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Technical Paper

Tyre Load Analysis of Hydro-Pneumatic Interconnected Suspension with Zero Warp Suspension Stiffness

2015-04-14
2015-01-0630
The purpose of this paper is to present a concept of Hydro-Pneumatic Interconnected Suspension (HPIS) and investigate the unique property of the zero warp suspension stiffness. Due to the decoupling of warp mode from other modes, the road holding ability of the vehicle is maximized meanwhile the roll stability and ride comfort can be tuned independently and optimally without compromise. Ride comfort can be improved with reduced bounce stiffness and the progressive air spring rate can reduce the requirement of suspension deflection space. The roll stability can also be improved by increased roll stiffness. Vehicle suspension system modelling and modal analysis are carried out and compared with conventional suspension. The frequency response of tyres' dynamic load reveals that the proposed zero-warp-stiffness suspension enables the free articulation of front and rear axles at low frequency.
Journal Article

The Safety and Dynamic Performance of Blended Brake System on a Two-Speed DCT Based Battery Electric Vehicle

2016-04-05
2016-01-0468
Regenerative braking has been widely accepted as a feasible option to extend the mileage of electric vehicles (EVs) by recapturing the vehicle’s kinetic energy instead of dissipating it as heat during braking. The regenerative braking force provided by a generator is applied to the wheels in an entirely different manner compared to the traditional hydraulic-friction brake system. Drag torque and efficiency loss may be generated by transmitting the braking force from the motor, axles, differential and, specifically in this paper, a two-speed dual clutch transmission (DCT) to wheels. Additionally, motors in most battery EVs (BEVs) and hybrid electric vehicle (HEVs) are only connected to front or rear axle. Consequently, conventional hydraulic brake system is still necessary, but dynamic and supplement to motor brake, to meet particular brake requirement and keep vehicle stable and steerable during braking.
Journal Article

Robust Yaw Moment Control for Vehicle Handling and Stability

2009-04-20
2009-01-0578
This paper presents a robust controller design method for improving vehicle lateral stability and handling performance. In particular, the practical load variation will be taken into account in the controller synthesis process such that the controller can keep the vehicle lateral stability and handling performance regardless of the load variation. Based on a two-degree-of-freedom (2-DOF) lateral dynamics model, a model-based Takagi-Sugeno fuzzy control strategy is applied to design such a controller and the sufficient conditions for designing such a controller are given in terms of linear matrix inequalities (LMIs) which can be solved efficiently using currently available numerical software. Numerical simulations are used to validate the effectiveness of the proposed control approach.
Technical Paper

Robust Active Roll Controller Design for Vehicles Considering Variable Speed and Actuator Delay

2007-04-16
2007-01-0825
A robust controller design method for vehicle roll control with variable speed and actuator delay is presented. Based on a three-degree-of-freedom (3DOF) yaw-roll model, the H∞ performance from the steering input to the vehicle body roll angle is considered. The design approach is formulated in terms of the feasibility of delay-dependent matrix inequalities. By combining the random search of genetic algorithms (GAs) and the efficient solution of linear matrix inequalities (LMIs), the state feedback controllers can be obtained. The approach is validated by simulations showing that the designed controllers can achieve good performance in roll control.
Technical Paper

Performance Improvement of a Two Speed EV through Combined Gear Ratio and Shift Schedule Optimization

2013-04-08
2013-01-1477
This paper proposes an approach to optimize the economy performance of a two-speed electric vehicle (EV) by combining gear shifting schedule design and gear ratios selection. Mathematic models for the two-speed EV subsystems are developed, including those of the battery module, electric machine, the driver, transmission and vehicle. Then a procedure for obtaining the optimal gear ratio pairs and corresponding shift schedule for the two-speed EV is presented in detail. The optimized EV powertrain parameters can not only ensure that basic requirements in dynamic performance are achieved, but realize the optimal economic performance of the EV as well. In order to investigate the effectiveness of the proposed method for EV design, simulations based on the developed powertrain model is conducted using different test driving cycles, including NEDC and constant speed. Results of these simulations validate the effectiveness of the proposed optimization method.
Technical Paper

Lateral Dynamics and Suspension Tuning for a Two-Axle Bus Fitted with Roll-Resistant Hydraulically Interconnected Suspension

2018-04-03
2018-01-0831
In this paper, a new roll-plane hydraulically interconnected suspension (HIS) system is proposed to enhance the roll and lateral dynamics of a two-axle bus. It is well-known that the suspension tuning is of great importance in the design process and has also been explored in a number of studies, while only minimal efforts have been made for suspension tuning for the newly proposed HIS system especially considering lateral stability. This study aims to explore lateral dynamics and suspension tuning of a two-axle bus with HIS system, which could also provide valuable information for roll dynamics analysis. Based on a ten-DOFs lumped-mass full-car model of a bus either integrating transient mechanical-hydraulic model for HIS or the traditional suspension components, three newly promoted parameters of HIS system are defined and analyzed-namely the total roll stiffness (TRS), roll stiffness distribution ratio (RSDR) and roll-plane damping (RPD).
Technical Paper

Investigation of the Influence of an Hydraulically Interconnected Suspension (HIS) on Steady-State Cornering

2017-03-28
2017-01-0430
This paper introduces a vehicle model in CarSim, and replaces a portion of its standard suspension system with an HIS model built in an external software to implement co-simulations. The maneuver we employ to characterize the HIS vehicle is a constant radius method, i.e. observing the vehicle’s steering wheel angle by fixing its cornering radius and gradually increasing its longitudinal speed. The principles of the influence of HIS systems on cornering mainly focus on two factors: lateral load transfer and roll steer effect. The concept of the front lateral load transfer occupancy ratio (FLTOR) is proposed to evaluate the proportions of lateral load transfer at front and rear axles. The relationship between toe and suspension compression is dismissed firstly to demonstrate the effects of lateral load transfer and then introduced to illustrate the effects of roll motion on cornering.
Technical Paper

Implementation and Experimental Study of a Novel Air Spring Combined with Hydraulically Interconnected Suspension to Enhance Roll Stiffness on Buses

2015-04-14
2015-01-0652
Air spring due to its superior ride comfort performance has been widely used in distance passenger transporting vehicles. Since the requirements for ride comfort and handling performance are contradict to each other, handling performance and even roll stability are sacrificed to some extent to obtain good ride comfort. Due to the complex terrain and limited manufacturing level, in the past several years, bus rollover accidents with serious casualties have been reported frequently and bus safety has attracted more and more attention from bus manufacturers in China. On one hand the bus standards have to be raised, and on the other hand, novel solutions which can effectively improve the roll stability of air spring bus are needed to replace the inadequacy of anti-roll bars.
Journal Article

H∞ Control of a Novel Low-Cost Roll-Plane Active Hydraulically Interconnected Suspension: An Experimental Investigation of Roll Control under Ground Excitation

2013-04-08
2013-01-1238
In order to make the active suspension more affordable, a novel low-cost active hydraulically interconnected suspension is developed, assembled and tested onto a sport utility vehicle. H∞ roll control strategy is employed to control vehicle body's roll motion. The hydraulic suspension model used for deriving the H∞ controller is estimated experimentally from the testing data. The active suspension model is then combined with the half-car model through their mechanical-hydraulic interface in the cylinders. The weighting function design of the H∞ control is provided. On a 4-post-test rig, the active suspension with H∞ control is validated with several road excitations. The test rig and experimental setup are explained and the obtained results are compared. The effectiveness of the designed H∞ controller is verified by the test data, with a considerable roll angle reduction in the three tests presented.
Journal Article

Handling Analysis of a Vehicle Fitted with Roll-Plane Hydraulically Interconnected Suspension Using Motion-Mode Energy Method

2014-04-01
2014-01-0110
This paper employs the motion-mode energy method (MEM) to investigate the effects of a roll-plane hydraulically interconnected suspension (HIS) system on vehicle body-wheel motion-mode energy distribution. A roll-plane HIS system can directly provide stiffness and damping to vehicle roll motion-mode, in addition to spring and shock absorbers in each wheel station. A four degree-of-freedom (DOF) roll-plane half-car model is employed for this study, which contains four body-wheel motion-modes, including body bounce mode, body roll mode, wheel bounce mode and wheel roll mode. For a half-car model, its dynamic energy contained in the relative motions between its body and wheels is a sum of the energy of these four motion-modes. Numerical examples and full-car experiments are used to illustrate the concept of the effects of HIS on motion-mode energy distribution.
Journal Article

Experimental Investigation of a Hydraulically Interconnected Suspension in Vehicle Dynamics and Stability Control

2012-04-16
2012-01-0240
Mainly motivated by developing cost-effective vehicle anti-roll systems, hydraulically interconnected suspension has been studied in the past decade to replace anti-roll bars. It has been proved theoretically and practically that hydraulic suspensions have superior anti-roll ability over anti-roll bars, and therefore they have achieved commercial success in racing cars and luxury sports utility vehicles (SUVs). However, since vehicle is a highly coupled complex system, it is necessary to investigate/evaluate the hydraulic-suspension-fitted-vehicle's dynamic performance in other aspects, apart from anti-roll ability, such as ride comfort, lateral stability, etc. This paper presents an experimental investigation of a SUV fitted with a hydraulically interconnected suspension under a severe steady steering maneuver; the result is compared with a same type vehicle fitted with anti-roll bars.
Technical Paper

Experimental Investigation of Interconnected Hydraulic Suspensions with Different Configurations to Soften Warp Mode for Improving Off-Road Vehicle Trafficability

2015-04-14
2015-01-0658
Hydraulic suspension systems with different interconnected configurations can decouple suspension mode and improve performance of a particular mode. In this paper, two types of interconnected suspensions are compared for off-road vehicle trafficability. Traditionally, anti-roll bar, a mechanically interconnected suspension system, connecting left and right suspension, decouples roll mode from the bounce mode and results in a stiff roll mode and a soft bounce mode, which is desired. However, anti-roll bars fail to connect the front wheel motions with the rear wheels', thus the wheels' motions in the warp mode are affected by anti-roll bars and it results an undesired stiffened warp mode. A stiffened warp mode limits the wheel-ground contact and may cause one wheel lift up especially during off-road drive. In contrast with anti-roll bars, two types of hydraulic suspensions which interconnect four wheels (for two-axis vehicles) can further decouple articulation mode from other modes.
Technical Paper

Dynamic Characteristics Analysis of an Ambulance with Hydraulically Interconnected Suspension System

2018-04-03
2018-01-0815
The vibration and instability experienced in an ambulance can lead to secondary injury to a patient and discourage a paramedic from emergency care. This paper presents a hydraulically interconnected suspension (HIS) system which can achieve enhanced cooperative control of roll, pitch and bounce motion modes to improve the ambulance's ride comfort and handling performance. A lumped-mass model integrated with a mechanical and hydraulic coupled system is developed by using free-body diagram and transfer matrix methods. The mechanical-fluid boundary condition in the double-acting cylinders is modelled as an external force on the mechanical system and a moving boundary on the fluid system. A special modal analysis method is employed to reveal the vibration characteristics of the ambulance with the HIS.
Technical Paper

Design and Dynamic Analysis of Bounce and Pitch Plane Hydraulically Interconnected Suspension for Mining Vehicle to Improve Ride Comfort and Pitching Stiffness

2015-04-14
2015-01-0617
This paper demonstrates time response analysis of the mining vehicle with bounce and pitch plane hydraulically interconnected suspension (HIS) system. Since the mining vehicles working in harsh conditions inducing obvious pitch motion and the hard stiffness of suspensions leading to the acute vibration, the passive hydraulically interconnected system is proposed to provide better ride comfort. Furthermore, the hydraulic system also increases the suspension stiffness in the pitch mode to prevent vehicle from large pitch motions. According to the hydraulic and mechanical coupled characteristic of the mining vehicles, a 7degrees of freedom (7-DOFS) mathematical model is employed and the state space method is used to establish the mechanical and hydraulic coupled dynamic equations. In this paper, the vehicles are subjected to straight line braking input, triangle block bump input applied to the wheels and random road tests.
Journal Article

Characteristic Analysis of Roll and Pitch Independently Controlled Hydraulically Interconnected Suspension

2014-04-01
2014-01-0870
This paper presents the modeling and characteristic analysis of roll-plane and pitch-plane combined Hydraulically Interconnected Suspension (HIS) system. Vehicle dynamic analysis is carried out with four different configurations for comparison. They are: 1) vehicle with spring-damper only, 2) vehicle with roll-plane HIS, 3) vehicle with pitch-plane HIS and 4) vehicle with roll and pitch combined HIS. The modal analysis shows the unique modes-decoupling property of HIS system. The roll-plane HIS increases roll stiffness only without affecting other modes, and similarly pitch-plane HIS increases the pitch stiffness only with minimum influence on other modes. When roll and pitch plane HIS are integrated, the vehicle ride comfort and handling stability can be improved simultaneously without compromise. A detailed analysis and discussion of the results are provided to conclude the paper.
Technical Paper

Active Hydraulically Interconnected Suspension. Modeling and Simulation

2017-03-28
2017-01-1561
Rollover prevention is one of the prominent priorities in vehicle safety and handling control. A promising alternative for roll angle cancellation is the active hydraulically interconnected suspension. This paper represents the analytical model of a closed circuit active hydraulically interconnected suspension system followed by the simulation. Passive hydraulically interconnected suspension systems have been widely discussed and studied up to now. This work specifically focuses on the active hydraulically interconnected suspension system. Equations of motion of the system are formalized first. The system consists of two separate subsystems that can be modeled independently and further combined for simulation. One of the two subsystems is 4 degrees of freedom half-car model which simulates vehicle lateral dynamics and vehicle roll angle response to lateral acceleration in particular.
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