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Technical Paper

Systems Design for Ceramic LFA Substrates for Diesel/Natural Gas Flow- Through Catalysts

1995-02-01
950150
The monolithic, large frontal area (LFA), extruded ceramic substrates for diesel flow-through catalysts offer unique advantages of design versatility, longterm durability, ease of packaging and low Cost [1, 2]*. This paper examines the effect of cell density and cell size on catalyst light-off performance, back pressure, mechanical and thermal durability, and the steady-state catalytic activity. The factors which affect these performance characteristics are discussed. Certain trade-offs in performance parameters, which are necessary for optimum systems design, are also discussed. Following a brief discussion of design methodology, substrate selection, substrate/washcoat interaction and packaging specifications, the durability data for ceramic flow-through catalysts are summarized. A total of over 18 million vehicle miles have been successfully demonstrated by ceramic LFA catalysts using the systems design approach.
Technical Paper

Systems Approach to Packaging Design for Automotive Catalytic Converters

1990-02-01
900500
This paper addresses the packaging design for monolithic cordierite ceramic converters to meet the new, stringent durability requirements of the 1990's, while minimizing warranty cost for the automaker. These objectives are best met by using a systems approach during the early phases of packaging design, i.e. by examining design interactions between the ceramic monolith, alumina coating, ceramic mat or wiremesh mounting material with seals, stainless steel can, heatshields, and associated peripheral components. Failure of any one of these components can prove detrimental to converter durability. In this paper we take advantage of overall understanding of the observed failure modes and individual component behavior, and present new data for optimizing the total converter durability through initial design. In particular, the impact of symmetric gas entry, monolith contour, clamshell anisotropy, mount density, stiffener ribs, and heatshield insulation on total durability is highlighted.
Technical Paper

Robust Packaging System for Diesel/Natural Gas Oxidation Catalysts

1996-02-01
960471
The 290,000 vehicle-mile durability requirement for diesel/natural gas oxidation catalysts calls for robust packaging systems which ensure a positive mounting pressure on the ceramic flow-through converter under all operating conditions. New data for substrate/washcoat interaction, intumescent mat performance in dry and wet states, and high temperature strength and oxidation resistance of stainless steels, and canning techniques insensitive to tolerance stack-up are reviewed which help optimize packaging durability. Factors contributing to robustness of converter components are identified and methods to quantify their impact on design optimization are described. CERAMIC FLOW-THROUGH catalysts for diesel exhaust aftertreatment have met with much success since their introduction in 1993.
Technical Paper

Physical Durability of Thin Wall Ceramic Substrates

1998-10-19
982635
Significant advances in composition and the manufacturing process have led to thin wall cordierite ceramic substrates with low thermal mass, high surface area, and large open frontal area-properties that are critical for fast light-off, high conversion efficiency and low back pressure. Indeed, such substrates are ideal catalyst supports for meeting the ever-stringent emissions regulations, ala SULEV and ULEV, as demonstrated by recent performance data1. This paper focuses on the physical durability of 400/4 and 600/4 cordierite ceramic substrates. In particular, it presents strength, fatigue, and modulus data which influence the mechanical durability. In addition, it presents thermal expansion data which impact the thermal durability. Both of these durabilities are examined as a function of operating temperature.
Technical Paper

Performance Parameters for Advanced Ceramic Catalyst Supports

1999-10-25
1999-01-3631
The stringent emissions legislation has necessitated advances in the catalytic converter system comprising the substrate, washcoat technology, catalyst formulation and packaging design. These advances are focused on reducing light-off emissions at lower temperature or shorter time, increasing FTP efficiency, reducing back pressure and meeting the mechanical and thermal durability requirements over 100,000 vehicle miles. This paper reviews the role of cordierite ceramic substrate and how its design can help meet the stringent emissions legislation. In particular, it compares the effect of cell geometry and size on performance parameters like geometric surface area, open frontal area, hydraulic diameter, thermal mass, heat transfer factor, mechanical integrity factor and thermal integrity factor - all of which have a bearing on emissions, back pressure and durability. The properties of advanced cell configurations like hexagon are compared with those of standard square cell.
Technical Paper

New Developments in Packaging of Ceramic Honeycomb Catalysts

1992-10-01
922252
The emissions regulations for the decade of 1990s are not only more stringent but are also required of vehicles other than passenger cars, for example both diesel and gasoline trucks as well as motorcycles. These latter applications involve different operating conditions in terms of space velocities, temperature profiles, and vibrational loads than those typical of passenger cars [1]*. In addition, the performance and durability requirements for these applications call for lower back pressure and longer service life. Furthermore, the space availability and the operating temperature range differ vastly so as to require special packaging designs to meet the durability requirements. This paper provides new data for ceramic insulating mats, both intumescent and non-intumescent [2,3], and ceramic substrates with thin and thick walls and square and triangular cell geometries [4], which are under development for non-passenger car applications indicated above.
Technical Paper

Mechanical Integrity of Ceramic Monolithic Converters

1981-11-01
811324
The converter assembly consists of a ceramic monolith with racetrack cross-section, a suitable “springy” mat wrapped around it and a clam-shell steel can to contain and guard these components against road hazards. The process to effect this assembly is rather dynamic and introduces directional loads onto the monolith in view of the anisotropic stiffness of the can. If these loads exceed certain values, they may cause failure of the monolith either by crushing it or by shearing it. In this paper we analyze the stiffness of various components of converter assembly, determine the load distribution around the monolith, and modify the design of can and monolith to make the load distribution more favorable. It is concluded that the converter assembly can be optimized and the failure of monoliths, if any, eliminated during closure. The present monoliths do not suffer from such failure.
Technical Paper

Measurement of Biaxial Compressive Strength of Cordierite Ceramic Honeycombs

1993-03-01
930165
The stringent durability requirements approaching 100,000 vehicle miles for automotive substrates and 290,000 vehicle miles for large frontal area diesel substrates for 1994+ model year vehicles call for advanced packaging designs with thick ceramic mats and high mount densities. The latter result in high mounting pressure on the substrate and enhance its mechanical integrity against engine vibrations, road shocks and back pressure forces. A novel measurement technique which applies a uniform biaxial compressive load on the lateral surface of ceramic substrates, thereby simulating canning loads, is described. The biaxial compressive strength data obtained in this manner help determine the maximum mounting pressure and mat density for a durable packaging design. The biaxial compressive strength data for both round and non round substrates with small and large frontal area are presented.
Technical Paper

Long-Term Durability of Ceramic Honeycombs for Automotive Emissions Control

1985-02-01
850130
Ceramic honeycomb structures have been used successfully as catalyst supports in gasoline-powered vehicles for the past ten years. They are currently the leading candidate for trapping and oxidizing the carbonaceous particulate emissions in diesel-powered vehicles. In both of these applications the long term durability of the ceramic substrate is of prime importance. This, in turn, depends on the physical properties of cellular structure, cyclic nature of service loads and design of the mounting assembly. This paper examines the nature and dependence of both the mechanical and thermal stresses in the substrate on its geometry, properties, mounting parameters, and the operating conditions. It also compares the observed failure modes with those predicted by the theory. The paper concludes with a set of recommendations for optimal systems design and acceptable operating conditions which will promote the long term durability of the ceramic substrate.
Technical Paper

High Temperature Compressive Strength of Extruded Cordierite Ceramic Substrates

1995-02-01
950787
High temperature modulus of rupture (MOR) data, published previously, show that the ceramic catalyst supports get stronger with temperature due to the absence of water vapor and closure of microcracks which would otherwise act as stress concentrators [1, 2 and 3]*. The increased MOR value is partially responsible for the excellent durability of ceramic catalyst supports at high temperature. In this paper, we will present the compressive strength data of ceramic substrates at high temperature, namely the crush strength along B-axis and biaxial compressive strength of the whole substrate. Since the honeycomb strength is directly related to that of the individual cell wall, the compressive strength should also increase with temperature similar to the modulus of rupture. Accordingly, the ceramic substrates are capable of supporting higher mounting pressures exerted by the intumescent mat at high temperature [4].
Technical Paper

Experimental Verification of Residual Compression in Tempered Automotive Glass with Holes

2003-01-18
2003-26-0012
Tempered float glass is commonly used for both side windows and backlites in the automotive industry. The success of such products is primarily attributed to high level of residual compression, following tempering, which provides abrasion resistance as well as 3X higher functional strength to sustain mechanical, vibrational and thermal stresses during the vehicle's lifetime. Certain applications of tempered glass, however, require mounting holes whose surface-finish must be controlled carefully to withstand transient tensile stresses during tempering. Simultaneously, the nature and magnitude of residual compression at the hole must provide sufficient robustness to bear mounting, vibrational and thermal stresses throughout the life of the vehicle. This paper presents (i) analysis of residual compression at the hole, (ii) measurement of biaxial strength of annealed glass with hole at center, and (iii) measurement of biaxial strength of tempered glass with hole at center.
Technical Paper

Durable Packaging Design for Cordierite Ceramic Catalysts for Motorcycle Application

1993-03-01
930161
The motorcycle emissions regulations for both two-stroke and four-stroke engines, which are receiving worldwide attention, will go into effect in the very near future. To meet these regulations, the motorcycles will require a catalyst in conjunction with the muffler due to space limitations. The combination of high engine speeds, high vibrational acceleration, high HC and CO emissions, high oxidation exotherms, and stringent durability requirements, points to cordierite ceramic substrate as an ideal catalyst support. However, as an integral unit within the muffler, its packaging design must be capable of withstanding isothermal operating conditions which may exceed the upper intumescent temperature limit of the ceramic mat. This paper describes a durable packaging design for the ceramic catalyst which employs a hybrid ceramic mat, special end rings and gaskets, and high strength stainless steel can.
Technical Paper

Durability and Performance of Thin Wall Ceramic Substrates

1999-01-13
990011
The stringent emissions standards in the late 1990's like NLEV, ULEV and SULEV have led to major modifications in the composition and design of ceramic substrates. These changes have been necessitated to reduce cold start emissions, meet OBD-II requirements, and to ensure 100,000 mile durability requirement in a cost-effective manner. This paper presents the key advances in ceramic substrates which include lower thermal expansion, lighter weight, higher surface area and improved manufacturing process all of which help meet performance requirements. In addition to above benefits, the compressive and tensile strengths of lightweight substrates, as well as their thermal shock resistance, are found to be adequate following the application of high surface area alumina washcoat. The strength properties are crucial for ensuring safe handling of the substrate during coating and canning and for its long term mechanical durability in service.
Technical Paper

Design Considerations for Mounting Material for Ceramic Wail-Flow Diesel Filters

1984-02-01
840074
An important element of the diesel filter assembly is a resilient ceramic mat placed between the ceramic filter and the stainless steel can. It has four key functions: i) to provide adequate gripping pressure, ii) to permit free axial expansion of can, iii) to act as a seal for gases, and iv) to minimize temperature gradients in the filter, which require certain mat properties, namely low-to-medium compression modulus, low shear modulus, and low friction coefficient between mat and filter. This paper compares the properties and performance of two different mats, Interam® I and III, in “hot shake” and “exhaust gas simulator” tests. The results indicate that Interam® III is a superior material for diesel filter application and that a complete coverage by this mat will prolong the durability of the filter.
Technical Paper

Design Considerations for Diesel Flow-Through Converters

1992-02-01
920145
The large frontal area cordierite ceramic flow-through converter for diesel emissions must meet the 290K vehicle mile durability requirement, almost a six fold increase over that of automotive converters. This paper compares the size, the geometry and the operating conditions of automotive vs. diesel converters and suggests ways to design the converter system to meet the challenging durability requirements without compromising its performance with respect to back pressure and conversion efficiency. It is shown that the mechanical durability of the system, which is critical for meeting the 290K vehicle mile durability, can best be met by ensuring good compatibility between the substrate and washcoat and by designing a rugged packaging system with positive mounting pressure under all driving conditions.
Technical Paper

Design Considerations for Advanced Ceramic Catalyst Supports

2000-03-06
2000-01-0493
Stringent emissions standards with 95+% conversion efficiency requirements call for advanced ceramic catalyst supports with thinner walls, higher cell density and optimum cell shape. The extrusion technology for cellular ceramics has also made significant progress which permits the manufacture of advanced catalyst supports. Similarly, modifications in cordierite chemistry and the manufacturing process have led to improved microstructure from coatability and thermal shock points of view. The design of these supports, however, requires a systems approach to balance both the performance and durability requirements. Indeed as the wall gets thinner, the contribution of washcoat becomes more significant in terms of thermal mass, heat transfer, thermal expansion, hydraulic diameter and structural stiffness - all of which have an impact on performance and durability. For example, the thinner the wall is, the better the light-off performance will be.
Technical Paper

Ceramic Converter Technology for Automotive Emissions Control

1991-09-01
911736
This paper reviews the development and successful application of ceramic catalytic converters for controlling automotive exhaust emissions. It presents the scientific rationale for designing the high surface area substrate to meet both performance and durability requirements. This is followed by a step-by-step design process for each of the converter components. The initial design stage focuses on understanding automaker's requirements and optimizing component design commensurate with them. The intermediate stage involves laboratory testing of converter components in simulated environment and ensuring component compatibility from durability point of view. The final design stage addresses the critical tests on converter assembly to ensure performance and field durability. In addition, it examines the necessary trade-offs and associated design modifications and evaluates their impact on warranty cost for system failure.
Technical Paper

Advances in Durability and Performance of Ceramic Preconverter Systems

1995-02-01
950407
Ceramic preconverters have become a viable strategy to meet the California LEV and ULEV standards. To minimize cold start emissions the preconverter must light-off quickly and be catalytically efficient. In addition, it must also survive the more severe thermomechanical requirements posed by its close proximity to the engine. The viability of the ceramic preconverter system to meet both emissions and durability requirements has also been reported recently(1,2). This paper further investigates the impact preconverter design parameters such as cell density, composition, volume, and catalyst technology have on emissions and pressure drop. In addition, different preconverter/main converter configurations in conjunction with electrically heated catalyst systems are evaluated. The results demonstrate that ceramic preconverters substantially reduce cold start emissions. Their effectiveness depends on preconverter design and volume, catalyst technology, and the system configuration.
Technical Paper

Advanced Three-Way Converter System for High Temperature Exhaust Aftertreatment

1997-02-24
970265
An advanced three-way converter system with significant improvements in light-off performance, conversion efficiency, thermal stability and physical durability at high operating temperature is described. The converter system is comprised of a light-weight ceramic substrate with high surface area triangular cell structure, a new catalyst formulation with enhanced thermal stability and good substrate compatibility, and a durable packaging design which together lead to consistent improvements in high temperature performance and durability. Experimental data including FTP performance, canning trials, and high temperature vibration and thermal shock tests for both the advanced and standard three-way converter systems are presented.
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