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Technical Paper

Vehicle Drift Investigation during Straight Line Accelerating and Braking

2008-04-14
2008-01-0588
A vehicle drifts due to several reasons from its intended straight path even in the case of no steering input. The multibody dynamic analysis of vehicle drift during accelerating and braking are performed. This paper focuses on modeling and evaluating effects of suspension parameters, differential friction, engine mounting and C.G. location of the vehicle under multibody dynamic simulation environment. Asymmetry of geometry and compliance between left and right side is considered cause of drift. The sensitivities of the suspension parameters are presented for each driving condition. In case of acceleration, the interaction of differential friction and driveshaft stiffness and their influence on drift are also studied. For braking condition, suspension parameters such as initial toe variation of rear coupled torsion beam axle type suspension and kingpin inclination deviation of front suspension are studied including the braking force difference.
Technical Paper

Two-Step Hood Opening System Development for Easier Hood Opening Operation

2014-04-01
2014-01-0363
Recently, the demand for improving the merchantability of hood open system has been increasing. A novel concept hood open system was proposed by Hyundai Motor Company (HMC) in 2012, which was based on a two-step open latch mechanism. The new hood opening mechanism satisfies Safety laws and improves merchantability.
Technical Paper

The Wettability of Silicon Carbide by Liquid Pure Aluminum and Aluminum Alloys

1994-03-01
940808
There have been strong moves in recent years to introduce the metal matrix composites concept into higher volume applications, notably the automotive field where large volume production and lower material costs are required. The wettability between reinforcing materials and base material is one of important factors for the strength of composites and its manufacture. The main objective of this paper is to establish a basic understanding of wetting phenomena in SiC/liquid aluminum and aluminum alloy systems. In the present paper, results from the sessile drop method are reported for the effects on the wetting angle, θ, of free silicon in the silicon carbide substrate and of alloying additions of silicon, copper or magnesium to the aluminum drop for the temperature range 700-900 or 1400°C in the titanium-gettered vacuum (1.3 x 10-2 / 1.3 x 10-3 Pa).
Technical Paper

The Study of the Parameter of Roof Rack & Cross Bar for the Reduction of Wind Noise

2007-04-16
2007-01-0994
An increasing number of cars which are being used to foster leisure and a convenient life for consumers are being outfitted with roof racks and/or cross bars. This trend of installing roof racks is partly for the function of carrying objects on the roof of the vehicle and partly as a way to affect the style and exterior look of the vehicle. Therefore, the application of roof racks and cross bars is becoming increasingly important in the automotive industry. Because of the expanding application of roof racks on vehicles, the challenge of reducing wind noise caused by exposed cross bars becomes the main issue in this field. For solving this problem, the cross bar shape is designed and evaluated in the development stage, and if there is a problem, it is re-designed and re-evaluated many times. This repetitive corrective action is called “trial and error”.
Technical Paper

The Opening Mechanism Analysis on Hood, Tail Gate, and Trunk Lid by Mathematical Modeling

1995-02-01
950827
The theory and the computer software to analyze the behaviour of moving mechanism(Hood, Tail Gate and Trunk Lid) equiped with the gas lifters or the torsion bars has been developed to figure out what will be the dynamic behaviour of moving mechanism at the design stage. The developed computer software gives the approximated calculation of load-angle characteristics, the velocity, the acceleration and the total opening time so that the designer makes the optimum decision on the location and the strength of panel to which the gas lifters or the torsion bars are mounted.
Technical Paper

The Effects of Vehicle Velocity and Engine Mount Stiffness on Ride Comfort

1994-03-01
941045
For the improvement of ride quality, development of vibration damping control systems and isolating methods become more important. To define basic ride vibrational modes, the effects of vehicle velocity and wheelbase on the standard road surfaces should be investigated. The different vibrational responses depending on the measurement positions of a vehicle body are presented with the bounce and the pitch motions. A methodology for the isolation of engine mount system's resonance to the road input and periodical excitations of tire/wheel nonuniformity forces are discussed. Using the computer simulation and the experimental results, a useful ride model with respect to the vehicle velocity and the stiffness of engine mount is presented.
Technical Paper

Seat Common Frame Design Optimization

2010-04-12
2010-01-0390
Due to technological evolutions and social demands, motor vehicles are requested to be enhanced in terms of occupant safety and comfort. As a result, many countries are reinforcing crash regulations and new car assessment programs. Automotive seats are essential parts for providing passenger safety and comfort and have become most important. Many automotive companies concentrate on optimization of the seat structure. This paper presents an overview of the recent evolution of the seat structures and gives a development procedure covering seat frame design, optimization and validation. Through the study, a competitive frame design is drawn as a case result and a design guideline and a standard development procedure is established
Technical Paper

Scavenger free three-way catalyst with low hydrogen sulfide emission

2000-06-12
2000-05-0308
This study suggests new types of catalysts that show low hydrogen sulfide emission without scavenger such as NiO. Hydrogen sulfide can be reduced by changing the physicochemical properties of washcoat components. Synthesized gas activity tests were performed to investigate the effect of modified washcoat on hydrogen sulfide formation and catalytic activity. BET surface area tests, X- ray diffraction tests, and gas chromatography tests were also carried out to examine the characteristics of catalysts. Preparation methods for catalysts were focused on minimizing the adsorption of sulfur species on catalysts. The first approach is heat treatment of cerium oxide to reduce adsorption sites for sulfur compounds. But this leads to deterioration of CO and NOx conversion efficiencies. The second one is adding new types of promoters that increase thermal durability and dynamic oxygen storing function of cerium oxide.
Technical Paper

Research on Stick & Sprag-Slip Phenomenon of Door Waist Belts

2018-04-03
2018-01-0674
The squeak noise generated during the moving of the door glass has a influence on the performance of vehicles felt by the consumer. In order to improve the noise, it is necessary to understand the principle of a friction vibration. In this paper, it is confirmed that the principle on the waist belt is most closely related to stick-slip and sprag-slip among various vibration characteristics. Stick-slip is expressed by energy accumulation and divergence due to difference in static and dynamic friction coefficient. Sprag-slip define instability of geometric structure due to angle of lips on the belt. In this paper, the physical model and the energy equation are established for the above two phenomena. Stick-slip can be solved by decreasing the difference of the static and dynamic friction coefficient. Sprag-slip is caused by the ratio of compressive and shear stiffness of the lips. The belt uses flocking to ensure durability, not coating.
Technical Paper

Optimization of Body Structure for Road Noise Performance

2014-04-01
2014-01-0010
It is common knowledge that body structure is an important factor of road noise performance. Thus, a high stiffness of body system is required, and determining their optimized stiffness and structure is necessary. Therefore, a method for improving body stiffness and validating the relationship between stiffness and road noise through CAE and experimental trials was tested. Furthermore, a guideline for optimizing body structure for road noise performance was suggested.
Technical Paper

Modeling and Validation of ABS and RSC Control Algorithms for a 6×4 Tractor and Trailer Models using SIL Simulation

2014-04-01
2014-01-0135
A Software-in-the-Loop (SIL) simulation is presented here wherein control algorithms for the Anti-lock Braking System (ABS) and Roll Stability Control (RSC) system were developed in Simulink. Vehicle dynamics models of a 6×4 cab-over tractor and two trailer combinations were developed in TruckSim and were used for control system design. Model validation was performed by doing various dynamic maneuvers like J-Turn, double lane change, decreasing radius curve, high dynamic steer input and constant radius test with increasing speed and comparing the vehicle responses obtained from TruckSim against field test data. A commercial ESC ECU contains two modules: Roll Stability Control (RSC) and Yaw Stability Control (YSC). In this research, only the RSC has been modeled. The ABS system was developed based on the results obtained from a HIL setup that was developed as a part of this research.
Technical Paper

Low-pressure molding compound hood panel for a passenger car

2000-06-12
2000-05-0110
Low-pressure molding compound (LPMC) is a new kind of composite material which can be used for automotive body panels. LPMC has similar mechanical properties compared to conventional sheet molding compound (SMC) but excellent moldability due to the different thickening system. In this paper, we prepared LPMC hood prototype for a passenger car using a low-cost tooling. Inner panel and outer panel were made of general-density- and low-density-grade LPMC, respectively, in order to maximize weight reduction maintaining surface quality. Physical properties containing tensile strength, flexural modulus, notched Izod impact strength of those samples were investigated. In addition, CAE simulation was also done for strength analysis of the hood assembly.
Technical Paper

Invisible PAB Door Development Using Two-shot Molding

2010-04-12
2010-01-0684
Invisible Passenger-side Airbag (IPAB) door system must be designed with a weakened area such that the airbag will break through the Instrument Panel (IP) in the intended manner, with no flying debris at any temperature. At the same time, there must be no cracking or sharp edges at the head impact test (ECE 21.01). Needless to say, Head impact test must keep pace with the deployment test. In this paper, we suggested soft airbag door system that is integrally molded with a hard instrument panel by using Two-shot molding. First of all, we set up the design parameters of IPAB door for the optimal deployment and head impact performance by CAE analysis. And then we optimized the open-close time at each gate of the mold so that the soft and hard material could be integrally molded with the intended boundary. We could make the boundary of two materials more constant by controlling the open-close time of each gate with resin temperature sensor.
Technical Paper

Invisible Advanced Passenger-Side Airbag Door Design for Optimal Deployment and Head Impact Performance

2004-03-08
2004-01-0850
Hard panel types of invisible passenger-side airbag (IPAB) door system must be designed with a weakened area such that the airbag will deploy through the Instrument Panel (IP) in the intended manner, with no flying debris at any required operating temperature. At the same time, there must be no cracking or sharp edges in the head impact test (ECE 21.01). If the advanced-airbag with the big difference between high and low deployment pressure ranges are applied to hard panel types of IPAB door system, it becomes more difficult to optimize the tearseam strength for satisfying deployment and head impact performance simultaneously. We introduced the ‘Operating Window’ idea from quality engineering to design the hard panel types of IPAB door applied to the advanced-airbag for optimal deployment and head impact performance. To accurately predict impact performance, it is important to characterize the strain rate.
Journal Article

Integrated Chassis Control for Improving On-Center Handling Behavior

2014-04-01
2014-01-0139
This paper proposes a new integrated chassis control (ICC) using a predictive model-based control (MPC) for optimal allocation of sub-chassis control systems where a predictive model has 6 Degree of Freedom (DoF) for rigid body dynamics. The 6 DoF predictive vehicle model consists of longitudinal, lateral, vertical, roll, pitch, and yaw motions while previous MPC research uses a 3 DoF maximally predictive model such as longitudinal, lateral and yaw motions. The sub-chassis control systems in this paper include four wheel individual braking torque control, four wheel individual driving torque control and four corner active suspension control. Intermediate control inputs for sub-chassis control systems are simplified as wheel slip ratio changes for driving and braking controls and vertical suspension force changes for an active suspension control.
Technical Paper

In-Gear Slip Control Strategy of Dry-Clutch Systems Using a Sliding Mode Control

2019-04-02
2019-01-1305
This paper proposes a clutch control strategy during in-gear driving situations for Dual Clutch Transmissions (DCTs). The clutch is intentionally controlled to make small amount of a slip to identify the torque transfer capacity. The control objective of this phase is to ensure the clutch slip fairly remaining the specified value. To achieve this, the micro-slip controller is designed based on sliding mode control theory. Experimental verifications performed on onboard control system of the DCT equipped vehicle demonstrate that the proposed controller good tracking performance of the desired slip speed.
Technical Paper

Improvement of Manufacturing and Evaluation Technology for the Light Weight Brake Disc Composed of Hybrid Type Material

2014-04-01
2014-01-1009
Reducing unsprung mass of the car is a representative method to enhance the ride & handling performance and fuel efficiency. In this study, brake disc weight is reduced 15∼20% using a hybrid type material. The basis for this study is the separation of the friction surface and HAT(mounting part). Aluminum material is applied in the HAT for a light weight effect. Gray iron is applied in the friction surface section to maintain braking performance. Two types of joining between aluminum and cast iron are developed. One is the aluminum casting method utilizing a gray iron insert and the other is a bolted assembly method. Detailed structure, process and material are optimized using try-out & dynamometer experiments. The Reliability of this development is proved through durability (dynamometer and vehicle) testing.
Technical Paper

Fatigue Failure and Reinforcing Method of Spot Welded Area at the Stage of Vehicle Development

1996-02-01
960553
Vehicle body structures are formed by thousands of spot welds, and fatigue failure of vehicle structures occur near the spot welds after driving a long way at a durability test road. It is necessary to know accurately the reason of the fatigue failure of the spot weld in the developing stage in order to reinforce it. Many investigations have been done regarding the strength of spot welded joints, contributing to understand its fatigue strength. In the developing process, a fatigue failed spot welded area can be repaired by CO2 welding or another method to continue the test. To know the effect of reinforcing these welds, several methods of welding were analyzed and compared to spot welding. With the results of this test, the appropriate repair method can be used instead of spot welding during the development of a new car and the best design guide can be given for the strength.
Technical Paper

Experimental Body Panel Contribution Analysis for Road Induced Interior Noise of a Passenger Car

1997-05-20
971913
This paper describes more in detail the methodology, the measurements and the results of the ASQ method. The Airborne Sound Quantification method aims at identifying the acoustical contribution of the different body panels surrounding a cavity. The contribution of different body panels is the product of the acoustical strength (or volume velocity) of each panel with the corresponding acoustic transfer function between the panel and the interior microphone position. These volume velocities are the product of the corresponding normal velocity and the surface. The normal velocity has been measured by means of accelerometers attached to the different subpanels. In the next step, the acoustical FRF's are measured in an indirect way using the reciprocity principle. This means that the pressure response at all the subpanels is measured when the acoustical excitation takes place at the target interior noise microphone position. A high quality low frequency sound source has been used.
Technical Paper

Enhancement of Vehicle Dynamics Model Using Genetic Algorithm and Estimation Theory

2003-03-03
2003-01-1281
A determination of the vehicle states and tire forces is critical to the stability of vehicle dynamic behavior and to designing automotive control systems. Researchers have studied estimation methods for the vehicle state vectors and tire forces. However, the accuracy of the estimation methods is closely related to the employed model. In this paper, tire lag dynamics is introduced in the model. Also application of estimation methods in order to improve the model accuracy is presented. The model is developed by using the global searching algorithm, a Genetic Algorithm, so that the model can be used in the nonlinear range. The extended Kalman filter and sliding mode observer theory are applied to estimate the vehicle state vectors and tire forces. The obtained results are compared with measurements and the outputs from the ADAMS full vehicle model. [15]
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