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Technical Paper

“Wireless Communications for Vehicle Safety:Radio Link Performance & Wireless Connectivity Methods”

2006-10-16
2006-21-0030
Many accidents occur today when distant objects or roadway impediments are not quickly detected. To help avoid these accidents, longer-range safety systems are needed with real-time detection capability and without requiring a line-of-sight (LOS) view by the driver or sensor. Early detection at intersections is required for obstacle location around blind corners and dynamic awareness of approaching vehicles on intersecting roadways. Many of today's vehicular safety systems require short LOS distances to be effective. Such systems include forward collision warning, adaptive cruise control, and lane keeping assistance. To operate over longer LOS distances and in Non-LOS (NLOS) conditions, cooperative wireless communications systems are being considered. This paper describes field results for LOS and NLOS radio links for one candidate wireless system: 5.9GHz Dedicated Short Range Communications (DSRC).
Technical Paper

“U” Bolt Torque Influence over Leaf Springs

2014-05-07
2014-36-0024
”U” bolts are fixing elements and they are used to clamp an elastic joint. From the past, they still looking as an old design and unfortunately, suspension engineers are not specialists in fasteners and elastic joints. That is why we will show important assumptions and concepts to design and specifications this clamp element “U” bolt and its influence over leaf-springs. Currently, “U” bolt is used to clamp an elastic or elastic-plastic joint of heavy duty suspension, formed by leaf-spring, axle, spring pad, “U” bolt plate. This kind of suspension is typically used to trucks, buses and trailers. We are wondering, which one important assumption that an engineer must be careful when designs a new suspension changing from old designs to an updated technology. We provide a theoretical analysis and a FEA analysis to compare torque efficacy x leaf-spring reactions and what are effects this relationship can cause in a suspension.
Technical Paper

“Smart sensing” of Oil Degradation and Oil Level Measurements in Gasoline Engines

2000-03-06
2000-01-1366
Proper lubrication of moving parts is a critical factor in internal combustion engine performance and longevity. Determination of ideal lubricant change intervals is a prerequisite to ensuring maximum engine efficiency and useful life. When oil change intervals are pushed too far, increased engine wear and even engine damage can result. On the other hand, premature oil changes are inconvenient, add to vehicle maintenance cost, and result in wasted natural resources. In order to determine the appropriate oil change interval, we have developed an oil condition sensor that measures the electrical properties of engine oil, and correlates these electrical properties to the physical and chemical properties of oil. This paper provides a brief background discussion of the oil degradation process, followed by a description of the sensor operational principles and the correlation of the sensor output with physical and chemical engine oil properties.
Technical Paper

“Motion in FEA”: An Innovative Approach for More Physical and More Accurate Vehicle Dynamics Simulation

2012-04-16
2012-01-0762
Vehicle dynamics is a discipline of mechanical engineering that benefited of significant improvements thanks to the progress of computational engineering. Vehicle dynamics engineers are using CAE for the development of a vehicle with MBS and FEA. The concurrent use of these two technologies is a standard in the automotive industry. However the current simulation process is not fully efficient because local geometrical and material nonlinearities are not accurately modeled in classical MBS software. This paper introduces a methodology for vehicle dynamics simulation integrating MBS capabilities in one single nonlinear FEA environment enabling an accurate modeling of nonlinearity in vehicles.
Technical Paper

“Cromard” Thin Wall Steel Liners and Hard Chrome Plated Liners for High Production Gasoline and Diesel Engines

1964-01-01
640361
This paper, confined to the application of hard chrome plated liners to high-speed four-stroke diesel and gasoline engines, illustrates the increase in their popularity in the United Kingdom, and the advanced production methods which make this economically possible. The need for balanced engine life has long been apparent and is even more important today, the growth of motor transport having outstripped repair facilities. Iron bore life has been surpassed by improvement in the life of other component parts in the modern diesel engine. The provision of hard chrome plated liners can restore the balance. Further development and turbocharging of diesel engines has shown the need for a bore material capable of preventing scuffing and galling at elevated temperatures. Hard chrome has already proved itself in four-stroke engines under these conditions.
Technical Paper

“Clear Vision” Automatic Windshield Defogging System

2004-03-08
2004-01-1373
The present paper describes the system design for the Clear Vision auto defog system and the improvements made to the Integrated Dew Point and Glass Temperature (IDGT) sensor. The Clear Vision auto defog system has been implemented on a 2000 Cadillac DeVille. Preliminary validation tests demonstrate satisfactory performance.
Technical Paper

“All Electric” Controls and Accessories for Ground Vehicle Gas Turbine Propulsion Systems

1986-02-01
860238
This paper discusses the use of electromechanical devices as the kinematic portions of a microprocessor based gas turbine control system. Specific applications are: 1. An electric motor driven, positive displacement pump, which provides metered high pressure fuel to the distribution manifold. Fuel metering to be provided by varying the motor angular velocity. 2. An electric motor driven lube oil pump. 3. Electromechnical actuators for motion and control of compressor and power turbine variable geometry. 4. A starter/generator integral with the gas generator. Topics covered include: Comparison to conventional hydro-mechanical systems. Response characteristics of the fuel pump and actuator systems. Brushless D.C. motor characteristics. Power electronics requirements for brushless D.C. motors. Control electronics interface with brushless D.C. motor systems. Reliability and maintainability issues. Diagnostic/prognostic enhancements.
Technical Paper

“ACCU-DRIVE” STABILITY WITH COMFORT THE 1969 BUICK CHASSIS

1969-02-01
690490
Buick engineers are well pleased with their '69 Chassis. Benefits of a unique front suspension camber curve are documented. The effects of various suspension parameters on ride and handling are explained. These were varied independently of one another in the course of evaluating over 30 suspension configurations.
Technical Paper

the effect of Residual Stresses Induced by Strain-Peening upon Fatigue Strength

1960-01-01
600018
THE PURPOSE of this experiment was to determine the role of residual stresses in fatigue strength independent of other factors usually involved when residual stresses are introduced. It consisted of an investigation of the influence of residual stresses introduced by shotpeening on the fatigue strength of steel (Rockwell C hardness 48) in unidirectional bending. Residual stresses were varied by peening under various conditions of applied strain. This process introduced substantially the same amount and kind of surface cold working with residual stresses varying over a wide range of values. It was found that shotpeening of steel of this hardness is beneficial primarily because of the nature of the macro-residual-stresses introduced by the process. There is no gain attributable to “strain-hardening” for this material. An effort was made to explain the results on the basis of three failure criteria: distortion energy, maximum shear stress, and maximum stress.*
Technical Paper

the design of Planetary Gear Trains

1959-01-01
590059
THE usefulness of planetary gear trains and the engineering techniques necessary for optimum design are discussed in this paper. A simple method for calculating planetary gear ratios is described which can be used to determine quickly the potential usefulness of any planetary configurations. The author lists criteria which help to evaluate the potential of a planetary gear train schematic from the standpoints of gear noise and structural viewpoint. Detailed design of individual members include spacing of the pinions, mounting considerations, thrust direction, lubrication, and stress evaluation.
Technical Paper

iLokTM Nut - An Innovative Fastener that Solves a 30 Year Old Problem for Rear Axle Hub Assemblies

2019-04-02
2019-01-0339
Truck and bus manufacturers have been constantly facing an issue to disassemble the rear axle shaft from the hub when transporting the truck from the factory to the dealership. In addition to that, the dealerships have the very same problem every time they have to replace the brake pads in some truck models, which leads to excessive service time, extra costs and aftermarket complaints. The current problematic fastening system is composed by a lock nut, a flat washer and a coned slotted bushing. The concept of this 30 year old design involves the coned slotted bushing being pressed against a tapered hole on the shaft’s flange. After tightening the lock nut, the bushing clamps towards the stud and it gets stuck in between the shaft and the stud generating the problem described above. This paper shows the R&D process that Tekfor used to come up with the 1-piece fastener named iLokTM nut that replaces the problematic 3-piece fastening system.
Technical Paper

eBrake® - The Mechatronic Wedge Brake

2002-10-06
2002-01-2582
eBrake® (1, 2) - a new “brake-by-wire” technology, was developed at the German Aerospace Centre, DLR e.V.. It is based on an electric powered controlled friction brake with high self-reinforcement capability. To avoid jamming the brake a special control technology was developed. Thus, by intelligently controlling a brake wedge, the kinetic energy of a vehicle is transformed into braking power. Furthermore an advanced design was found to deal with a broad variation of the friction coefficient. The physical effects involved lead to a significant reduction of energy consumption of the brake actuator compared to “conventional” brake-by-wire systems.
Technical Paper

Zirconium Oxide Products in Automotive Systems

1997-02-24
970460
This paper will review the role of zirconium oxide in automotive systems. Zirconium oxide has been used and been considered for use in many different applications within automotive systems. Examples include ceramics for engine liners, ionic conductors for oxygen sensors, piezoelectrics for a variety of sensors and as an ingredient of autocatalysts. In the first three examples, ceramics, ionic conductors and piezoelectrics, the known properties of zirconium oxide containing systems have been applied to solve problems in the automobile. In the last the use of zirconia here has created an interest outside automotive applications. This paper will also show how a knowledge of zirconia in one field can produce benefits in another and that through this synergy improved products can be brought to the marketplace
Technical Paper

Zinc on the Move: Advancements in Coatings and Castings Keep the Metal Competitive

1986-02-01
860611
For over a decade, industry prognosticators have been predicting that the use of plastics by automakers would soon surpass the deployment of metals in automobiles, While there is no denying that plastics have made inroads, it recently has become apparent that metal will retain its position as the prime car material for the foreseeable future. One reason for the revised forecast is the development of improved zinc coatings for the automotive industry. Such material as electrogalvanized and Galfan™ are shaping up as steel's saviors when it comes to ensuring that metal will continue to play the major role on car assembly lines. Meanwhile on the other side of the equation, developments in zinc die casting technology have taken the edge off plastics' forward thrust into both functional and decorative car part applications.
Technical Paper

Zinc Soldered Copper and Brass Radiators: Their Processing and Their Test Results

1992-02-01
920177
Copper and brass radiators have served the automobile industry for many years using traditional fabrication processes. Demand for newer and stronger radiators with lighter weight for the modern vehicles prompted investigation of alternate materials. Properties of zinc alloys and their compatibility with brass suggested these could be used for radiator manufacture. Many zinc alloy compositions were investigated in the initial studies, because a solder alloy has to have many positive attributes. The first screening studies evaluated the ability of the solder to spread over copper and brass surfaces, representing tube, fin, and header materials. The second most important feature was the melting range of the developed alloy. In order to retain the anneal resistance of the fin and temper in the tube it was desirable to have a zinc solder with a melting temperature at 800°F or less.
Technical Paper

Zinc Extrusion

1966-02-01
660051
The extrusion of zinc alloys, with special reference to zinc-titanium alloys, is described. Parameters for this process are defined. The excellent tensile and creep properties obtained in a typical extruded zinc-titanium alloy are presented. Extruded zinc with a quality copper-nickel-chrome plated finish offers a new approach to the production of automotive trim and of similar products.
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