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Journal Article

Reconstruction of Wheel Forces Using an Intelligent Bearing

Active vehicle safety and driving assistance systems can be made more efficient, more robust and less complex if wheel load information would be available. Although this information could be determined via numerous different methods, due to various reasons, no commercially feasible approach has yet been introduced. In this paper the approach of bearing load estimation is topic of interest. Using the bearing for load measurement has considerable advantages making it commercially attractive as: i) it can be performed on a non-rotating part, ii) all wheel loads can be measured and iii) usually the bearing serves the entire lifetime of the vehicle. This paper proposes a novel approach for the determination of wheel loading. This new approach, based on the strain variance on the surface of the bearing outer ring, is tested on a dedicated bearing test setup.
Technical Paper

Kinematic Discrepancy Minimization for AWD Terrain Vehicle Dynamics Control

Stability of motion, turnability, mobility and fuel consumption of all-wheel drive terrain vehicles strongly depends on engine power distribution among the front and rear driving axles and then between the left and right wheels of each axle. This paper considers kinematic discrepancy, which characterizes the difference of the theoretical velocities of the front and rear wheels, as the main factor that influences power distribution among the driving axles/wheels of vehicles with positively locked front and rear axles. The paper presents a new algorithm which enables minimization of the kinematic discrepancy factor for the improvement of AWD terrain vehicle dynamics while keeping up with minimal power losses for tire slip. Three control modes associated with gear ratio control of the front and rear driving axles are derived to provide the required change in kinematic discrepancy. Computer simulation results are presented for different scenarios of terrain and road conditions.
Technical Paper

Influence of Active Subsystems on Electric Vehicle Behavior and Energy Characteristics

Nowadays there is a tendency to implement various active vehicle subsystems in a modern vehicle to improve its stability of motion, handling, comfort and other operation characteristics. Since each vehicle subsystem has own limits to generate supporting demand, their potential impact on vehicle dynamics should be analyzed for steady-state and transient vehicle behavior. Moreover, the additional research issue is the assessment of total energy consumption and energy losses, because a stand-alone operation of each vehicle subsystem will provide different impact on vehicle dynamics and they have own energy demands. The vehicle configuration includes (i) friction brake system, (ii) individual-wheel drive electric motors, (iii) wheel steer actuators, (iv) camber angle actuators, (v) dynamic tire pressure system and (vi) actuators generating additional normal forces through external spring, damping and stabilizer forces. A passenger car is investigated using commercial software.
Journal Article

Influence of Active Camber Control on Steering Feel

Research of the past century has demonstrated that wheel camber regulation provides great potential to improve vehicle safety and performance. This led to the development of various prototypes of the camber mechanisms over the last decade. An overview of the existing prototypes is discussed in the presented paper. Most of the investigations related to camber control cover open-loop maneuvers to evaluate a vehicle response. However, a driver’s perception and his reaction can be the most critical factor during vehicle operation. Therefore, the research goal of the presented study is to assess an influence of active camber control on steering feel and driving performance using a driving simulator. In the proposed investigation, a dSPACE ASM vehicle model has been extended by introducing advanced models of steering system and active camber regulation. The steering system describes dynamics of steering components (upper and lower columns, torsion bar, steering rack and others).
Journal Article

Design and Testing of ABS for Electric Vehicles with Individually Controlled On-Board Motor Drives

The paper introduces the results of the development of anti-lock brake system (ABS) for full electric vehicle with individually controlled near-wheel motors. The braking functions in the target vehicle are realized with electro-hydraulic decoupled friction brake system and electric motors operating in a braking mode. The proposed ABS controller is based on the direct slip and velocity control and includes several main blocks for computing of predictive (feedforward) and reactive (feedback) brake torque, wheel slip observer, slip target adaptation, and the algorithm of brake blending between friction brakes and electric motors. The functionality of developed ABS has been investigated on the HIL test rig for straight-line braking manoeuvres on different surfaces with variation of initial velocity. The obtained experimental results have been compared with the operation of baseline algorithm of a hydraulic ABS and have demonstrated a marked effect in braking performance.
Journal Article

Coordination of Steer Angles, Tyre Inflation Pressure, Brake and Drive Torques for Vehicle Dynamics Control

During vehicle operation, the control objectives of stability, handling, energy consumption and comfort have different priorities, which are determined by road conditions and driver behavior. To achieve better operation characteristics of vehicle, coordinated control of vehicle subsystems is actively used. The fact of more active vehicle subsystems in a modern passenger car provides more flexibility for vehicle control and control algorithm development. Since the modern vehicle can be considered as over-actuated system, control allocation is an effective control technique to solve such kind of problem. This paper describes coordination of frictional brake system, individual-wheel drive electric motors, active front and rear steering, active camber mechanisms and tyre pressure control system. To coordinate vehicle subsystems, optimization-based control allocation with dynamic weights is applied.
Journal Article

Advancement of Vehicle Dynamics Control with Monitoring the Tire Rolling Environment

One of the most important challenges for electronic stability control (ESC) systems is the identification and monitoring of tire rolling environment, especially actual tire-road friction parameters. The presented research considers an advanced variant of the ESC system deducing the mentioned factors based on intelligent methods as fuzzy sets. The paper includes: Overview of key issues in prototyping the algorithms of Electronic Stability Control. Case study for vehicle model. Procedures for monitoring of tire rolling environment: theoretical backgrounds, computing methods, fuzzy input and output variables, fuzzy inference systems, interface with ESC algorithm. Case study for ESC control algorithm. Examples of simulation using Hardware-in-the-Loop procedures. The proposed approach can be widely used for the next-generation of ESC devices having the close integration with Intelligent Transport Systems.