespan of the system by avoiding overheating the catalysts, and slow the progressive process of component aging. Under real world conditions, it is quite difficult and costly to test the performance of a such complex controller by using only vehicle tests and engine cells.
Technical Paper

Gear Transmission Error Metric for Use with Gear Inspection Machine

The spur timing gears in Eaton superchargers operate at low torque loads and the supercharger system is especially sensitive to gear whine noise created by minute differences in the spur gear tooth profile quality. This has necessitated the grinding of very high quality profiles on high-contact-ratio spur gears. The manufacturing operation has used subjective evaluation of profile and lead measurements to qualify grinder diamonds and audit gear quality related to noise. They have also relied on supercharger end-of-line-testers to provide a direct measurement of gear noise as the primary quality feedback to the gear manufacturing process. Since the difference in the inspection plots of very high quality profiles is difficult to determine subjectively, the inspection process assessments have been difficult to correlate to the resultant gear noise measurements.
Technical Paper

Gear Design for Low Whine Noise in a Supercharger Application

Supercharger gear whine noise has been a NVH concern for many years, especially around idle rpm. The engine masking noise is very low at idle and the supercharger is sensitive to transmitted gear whine noise from the timing gears. The low loads and desire to use spur gears for ease in timing the rotors have caused the need to make very accurate profiles for minimizing gear whine noise. Over the past several years there has been an effort to better understand gear whine noise source and transmission path. Based on understanding the shaft bending mode frequencies and better gear design optimization tools, the gear design was modified to increase the number of teeth in order to move out of the frequency range of the shaft bending modes at idle speed and to lower the transmission error of the gear design through optimization using the RMC (Run Many Cases) software from the OSU gear laboratory.
Technical Paper

Fatigue Life Assessment on an Automotive Engine Exhaust Valve

This paper presents the fatigue life assessment work on an engine exhaust valve subject to specified durability test cycles. Using valve stress (or strain) data from finite element methods, material fatigue data, and fatigue prediction models (i.e. SN approach and εN approach based on multi-axial Brown-Miller critical plane method), the valve life estimates were obtained and compared with the observed test data, which were in reasonable agreement. In addition, crack growth approach was used and valve crack propagation life including early stage growth was computed. Finally, a general discussion on three life estimates (i.e. fatigue total life, strain-life and crack growth life) was provided with their governing equation, supported by three real cases.
Technical Paper

Fatigue Analysis Methodology for Predicting Engine Valve Life

Using FEM (Finite Element Method) and other analytical approaches, a systematic methodology was developed to predict an engine valve's fatigue life. In this study, a steel (SAE 21-2N) exhaust valve on an engine with a type 2 valve train configuration was used as a test case. Temperature and stress/strain responses of each major event phase of the engine cycle were analytically simulated. CFD models were developed to simulate the exhaust gas flow to generate boundary conditions for a thermal model of the valve. FEM simulations accounted for thermal loads, temperature dependent material properties, thermal stresses, closing impact stresses and combustion load stresses. An estimated fatigue life was calculated using Miner's rule of damage accumulation in conjunction with the Modified Goodman approach for fluctuating stresses. Predicted life results correlated very well with empirical tests.
Technical Paper

Effect of Intake Valve Profile Modulation on Passenger Car Fuel Consumption

Variable valve actuation is a focus to improve fuel efficiency for passenger car engines. Various means to implement early and late intake valve closing (E/LIVC) at lower load operating conditions is investigated. The study uses GT Power to simulate on E/LIVC on a 2.5 L gasoline engine, in-line four cylinder, four valve per cylinder engine to evaluate different ways to achieve Atkinson cycle performance. EIVC and LIVC are proven methods to reduce the compression-to-expansion ratio of the engine at part load and medium load operation. Among the LIVC strategies, two non-traditional intake valve lift profiles are investigated to understand their impact on reduction of fuel consumption at low engine loads. Both the non-traditional lift profiles retain the same maximum lift as a normal intake valve profile (Otto-cycle) unlike a traditional LIVC profile (Atkinson cycle) which needs higher maximum lift.
Technical Paper

Downspeeding and Supercharging a Diesel Passenger Car for Increased Fuel Economy

The effects of downspeeding and supercharging a passenger car diesel engine were studied through laboratory investigation and vehicle simulation. Changes in the engine operating range, transmission gearing, and shift schedule resulted in improved fuel consumption relative to the baseline turbocharged vehicle while maintaining performance and drivability metrics. A shift schedule optimization technique resulted in fuel economy gains of up to 12% along with a corresponding reduction in transmission shift frequency of up to 55% relative to the baseline turbocharged configuration. First gear acceleration, top gear passing, and 0-60 mph acceleration of the baseline turbocharged vehicle were retained for the downsped supercharged configuration.
Technical Paper

Development of a Particulate Trapping System and Investigation of Effects of Viscosity of the Filter Media Using Experimental and Computational Methods

A cost effective, portable particulate management system was developed, prototyped, and evaluated for further application and commercialization, which could remove and dispose particulate matter suspended in air efficiently and safely. A prototype of the present system was built for experimental assessment and validation. The experimental data showed that the developed particulate management system can effectively clean the air by capturing the particles inside it. Effects of viscosity of filter medium on the performance of the developed system were also discussed. The present system is very flexible, whose size and shape can be scaled and changed to be fit for different applications. Its manufacturing cost is less than $10. Based on the experimental validation results, it was found that the present system can be further developed, commercialized, and applied for a variety of industries.