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Journal Article

“Verify-on-Demand” - A Practical and Scalable Approach for Broadcast Authentication in Vehicle-to-Vehicle Communication

2011-04-12
2011-01-0584
In general for Vehicle-to-Vehicle (V2V) communication, message authentication is performed on every received wireless message by conducting verification for a valid signature, and only messages that have been successfully verified are processed further. In V2V safety communication, there are a large number of vehicles and each vehicle transmits safety messages frequently; therefore the number of received messages per second would be large. Thus authentication of each and every received message, for example based on the IEEE 1609.2 standard, is computationally very expensive and can only be carried out with expensive dedicated cryptographic hardware. An interesting observation is that most of these routine safety messages do not result in driver warnings or control actions since we expect that the safety system would be designed to provide warnings or control actions only when the threat of collision is high.
Technical Paper

Wrought Magnesium Components for Automotive Chassis Applications

2011-04-12
2011-01-0077
Automotive structural components are exposed to high loads, impact situations and corrosion. In addition, there may be temperature excursions that introduce creep as well as reduced modulus (stiffness). These issues have limited the use of light metals in automotive structural applications primarily to aluminum alloys, and primarily to cast wheels and knuckles (only a few of which are forged), cast brake calipers, and cast control arms. This paper reports on research performed at Chongqing University, Chongqing China, under the auspices of General Motors engineering and directed by the first author, to develop a protocol that uses wrought magnesium in control arms. The goal was to produce a chassis part that could provide the same engineering function as current cast aluminum applications; and since magnesium is 33% less dense than aluminum, would be lighter.
Video

Worldwide OBD

2012-01-30
OBD system requirements were first developed by the California Air Resources Board, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, and the European Commission. New OBD requirements should be as consistent as possible with existing requirements to maximize reliability and to minimize system complexity, proliferation of configurations, and consumer cost. New OBD requirements from around the world are briefly reviewed and most are consistent with the original U.S. and European requirements. Worldwide OBD requirements are being further harmonized under the United Nations, Economic Commission for Europe, World Forum for Harmonization of Vehicle Regulations (WP29). Presenter David H. Ferris, General Motors Company
Technical Paper

Voltec Charging System EMC Requirements and Test Methodologies

2011-04-12
2011-01-0742
With the advent of vehicle manufacturer driven on-board charging systems for plug-in and extended range electric vehicles, such as the Chevrolet Volt, important considerations need to be comprehended in both the requirements specified as well as the test methodologies and setups for electromagnetic compatibility (EMC). Typical automotive EMC standards (such as the SAE J551 and SAE J1113 series) that cover 12 volt systems have existed for many years. Additionally, there has been some development in recent years for high voltage EMC for automotive applications. However, on-board charging for vehicles presents yet another challenge in adopting requirements that have typically been in the consumer industry realm and merging those with both the traditional 12 V based system requirements as well as high voltage based systems.
Technical Paper

Voltec Battery Design and Manufacturing

2011-04-12
2011-01-1360
In July 2007, GM announced that it would produce the Chevy Volt, the first high-production volume electric vehicle with extended range capability, by 2010. In January 2009, General Motors announced that the Chevrolet Volt's lithium ion Battery Pack, capable of propelling the Chevy Volt on battery-supplied electric power for up to 40 miles, would be designed and assembled in-house. The T-shaped battery, a subset of the Voltec propulsion system, comprises 288 cells, weighs 190 kg, and is capable of supplying over 16 kWh of energy. Many technical challenges presented themselves to the team, including the liquid thermal management of the battery, the fast battery pack development timeline, and validation of an unproven high-speed assembly process. This paper will first present a general overview of the approach General Motors utilized to bring the various engineering organizations together to design, develop, and manufacture the Volt battery.
Technical Paper

Virtual Road Load Data Acquisition in Practice at General Motors

2011-04-12
2011-01-0025
Measured vehicle loads have traditionally been used as the basis for development of component, subsystem and vehicle level durability tests. The use of measured loads posed challenges due to the availability of representative hardware, scheduling, and other factors. In addition, stress was placed on existing procedures and methods by aggressive product development timing, variety in tuning and equipment packages, and higher levels of design optimization. To meet these challenges, General Motors developed new processes and technical competencies which enabled the direct substitution of analytically synthesized loads for measured data. This process of Virtual Road Load Data Acquisition (vRLDA) enabled (a) conformance to shortened product development cycles, (b) greater consistency between design targets and validation requirements, and (c) more comprehensive data.
Technical Paper

Virtual Road Load Data Acquisition for Twist Axle Rear Suspension

2011-04-12
2011-01-0026
The twist axle has highly complicated load paths because of its multiple functions of suspension components. This nature of the twist axle suspension makes the fixed reacted multi-axial suspension test more sophisticated than for other independent suspensions. GM has used Virtual Road Load Data Acquisition (vRLDA) for laboratory tests in the past, but this is the first application of vRLDA for a twist axle multi-axial suspension durability test. In order to utilize vRLDA data for the test input, a new approach to 8 channel multi-axial suspension durability test development was proposed for a twist axle rear suspension. vRLDA for a GM vehicle with twist axle rear suspension was performed and briefly discussed. Instead of using strain data from the twist axle for correlation channels, inboard channels such as shock tower vertical and trailing arm forces were used in the test development.
Journal Article

Virtual Manufacturability Analyzer for Casting Components

2011-04-12
2011-01-0528
There is an increasing demand in automated manufacturability analysis of metal castings at the initial stages of their design. This paper presents a system developed for virtual manufacturability analysis of casting components. The system can be used by a casting designer to evaluate manufacturability of a part designed for various manufacture processes including casting, heat treatment, and machining. The system uses computational geometrics and geometric reasoning to extract manufacturing features and geometry characteristics from a part CAD model. It uses an expert system and a design database consisting of metal casting, heat treatment and machining process knowledge and rules to present manufacturability analysis results and advice to the designer. Application of the system is demonstrated for the manufacturability assessment of automotive cast aluminum components.
Journal Article

Vehicle Safety Communications - Applications: System Design & Objective Testing Results

2011-04-12
2011-01-0575
The USDOT and the Crash Avoidance Metrics Partnership-Vehicle Safety Communications 2 (CAMP-VSC2) Consortium (Ford, GM, Honda, Mercedes, and Toyota) initiated, in December 2006, a three-year collaborative effort in the area of wireless-based safety applications under the Vehicle Safety Communications-Applications (VSC-A) Project. The VSC-A Project developed and tested communications-based vehicle safety systems to determine if Dedicated Short Range Communications (DSRC) at 5.9 GHz, in combination with vehicle positioning, would improve upon autonomous vehicle-based safety systems and/or enable new communications-based safety applications.
Journal Article

Vehicle Safety Communications - Applications: Multiple On-Board Equipment Testing

2011-04-12
2011-01-0586
The United States Department of Transportation (USDOT) and the Crash Avoidance Metrics Partnership-Vehicle Safety Communications 2 (CAMP-VSC2) Consortium (Ford, General Motors, Honda, Mercedes-Benz, and Toyota) initiated, in December 2006, a three-year collaborative effort in the area of wireless-based safety applications under the Vehicle Safety Communications-Applications (VSC-A) Project. The VSC-A Project developed and tested Vehicle-to-Vehicle (V2V) communications-based safety systems to determine if Dedicated Short Range Communications (DSRC) at 5.9 GHz, in combination with vehicle positioning, would improve upon autonomous vehicle-based safety systems and/or enable new communications-based safety applications.
Technical Paper

Vehicle Acoustic Sensitivity Performance Using Virtual Engineering

2011-04-12
2011-01-1072
In order to assess the possible ways of energy transfer from the various sources of excitation in a vehicle assembly to a given target location, frequency based substructuring technique and transfer path analysis are used. These methods help to locate the most important energy transfer paths for a specific problem, and to evaluate their individual effects on the target, thus providing valuable insight into the mechanisms responsible for the problem. The Source-Path-Receiver concept is used. The sources can be from the road surface, engine, transmission, transfer case, prop-shaft, differential, rotating components, chain drives, pumps, etc., and the receiver can be driver/passenger ears, steering column, seats, etc. This paper is devoted to identify the noise transfer paths and the force transmissibility among the interfaces of different components in the vehicle for the low to mid frequency range.
Journal Article

VOLTEC Battery System for Electric Vehicle with Extended Range

2011-04-12
2011-01-1373
Mid 2006 a study group at General Motors developed the concept for the electric vehicle with extended range (EREV),. The electric propulsion system should receive the electrical energy from a rechargeable energy storage system (RESS) and/or an auxiliary power unit (APU) which could either be a hydrogen fuel cell or an internal combustion engine (ICE) driven generator. The study result was the Chevrolet VOLT concept car in the North American Auto Show in Detroit in 2007. The paper describes the requirements, concepts, development and the performance of the battery used as RESS for the ICE type VOLTEC propulsion system version of the Chevrolet Volt. The key requirement for the RESS is to provide energy to drive an electric vehicle with “no compromised performance” for 40 miles. Extended Range Mode allows for this experience to continue beyond 40 miles.
Journal Article

Using Model Transformation/Code Generation Technology to Migrate Legacy Software Assets to AUTOSAR

2011-04-12
2011-01-1264
Maximizing reuse of existing software assets is a common goal for companies as they move to new projects and products. Typically, reuse is complicated by changes to the context in which the software executes; the software architecture. As in all development areas, software architects are seeking continuous improvement to their designs either through internal innovation or established external standards. However, changes to the software architecture (e.g. interfaces, services, scheduling etc.) can prove to be a driver of fundamental, large-scale change to software if reuse strategies are not planned into the product line. This paper describes a reuse strategy that maximizes the preservation of existing assets while focusing effort on the development of transformation rules that generate software targeting a new architectural context.
Technical Paper

Use of DFSS Principles to Develop an Objective Method to Assess Transient Vehicle Dynamics

2013-04-08
2013-01-0708
This paper presents subjective and objective methods for evaluating transient vehicle dynamics characteristics in four sections: (1) Definition of transient behavior in terms of four traits-agility, stability, precision, and roll support; (2) Description of subjective evaluation methods; (3) Implementation of Design for Six Sigma principles to the development of a steering robot controlled objective test for transient performance; (4) The final section of this paper uses data from simulation and road tests to demonstrate how chassis design parameters can affect transient handling performance.
Technical Paper

Usage of Telematics for Battery and Vehicle State Monitoring

2011-04-12
2011-01-0748
This paper presents Telematics Battery Monitoring (TBM). TBM is a multi-faceted approach of collecting and analyzing electric power and vehicle data used to ultimately determine battery state of charge (SOC) and battery state of health (SOH) in both pre- and post-sale environments. Traditional methods of battery SOC analysis include labor intensive processes such as going out to the site of individual vehicle(s), gaining access to the vehicle battery, and then after the vehicle electrical system obtains its quiescent current level, performing a battery voltage check. This time-consuming manual method can practically only cover a small percentage of the vehicle population. In using the vehicle communication capabilities of Telematics, electric power and vehicle data are downloaded, compiled, and post-processed using decision-making software tools.
Technical Paper

Understanding Work Task Assessment Sensitivity to the Prediction of Standing Location

2011-04-12
2011-01-0527
Digital human models (DHM) are now widely used to assess worker tasks as part of manufacturing simulation. With current DHM software, the simulation engineer or ergonomist usually makes a manual estimate of the likely worker standing location with respect to the work task. In a small number of cases, the worker standing location is determined through physical testing with one or a few workers. Motion capture technology is sometimes used to aid in quantitative analysis of the resulting posture. Previous research has demonstrated the sensitivity of work task assessment using DHM to the accuracy of the posture prediction. This paper expands on that work by demonstrating the need for a method and model to accurately predict worker standing location. The effect of standing location on work task posture and the resulting assessment is documented through three case studies using the Siemens Jack DHM software.
Journal Article

Understanding Driver Perceptions of a Vehicle to Vehicle (V2V) Communication System Using a Test Track Demonstration

2011-04-12
2011-01-0577
Vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V) communication systems can enable a number of wireless-based vehicle features that can improve traffic safety, driver convenience, and roadway efficiency and facilitate many types of in-vehicle services. These systems have an extended communication range that can provide drivers with information about the position and movements of nearby V2Vequipped vehicles. Using this technology, these vehicles are able to communicate roadway events that are beyond the driver's view and provide advisory information that will aid drivers in avoiding collisions or congestion ahead. Given a typical communication range of 300 meters, drivers can potentially receive information well in advance of their arrival to a particular location. The timing and nature of presenting V2V information to the driver will vary depending on the nature and criticality of the scenario.
Technical Paper

Understanding CAE Needs for Data on Plastics - A Materials Engineer's Perspective

2011-04-12
2011-01-0015
Delivering the appropriate material data for CAE analysis of plastic components is not as straight forward as it would seem to be. While a few of the properties typically used by resin manufacturers and material engineers to describe a plastic are useful to the analysis community (density, CLTE), most are not (flexural modulus, notched izod). In addition some properties such as yield stress are defined differently by the analysis community than by the materials community. Lastly, secondary operations such as painting or chrome plating significantly change the behavior of components with plastic substrates. The materials engineering community and the CAE analysis community must work together closely to develop the material data necessary to increase the capability of the analysis. This paper will examine case studies where these issues have required modifications to the material property data to increase the fidelity of the CAE analysis.
Technical Paper

Ultracapacitor Based Active Energy Recovery Scheme for Fuel Economy Improvement in Conventional Vehicles

2011-04-12
2011-01-0345
In this paper, a low-cost means to improve fuel economy in conventional vehicles by employing ultracapacitor based Active Energy Recovery Buffer (AERB) scheme will be presented. The kinetic energy of the vehicle during the coast down events is utilized to charge the ultracapacitor either directly or through a dc-dc converter, allowing the voltage to increase up to the maximum permissible level. When the vehicle starts after a Stop event, the energy stored in the capacitor is discharged to power the accessory loads until the capacitor voltage falls below a minimum threshold. The use of stored capacitor energy to power the accessory loads relieves the generator torque load on the engine resulting in reduced fuel consumption. Two different topologies are considered for implementing the AERB system. The first topology, which is a simple add-on to the conventional vehicle electrical system, comprises of the ultracapacitor bank and the dc-dc converter connected across the dc bus.
Technical Paper

Transmission Virtual Torque Sensor - Absolute Torque Estimation

2012-04-16
2012-01-0111
Automobile drivers/passengers perceive automatic transmission (AT) shift quality through the torque transferred by the transmission. Clearly, torque regulation is important for transmission control. Unfortunately, a physical torque sensor has been too costly for production applications. With no torque measurement for feedback, controls in AT is mainly implemented in an open-loop fashion. Therefore, complicated adaptation algorithms are necessary while undesired shifts may still occur. To further simplify the controls and enhance its consistency and robustness, a direct torque feedback has long been desired in transmission control synthesis and development. A “virtual” torque sensor (VTS) algorithm has recently been developed to show a good potential in estimating relative torque along transmission output shaft using transmission output speed sensor and wheel speed sensors.
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