Refine Your Search




Search Results

Technical Paper

Wind Noise and Aerodynamic Drag Optimization of Outside Rear View Mirrors

Automotive outside rear view mirror shape has become an important consideration in achieving wind noise and aerodynamic performance objectives. This paper describes a two step process used to develop a mirror shape which meets both wind noise and aerodynamic objectives. First, basic understanding of door mounted verses sail mounted mirrors and shape parameters was obtained by evaluating selected shapes and studying their physical measurements relative to their measured responses. Relationships between the wind noise and drag responses revealed performance range limitations for sail mounted mirrors. Second, a central composite experimental design was utilized to more closely investigate door mounted mirror shape parameters to determine optimal mirror performance potential. The resulting empirical models developed were used to determine the best overall solution.
Technical Paper

Wind Noise Spectral Predictions Using a Lattice-Based Method

The current ability of the Virtual Aerodynamic/ Aeroacoustic Wind Tunnel to predict interior vehicle sound pressure levels is demonstrated using an automobile model which has variable windshield angles. This prediction method uses time-averaged flow solutions from a lattice gas CFD code coupled with wave number-frequency spectra for the various flow regimes to calculate the side window vibration from which the sound pressure level spectrum at the driver's ear is determined. These predictions are compared to experimental wind tunnel data. The results demonstrate the ability of this methodology to correctly predict wind noise spectral trends as well as the overall loudness at the driver's ear. A more sophisticated simulation method employing the same lattice gas code is investigated for prediction of the time-accurate flow field necessary to compute the actual side glass pressure spectra.
Technical Paper


AS a basis for the analyses of this symposium, a hypothetical car has been used to evaluate the engine power distribution in performance. Effects of fuel,-engine accessories, and certain car accessories are evaluated. The role of the transmission in making engine power useful at normal car speeds is also discussed. Variables encountered in wind and rolling resistance determinations are reevaluated by improved test techniques. Net horsepower of the car in terms of acceleration, passing ability and grade capability are also summarized.
Technical Paper

Virtual Engine Dynamometer in Service Life Testing of Transmissions: A Comparison Between Real Engine and Electric Dynamometers as Prime Movers in Validation Test Rigs

A test cell was developed for evaluating a 6-speed automatic transmission. The target vehicle had an internal combustion 5.4L gasoline V8 engine. An electric dynamometer was used to closely simulate the engine characteristics. This included generating mean torque from the ECU engine map, with a transient capability of 10,000 rpm/second. Engine inertia was simulated with a transient capability of 20,000 rpm/second, and torque pulsation was simulated individually for each piston, with a transient capability of 50,000 rpm/second. Quantitative results are presented for the correlation between the engine driven and the dynamometer driven transmission performance over more than 60 test cycles. Concerns about using the virtual engine in validation testing are discussed, and related to the high frequency transient performance required from the electric dynamometer. Qualitative differences between the fueled engine and electric driven testing are presented.
Technical Paper

Vibrational Sensor Based on Fluid Damping Mechanisms

A piezoelectrically driven vibrating cantilever blade is damped by a number of mechanisms including viscous damping in a still fluid and aerodynamic damping in a flow. By measuring the damping of devices operating at resonance in the 1 to 5 kHz region, one can measure such properties as mass flow, absolute pressure or the product of molecualar mass and viscosity. In the case of the mass flow measurement, the device offers a mechanical alternative to hotwire and hot film devices for the automotive application.
Technical Paper

Vehicle Wind Noise Analysis Using a SEA Model with Measured Source Levels

A series of tests have been performed on a production vehicle to determine the characteristics of the external turbulent flow field in wind tunnel and road conditions. Empirical formulas are developed to use the measured data as source levels for a Statistical Energy Analysis (SEA) model of the vehicle structural and acoustical responses. Exterior turbulent flow and acoustical subsystems are used to receive power from the source excitations. This allows for both the magnitudes and wavelengths of the exterior excitations to be taken into account - a necessary condition for consistently accurate results. Comparisons of measured and calculated interior sound levels show good correlation.
Technical Paper

Vehicle Sound Package - Art or Science?

Sound package engineering has always been an art developed through experience and much subjective road testing. Because the problem is complex, it is essential to have a logical procedure to achieve the most efficient sound package. The quiet car concept is proposed as a solution. Additionally, a plea is made for relevant automobile-oriented material test procedures to be recognized industry-wide.
Technical Paper

Vehicle Flow Measurement and CFD Analysis for Wind Noise Assessment

A time cost effective methodology has been developed for the prediction of the A-pillar vortex formation and the side and the rear window flow separation for the purpose of wind noise assessment. This methodology combines a simplified Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) model and wind tunnel test data by CFD post-processing tools. The solution of the simplified CFD model provides background data for the whole flow field, but it lacks detail features such as mirror, sealing groove and glass in-set, which are locally important but difficult to mesh and require a very fine mesh resolution. The wind tunnel test data was taken in the specific areas of interest at the A-pillar, side window, rear window area, and roof from a real automotive. Then the wind tunnel test data was superposed upon the simplified CFD model to correct the numerical error due to geometry simplification and insufficient mesh resolution.
Technical Paper

Vehicle Body Structure Durability Analysis

Due to several indeterminate factors, the assessment of the durability performance of a vehicle body is traditionally accomplished using test methods. An analytical fatigue life prediction method (four-step durability process) that relies mainly on numerical techniques is described in this paper. The four steps comprising this process include the identification of high stress regions, recognizing the critical load types, determining the critical road events and calculation of fatigue life. In addition to utilizing a general purpose finite element analysis software for the application of the Inertia Relief technique and a previously developed fatigue analysis program, two customized programs have been developed to streamline the process into an integrated, user-friendly tool. The process is demonstrated using a full body, finite element model.
Technical Paper

Vehicle Aerodynamic Shape Optimization

Recent advances in morphing, simulation, and optimization technologies have enabled analytically driven aerodynamic shape optimization to become a reality. This paper will discuss the integration of these technologies into a single process which enables the aerodynamicist to optimize vehicle shape as well as gain a much deeper understanding of the design space around a given exterior theme.
Technical Paper

Variable Displacement by Engine Valve Control

Intake and exhaust valve control has been combined with engine calibration control by an on-board computer to achieve a Variable Displacement Engine with improved BSFC during part throttle operation. The advent of the on-board computer, with its ability to provide integrated algorithms for the fast accurate flexible control of the entire powertrain, has allowed practical application of the valve disabler mechanism. The engine calibration basis and the displacement selection criteria are discussed, as are the fuel economy, emissions and behavior of a research vehicle on selected drive cycles ( Metro, Highway and Steady State ). Additionally, the impact upon vehicle driveability and other related subsystems ( e.g., transmission ) is addressed.
Technical Paper

Vacuum EGR Valve Actuator Model

As part of a general EGR system model, an adiabatic thermodynamic vacuum EGR valve actuator model was developed and validated. The long term goal of the work is improved system operation by correctly specifying and allocating EGR system component requirements.
Technical Paper

Use of FCRASH in a Door Openability Simulation

During frontal and rear end type collisions, very large forces will be imparted to the passenger compartment by the collapse of either front or rear structures. NCAP tests conducted by NHTSA involve, among other things, a door openability test after barrier impact. This means that the plastic/irreversible deformations of door openings should be kept to a minimum. Thus, the structural members constituting the door opening must operate during frontal and rear impact near the elastic limit of the material. Increasing the size of a structural member, provided the packaging considerations permit it, may prove to be counter productive, since it may lead to premature local buckling and possible collapse of the member. With the current trend towards lighter vehicles, recourse to heavier gages is also counterproductive and therefore a determination of an optimum compartment structure may require a number of design iterations. In this article, FEA is used to simulate front side door behavior.
Technical Paper

Use of Experimentally Measured In-Cylinder Flow Field Data at IVC as Initial Conditions to CFD Simulations of Compression Stroke in I.C. Engines - A Feasibility Study

The feasibility of using experimentally determined flow fields at intake valve closing, IVC, as initial conditions for computing the in-cylinder flow dynamics during the compression stroke is demonstrated by means of a computer simulation of the overall approach. A commercial CFD code, STAR-CD, was used for this purpose. The study involved two steps. First, in order to establish a basis for comparison, the in-cylinder flow field throughout the intake and compression strokes, from intake valve opening, IVO, to top dead center, TDC, was computed for a simple engine geometry. Second, experimental initial conditions were simulated by randomly selecting and perturbing a set of velocity vectors from the computed flow field at IVC.
Technical Paper

Ultra Thin Wall Substrates - Trends for Performance in FTP and US06 Tests

This paper compares the emissions performance of four ultra thin wall ceramic substrates with standard wall thickness product on a chassis dynamometer for two different substrate volumes. This comparison helps establish performance trends and provides useful information for selection of substrates in designing catalytic converter systems. This experimental study tests and compares four ultra thin wall products (400/4, 600/3, 600/4, and 900/2) with a standard wall product (400/6.5) at two different substrate volumes. Engine bench aging is used to simulate typical aged conditions. Temperature data as well as second by second and bag emissions data for hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide and oxides of nitrogen were used to evaluate the relative performances of the substrates. The US FTP and US06 driving cycles were used as protocols for the comparison. Results suggest that lower bulk density and higher geometric surface area interact to lead to lower emissions.
Technical Paper

Titania Exhaust Gas Sensor for Automotive Applications

The change in the resistance of titanium dioxide with oxygen partial pressure is utilized to obtain an air-to-fuel ratio sensor. TiO2 material properties, sensor components and performance characteristics are discussed. Some results of engine dynamometer and vehicle tests of sensor performance and durability are presented.
Technical Paper

Tire Treadwear Experiment Using Taguchi Methods

An experiment has been conducted to study the effect of vehicle alignment, tire construction and operational conditions on tire treadwear. The Taguchi approach was used to compose the experimental design and to analyze the data. The treadwear testing was conducted on the indoor test machine; this test duplicates the treadwear pattern observed during road test. The responses of interest were total wear, irregular wear patterns, and diagonal wear. The study quantified the relative importance of different factors to treadwear and also the degree of wear irregularity.
Technical Paper

TiAl-Based Alloys for Exhaust Valve Applications

The recent development of TiAl-based alloys by the aerospace community has provided an excellent material alternative for hot components in automotive engines. The low density combined with an elevated temperature strength similar to that of Ni-base superalloys make TiAl-based alloys very attractive for exhaust valve applications. Lighter weight valvetrain components improve performance and permit the use of lower valve spring loads which reduce noise and friction and enhance fuel economy. However, difficult fabricability and a perception that TiAl alloys are high cost, low volume aerospace materials must be overcome in order to permit consideration for use in high-volume automotive applications. This paper provides a comparison of properties for several exhaust valve alternative materials. The density of TiAl alloys is lower than Ti alloys with creep and fatigue properties equivalent to IN-751, a current high performance exhaust valve material.
Technical Paper

The Long-Term Durability of Thermoplastic Bumpers

Properties of thermoplastic bumpers made of polycarbonate (PC) and polybutylene terephthalate (PBT) blend were evaluated after several years of service in the field. In this study we measured the Izod impact strength, PC molecular weight, and melt flow rate of bumpers collected from various geographical areas in the U.S. Generally, the system had good impact resistance after more than five years of service in the field, retaining most of the original impact strength. There were small changes in PC average molecular-weights and melt flow rates. The results showed that changes depended on both exposure time and the weather conditions of the environment.
Technical Paper

The Influence of Test Site on Exterior Vehicle Noise Measurements

As the compliance with noise legislation became more difficult, Ford exhaust system development engineers increasingly encountered variances not only from vehicle-to-vehicle, but on the same vehicle tested in different locations. As a result, a series of tests were conducted to establish the correlation among various sites for vehicle exterior noise measurements. The purpose of this paper is to present the results and the method developed to achieve the correlation in terms of the following: 1. Ford and site equipment differences 2. Driver differences 3. Differences between site physical qualities Seven sites were evaluated in the program where seven vehicles were used with a good spread in exterior noise levels. A representative correlation plot is also presented which can be used to predict the expected noise level of any vehicle at any one of these test sites knowing the level obtained at the Ford site.