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Technical Paper

Tractor Induced Wheel Runover Injuries

In the present investigation a tractor wheel runover accident was simulated to obtain biomechanical information relating to mechanism of injury. Twelve cadaver porcine specimens were runover with the right front wheel of a tractor. Specimens were placed on a six-axis force plate and thorax contours were recorded temporally. Results indicated up to 68% compression of the chest occurred during the runover event. The shear force in the direction of travel was a significant factor in the type of fractures that occurred to the rib cage. Pathology determined from x-ray revealed multiple fractures per rib in the area directly below the path of the tire. Autopsy evaluation revealed soft tissue contusion on the left side in the area of wheel path. There was often extra blood in the pericardial space and examination of the brain showed petechial hemorrhaging subdurally.
Technical Paper

Three-Year-Old Child Out-Of-Position Side Airbag Studies

A series of twenty-nine tests was completed by conducting static deployment of side airbag systems to an out-of-position Hybrid III three-year-old dummy. Mock-ups (bucks) of vehicle occupant compartments were constructed. The dummy was placed in one of four possible positions for both door- and seat-mounted side airbag systems. When data from each type of position test were combined for the various injury parameters it was noted that the head injury criteria (HIC) were maximized for head and neck tests, and the chest injury parameters were maximized for the chest tests. For the neck injury parameters, however, all of the test positions produced high values for at least one of the parameters. The study concluded the following. Static out-of- position child dummy side airbag testing is one possible method to evaluate the potential for injury for worst-case scenarios. The outcome of these tests are sensitive to preposition and various measurements should be made to reproduce the tests.
Technical Paper

Thoraco-Abdominal Deflection Responses of Post Mortem Human Surrogates in Side Impacts

The objective of the present study was to determine the thorax and abdomen deflections sustained by post mortem human surrogate (PMHS) in oblique side impact sled tests and compare the responses and injuries with pure lateral tests. Oblique impact tests were conducted using modular and non-modular load-wall designs, with the former capable of accommodating varying anthropometry. Tests were conducted at 6.7 m/s velocity. Deflection responses from chestbands were analyzed from 15 PMHS tests: five each from modular load-wall oblique, non-modular load-wall oblique and non-modular load-wall pure lateral impacts. The thorax and abdomen peak deflections were greater in non-modular load-wall oblique than pure lateral tests. Peak abdomen deflections were statistically significantly different while the upper thorax deflections demonstrated a trend towards significance.
Technical Paper

Thoracic Deformation Contours in a Frontal Impact

The objective of the study was to document the thoracic deformation contours in a simulated frontal impact. Unembalmed human cadavers and the Hybrid III anthropomorphic manikins were tested. Data from the newly developed External Peripheral Instrument for Deformation Measurement (EPIDM) was used to derive deformation patterns at upper and lower thoracic levels. Deceleration sled tests were conducted on three-point belt restrained surrogates positioned in the driver's seat (no steering assembly) using a horizontal impact test sled at velocities of approximately 14.0 m/s. Lap and shoulder belt forces were recorded with seat belt transducers. The experimental protocol included a Hybrid III manikin experiment followed by the human cadaver test. Both surrogates were studied under similar input and instrumentation conditions, and identical data acquisition and analysis procedures were used. All six testedcadavers demonstrated multiple bilateral rib fractures.
Technical Paper

Thoracic Biomechanics with Air Bag Restraint

The objective of the present study was to determine the biomechanics of the human thorax in a simulated frontal impact. Fourteen unembalmed human cadavers were subjected to deceleration sled tests at velocities of nine or 13 m/s. Air bag - knee bolster, air bag - lap belt, and air bag - three-point belt restraint systems were used with the specimen positioned in the driver's seat. Two chest bands were used to derive the deformation patterns at the upper and lower thoracic levels. Lap and shoulder belt forces were recorded with seatbelt transducers. After the test, specimens were evaluated using palpation, radiography, and a detailed autopsy. Thoracic trauma was graded according to the Abbreviated Injury Scale based on autopsy findings. Peak thoracic deformations were normalized with respect to the initial chest depth to facilitate comparison between the specimens.
Technical Paper

Steering Wheel Induced Facial Trauma

Studies were conducted on twenty-two fresh human cadavers to determine the probability of facial bone fracture following dynamic contact with steering wheel assemblies of both standard (a commercially available) and energy absorbing (EA) types. Using a specially designed and validated vertical-drop impact test system, either zygoma was impacted once onto the junction of the lower left spoke and rim with velocities ranging from 2.0 to 6.9 m/s. Generalized force histories were recorded with a six-axis load cell placed below the hub. The wheel was inclined 30 degrees to the horizontal. Steering wheel deformations were recorded with a system of potentiometers placed below the impact site on the wheel. Dynamic forces at the zygoma (impact site) were computed using transformation principles. A triaxial accelerometer was placed at the posterior parietal region of the specimen opposite to the impact site to record acceleration histories. High speed photography documented the kinematics.
Technical Paper

Responses of Human Surrogates to Simulated Rear Impact: Velocity and Level Dependent Facet Joint Kinematics

The objective of the present study was to determine the kinematics of the human head-neck complex with specific reference to posterior facet joints as a function of rear impact acceleration. Six intact human head-neck complexes were prepared by fixing the first thoracic vertebra in polymethylmethacrylate. The specimens were oriented such that the Frankfurt plane was horizontal and the cervico-thoracic disc was at an angle of 25 degrees to simulate the normal driving position. Retroreflective targets were inserted to the cervical vertebrae. The specimens were subjected to simulated rear impact accelerations using a minisled apparatus. A series of tests were conducted with velocities of 2.1, 4.6, 6.6, 9.3, and 12.4 km/h. In this study, to achieve the objective, results are presented on the facet joint motions at the C4–5, C5–6, and C6–7 levels as a function of change in velocity.
Technical Paper

Responses and Injuries to PMHS in Side-Facing and Oblique Seats in Horizontal Longitudinal Sled Tests per FAA Emergency Landing Conditions

The objective of the present exploratory study is to understand occupant responses in oblique and side-facing seats in the aviation environment, which are increasingly installed in modern aircrafts. Sled tests were conducted using intact Post Mortem Human Surrogates (PMHS) seated in custom seats approximating standard aircraft geometry. End conditions were selected to represent candidate aviation seat and restraint configurations. Three-dimensional head center-of-gravity linear accelerations, head angular velocities, and linear accelerations of the T1, T6, and T12 spinous processes, and sacrum were obtained. Three-dimensional kinematics relative to the seat were obtained from retroreflective targets attached to the head, T1, T6, T12, and sacrum. All specimens sustained spinal injuries, although variations existed by vertebral level.
Technical Paper

Response and Tolerance of the Human Forearm to Impact Loading

With the widespread use of supplemental restraint systems (airbags), occasional rare injuries have occurred because of the force associated with these systems upon deployment. Recent case studies have demonstrated forearm fractures associated with airbag deployment. The present study was conducted to determine the tolerance of the human forearm under a dynamic bending mode. A total of 30 human cadaver forearm specimens were tested using three-point bending protocol to failure at 3.3 m/s and 7.6 m/s velocities. Results indicated significantly (p < 0.01) greater biomechanical parameters associated with males compared to females. The bending tolerance of the human forearm, however, was found to be most highly correlated to bone mineral density, bone area, and forearm mass. Thus, any occupant with lower bone mineral density and lower forearm geometry/mass is at higher risk. The mean failure bending moment for all specimens was 94 Nm.
Technical Paper

Response Corridors of Human Surrogates in Lateral Impacts

Thirty-six lateral PMHS sled tests were performed at 6.7 or 8.9 m/s, under rigid or padded loading conditions and with a variety of impact surface geometries. Forces between the simulated vehicle environment and the thorax, abdomen, and pelvis, as well as torso deflections and various accelerations were measured and scaled to the average male. Mean ± one standard deviation corridors were calculated. PMHS response corridors for force, torso deflection and acceleration were developed. The offset test condition, when partnered with the flat wall condition, forms the basis of a robust battery of tests that can be used to evaluate how an ATD interacts with its environment, and how body regions within the ATD interact with each other.
Technical Paper

Oblique Loading in Post Mortem Human Surrogates from Vehicle Lateral ImpactTests Using Chestbands

While numerous studies have been conducted to determine side impact responses of Post Mortem Human Surrogates (PMHS) using sled and other equipment, experiments using the biological surrogate in modern full-scale vehicles are not available. The present study investigated the presence of oblique loading in moving deformable barrier and pole tests. Three-point belt restrained PMHS were positioned in the left front and left rear seats in the former and left front seat in the latter condition and tested according to consumer testing protocols. Three chestbands were used in each specimen (upper, middle and lower thorax). Accelerometers were secured to the skull, shoulder, upper, middle and lower thoracic vertebrae, sternum, and sacrum. Chestband signals were processed to determine magnitudes and angulations of peak deflections. The magnitude and timing of various signal peaks are given. Vehicle accelerations, door velocities, and seat belt loads are also given.
Technical Paper

Oblique Lateral Impact Biofidelity Deflection Corridors from Post Mortem Human Surrogates

The objective of the study was to determine the thorax and abdomen deflection-time corridors in oblique side impacts. Data were analyzed from Post Mortem Human Surrogate (PMHS) sled tests, certain aspects of which were previously published. A modular and scalable anthropometry-specific segmented load-wall system was fixed to the platform of the sled. Region-specific forces were recorded from load cells attached to the load-wall plates. The thorax and abdomen regions were instrumented with chestbands, and deflection contours were obtained. Biomechanical responses were processed using the impulse-momentum normalization method and scaled to the mid-size male mass, 76-kg. The individual effective masses of the thorax and abdomen were used to determine the scale factors in each sled test, thus using the response from each experiment. The maximum deflections and their times of attainments were obtained, and mean and plus minus one standard deviation corridors were derived.
Technical Paper

Mechanisms and Factors Involved in Hip Injuries During Frontal Crashes

This study was conducted to collect data and gain insights relative to the mechanisms and factors involved in hip injuries during frontal crashes and to study the tolerance of hip injuries from this type of loading. Unembalmed human cadavers were seated on a standard automotive seat (reinforced) and subjected to knee impact test to each lower extremity. Varying combinations of flexion and adduction/abduction were used for initial alignment conditions and pre-positioning. Accelerometers were fixed to the iliac wings and twelfth thoracic vertebral spinous process. A 23.4-kg padded pendulum impacted the knee at velocities ranging from 4.3 to 7.6 m/s. The impacting direction was along the anteroposterior axis, i.e., the global X-axis, in the body-fixed coordinate system. A load cell on the front of the pendulum recorded the impact force. Peak impact forces ranged from 2,450 to 10,950 N. The rate of loading ranged from 123 to 7,664 N/msec. The impulse values ranged from 12.4 to 31.9 Nsec.
Technical Paper

Lower Cervical Spine Loading in Frontal Sled Tests Using Inverse Dynamics: Potential Applications for Lower Neck Injury Criteria

Lower cervical spine injuries are more common in survivors of motor vehicle crashes sustaining neck trauma. Injury criteria are determined using upper neck loads in dummies although a lower neck load cell exists. Due to a paucity of lower neck data from post mortem human subject (PMHS) studies, this research was designed to determine the head-neck biomechanics with a focus on lower neck metrics and injuries. Sixteen frontal impact tests were conducted using five belted PMHS. Instrumentation consisted of a pyramid-shaped nine accelerometer package on the head, tri-axial accelerometer on T1, and uniaxial accelerometer on the sled. Three-dimensional kinematics of the head-neck complex were obtained using a 20-camera high-speed motion analysis system. Testing sequence was: low (3.6 m/s), medium (6.9 m/s), repeat low, and high (15.8 m/s) velocities. Trauma evaluations were made between tests. Testing was terminated upon confirmation of injuries.
Technical Paper

Kinematic and Anatomical Analysis of the Human Cervical Spinal Column Under Axial Loading

The patho-anatomic alterations due to vertical loading of the human cervical column were documented and correlated with biomechanical kinematic data. Seven fresh human cadaveric head-neck complexes were prepared, and six-axis load cells were placed at the proximal and distal ends of the specimens to document the gross biomechanical response. Retroreflective markers were placed on bony landmarks of vertebral bodies, articular facets, and spinous processes along the entire cervical column. Targets were also placed on the occiput and arch of C1. The localized movements of these markers were recorded using a video analyzer during the entire loading cycle. Pre-test two-dimensional, and three-dimensional computerized tomography (CT), and plane radiographs were taken. The specimens were loaded to failure using an electrohydraulic testing device at a rate of 2 mm/s.
Technical Paper

Improved thorax behavior of the EUROSID and effects on thorax injury assessment, on the basis of pendulum impacts

In 1989, the EUROSID-1 was accepted in the European regulation ECE-R95. After a steady period of use, an upgraded version of this dummy: ES-2 is now considered as a step towards harmonization of side impact occupant regulations. The upgrades to the dummy include, amongst others, a modification of its torso back plate and a change in rib module guidance (piston-cylinder), especially to overcome anomalous rib deflection responses referred to as ""flat-top.'' Presented here are results of lateral and oblique pendulum tests, conducted on the EUROSID-1 and ES-2 to verify the modified torso back plate and to study the responses of three proposed rib module designs for ES-2. Particularly, rib deflections, rib VC responses, and thorax force-deflection responses are analyzed. The current study primarily addresses sensitivity of the ES-2 thorax to oblique loading.
Technical Paper

Experimental Study of Blast-Induced Traumatic Brain Injury Using a Physical Head Model

This study was conducted to quantify intracranial biomechanical responses and external blast overpressures using physical head model to understand the biomechanics of blast traumatic brain injury and to provide experimental data for computer simulation of blast-induced brain trauma. Ellipsoidal-shaped physical head models, made from 3-mm polycarbonate shell filled with Sylgard 527 silicon gel, were used. Six blast tests were conducted in frontal, side, and 45° oblique orientations. External blast overpressures and internal pressures were quantified with ballistic pressure sensors. Blast overpressures, ranging from 129.5 kPa to 769.3 kPa, were generated using a rigid cannon and 1.3 to 3.0 grams of pentaerythritol tetranitrate (PETN) plastic sheet explosive (explosive yield of 13.24 kJ and TNT equivalent mass of 2.87 grams for 3 grams of material).
Technical Paper

Experimental Determination of Adult and Pediatric Neck Scale Factors

The purpose of this study was to determine scale factors for small, mid-size and large adults using a caprine model. In a previous study conducted in our lab, scaling relationships were developed to define cervical spine tolerance values of children using caprine specimens. In that study, tolerances were normalized with respect to an average adult. Because airbag-related injuries are associated with out-of-position children and small adult females, additional experimental data are needed to better estimate human tolerance. In the present study, cervical spine radiographs from the 5th, 50th and 95th percentile human adults were used to determine vertebral body heights for small, mid-size and large anthropometries. Mean human vertebral body heights were computed for each anthropometry and were normalized with respect to mid-size anthropometry.
Technical Paper

Epidemiology and Injury Biomechanics of Motor Vehicle Related Trauma to the Human Spine

Engineering efforts directed at better occupant safety require a thorough understanding of available epidemiologic data. Epidemiologic studies using clinical as well as accident information facilitates the prioritization of biomechanics research so that controlled laboratory experimentation and/or analytical models can be advanced. This information has also value in dictating levels and types of injury that are critical to the development of anthropomorphic test devices used in crash environments. In this paper, motor vehicle accident related (excluding pedestrians, bicyclists, and motorcyclists) epidemiologic data were obtained from clinical and computerized accident (National Accident Sampling System-NASS) files. Clinical data were gathered from patients admitted to the Medical College of Wisconsin Affiliated Hospitals, and fatalities occurring in Milwaukee County, State of Wisconsin. NASS database with specific focus on spinal injuries of motor vehicle occupants was also used.
Technical Paper

Dynamic Responses of Intact Post Mortem Human Surrogates from Inferior-to-Superior Loading at the Pelvis

During certain events such as underbody blasts due to improvised explosive devices, occupants in military vehicles are exposed to inferior-to-superior loading from the pelvis. Injuries to the pelvis-sacrum-lumbar spine complex have been reported from these events. The mechanism of load transmission and potential variables defining the migration of injuries between pelvis and or spinal structures are not defined. This study applied inferior-to-superior impacts to the tuberosities of the ischium of supine-positioned five post mortem human subjects (PMHS) using different acceleration profiles, defined using shape, magnitude and duration parameters. Seventeen tests were conducted. Overlay temporal plots were presented for normalized (impulse momentum approach) forces and accelerations of the sacrum and spine.