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Technical Paper

The Design of The U. S. SST for Low Community Noise

The need for achievement of low community noise levels has had a major influence on the configuration selected for the United States Supersonic Transport (Boeing 2707-300). The selection and development of design features which affect community noise are presented. The configuration has a relatively large span delta wing of moderate sweep and wing loading, with full span leading and trailing edge flaps. An all moving horizontal tail with geared flap is used for trim and control. The use of an unusually far aft center of gravity range is achieved through a fulltime stability augmentation system. All of these design features contribute to low drag at high lift, resulting in high takeoff performance and low levels of thrust required during flight over the community during both takeoff and landing. The resulting airplane has the versatility to use operational techniques which further reduce noise.
Technical Paper

Gas Turbines for Emergency Vehicles

Gas turbines have demonstrated their practicability in trucks, particularly those needing high horsepower and light weight combined with agility and reliability. These are the primary requirements of emergency vehicles such as fire fighting pumpers and crash trucks. Several installations powered by Boeing gas turbines are described, and comparisons to reciprocating engines are made. For vehicles of high power/weight ratio, the built-in torque converter feature of two-shaft gas turbines provides the automatic transmission feature that is needed for high density traffic operation or for hilly terrain. Trends in gas turbine design are briefly mentioned along with other system requirements for emergency vehicles.
Technical Paper

Engine Maintenance Cost Reduction Through Improved Component Design and Development

High maintenance costs of the three 40,000 lb. thrust class aircraft engines manufactured by Pratt and Whitney, General Electric, and Rolls-Royce are discussed. Primary emphasis is on existing engine problems which contribute to high shop visit rate. Maintenance cost in terms of monetary value is not discussed. Concludes that increased emphasis on total life cycle durability is necessary by the engine manufacturers. Recommends higher level of priority be given durability in design and analysis, pre-production proof-of-design testing, and engine program management.
Technical Paper

A Preliminary Dynamic Model of Brake Friction Using Pressure and Temperature

Understanding the friction behavior of brake lining materials is fundamental to the ability to predict brake system performance. Of particular interest to the aviation community, where carbon/carbon composite heatsinks are commonly used, is the aircraft response at deceleration onset. There are two performance measures defining brake system performance at braking onset: deceleration onset rate and system response time. The latter is strictly a function of the brake system hydraulics and is not affected by brake lining friction. The former performance measure is a function of both system hydraulics and brake lining friction. Previously to the work herein, carbon heatsink friction was thought to be unpredictable at braking onset. That being the case, a predictive capability for deceleration onset rate was not previously undertaken. This meant that assessment of this performance measure waited until aircraft taxi tests were performed.