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Technical Paper

“Zero Defects”, Statistically Considered

2000-09-11
2000-01-2605
The requirement of “zero defects” is rapidly finding its way as a “standard” of quality in numerous quarters. This phrase has great psychological appeal, and is often taken literally at all levels in an organization even though quality motivation may be the intention. It is common to believe that when zero defects are found in the sample, this must be the case for “all the rest” as well. In this paper the technical side of “zero defects” is examined. We look at the statistics of zero defects and show what is implied about lot or process quality when zero defects is the actual sample outcome. The focus is on attribute measurements and includes some special cases where a significant measurement error exists and cases where a Bayesian statistical analysis may be appropriate.
Journal Article

“Verify-on-Demand” - A Practical and Scalable Approach for Broadcast Authentication in Vehicle-to-Vehicle Communication

2011-04-12
2011-01-0584
In general for Vehicle-to-Vehicle (V2V) communication, message authentication is performed on every received wireless message by conducting verification for a valid signature, and only messages that have been successfully verified are processed further. In V2V safety communication, there are a large number of vehicles and each vehicle transmits safety messages frequently; therefore the number of received messages per second would be large. Thus authentication of each and every received message, for example based on the IEEE 1609.2 standard, is computationally very expensive and can only be carried out with expensive dedicated cryptographic hardware. An interesting observation is that most of these routine safety messages do not result in driver warnings or control actions since we expect that the safety system would be designed to provide warnings or control actions only when the threat of collision is high.
Technical Paper

“U” Bolt Torque Influence over Leaf Springs

2014-05-07
2014-36-0024
”U” bolts are fixing elements and they are used to clamp an elastic joint. From the past, they still looking as an old design and unfortunately, suspension engineers are not specialists in fasteners and elastic joints. That is why we will show important assumptions and concepts to design and specifications this clamp element “U” bolt and its influence over leaf-springs. Currently, “U” bolt is used to clamp an elastic or elastic-plastic joint of heavy duty suspension, formed by leaf-spring, axle, spring pad, “U” bolt plate. This kind of suspension is typically used to trucks, buses and trailers. We are wondering, which one important assumption that an engineer must be careful when designs a new suspension changing from old designs to an updated technology. We provide a theoretical analysis and a FEA analysis to compare torque efficacy x leaf-spring reactions and what are effects this relationship can cause in a suspension.
Technical Paper

“Targeting Consumer Needs in the Perfect Storm: Changing the Automotive Lifestyle”

2008-10-20
2008-21-0038
The intersection of changing lifestyles and evolving transportation needs finds smart USA well positioned for launch in 2008 during one of the most competitive periods in U.S. automotive history. In a zero sum market with new global entrants competing for single points of share, where quality levels have been redefined and fractions of points separate the best from the challengers, lifestyle awareness, innovation and product positioning become the differentiators. Simply adding features has left some with hefty investments and confused consumers. Bigger is not always better. More is not always desirable. The real opportunity for new entrants to the US market may be defined within niche markets where changing lifestyles allow for the emergence of new segments. Today, smart USA has surfaced as a clear example of right product, right place, right time.
Technical Paper

“Taguchi Customer Loss Function” Based Functional Requirements

2018-04-03
2018-01-0586
Understanding customer expectations is critical to satisfying customers. Holding customer clinics is one approach to set winning targets for the engineering functional measures to drive customer satisfaction. In these clinics, customers are asked to operate and interact with vehicle systems or subsystems such as doors, lift gates, shifters, and seat adjusters, and then rate their experience. From this customer evaluation data, engineers can create customer loss or preference functions. These functions let engineers set appropriate targets by balancing risks and benefits. Statistical methods such as cumulative customer loss function are regularly applied for such analyses. In this paper, a new approach based on the Taguchi method is proposed and developed. It is referred to as Taguchi Customer Loss Function (TCLF).
Technical Paper

“Standardizing the Datasheet” Towards Auto-Code Generation Efficiency

2009-04-20
2009-01-0270
Software programs in non-application areas such as Board Support Packages, Hardware Abstraction Layers, signal processing and data acquisition are more or less very standard and common across many applications. These form a major part of the “platform” software, which changes very little. However, it is seen that many a time, efforts are spent resolving issues in the hardware dependent layers rather than concentrating on the application at hand, despite the fact that the software controlling the hardware has been developed many times. There are many reasons why this section of the software is rewritten many times over: different coding standards, different software architecture and layering concepts, the dreadful cut-and-paste methods, and so on. Introduction of a tool-based code configurator and generator eliminates access to the code and focuses on configuring a pre-written set of SW procedures. Advantages: Standardization, reuse and high levels of productivity.
Technical Paper

“Rubber Coupling” at a 4×4 Transmition System

2003-11-18
2003-01-3684
There are many different vibration sources in a car. Engine, gears, road roughness, impacts against the wheels cause vibration and sound that can decrease the parts and the car durability as well as affect drivability, safety and passengers and community comfort. In 4×4 cars, some extra vibration sources are the parts responsible for transmitting the torque and power to the rear wheels. Each of them has their own vibration modes, excited mostly by its imbalance or by the second order engine vibration. The engine vibration is a very well known phenomena and the rear driveshaft is designed not to have any vibration mode in the range of frequencies that the engine works or its second order. The imbalance of a driveshaft is also a design requirement. That means, the acceptable imbalance of the driveshaft is limited to a maximum value.
Technical Paper

“Pedestrian in the Loop”: An Approach Using Augmented Reality

2018-04-03
2018-01-1053
A large number of testing procedures have been developed to ensure vehicle safety in common and extreme driving situations. However, these conventional testing procedures are insufficient for testing autonomous vehicles. They have to handle unexpected scenarios with the same or less risk a human driver would take. Currently, safety related systems are not adequately tested, e.g. in collision avoidance scenarios with pedestrians. Examples are the change of pedestrian behaviour caused by interaction, environmental influences and personal aspects, which cannot be tested in real environments. It is proposed to use augmented reality techniques. This method can be seen as a new (Augmented) Pedestrian in the Loop testing procedure.
Technical Paper

“Multi Vector” Field of View Design Tool

2004-03-08
2004-01-0380
A multi vector design tool to accurately predict instrument panel obscuration was developed to insure that critical legal displays in vehicles are not obscured. The concept provides for a computer generated light source shaped to replicate the human eyes. The light source is then projected onto a 3D math based arrangement and the resultant shadows are visible on the instrument panel surface and its displays. Design studios require criteria for the placement of the instrument cluster gages and displays, various controls, switches, and steering column stalks before an interior theme can be completed. Therefore, instrument panel obscuration and visibility must be determined early in the design process. The obscured areas are a function of the instrument panel surface, steering wheel rim, hub, spokes, and the location of the driver's eyes. This light source method allows engineers and designers the ability to quickly determine obscured areas.
Technical Paper

“Motion in FEA”: An Innovative Approach for More Physical and More Accurate Vehicle Dynamics Simulation

2012-04-16
2012-01-0762
Vehicle dynamics is a discipline of mechanical engineering that benefited of significant improvements thanks to the progress of computational engineering. Vehicle dynamics engineers are using CAE for the development of a vehicle with MBS and FEA. The concurrent use of these two technologies is a standard in the automotive industry. However the current simulation process is not fully efficient because local geometrical and material nonlinearities are not accurately modeled in classical MBS software. This paper introduces a methodology for vehicle dynamics simulation integrating MBS capabilities in one single nonlinear FEA environment enabling an accurate modeling of nonlinearity in vehicles.
Technical Paper

“Fitting Data”: A Case Study on Effective Driver Distraction State Classification

2019-04-02
2019-01-0875
The goal of this project was to investigate how to make driver distraction state classification more efficient by applying selected machine learning techniques to existing datasets. The data set used in this project included both overt driver behavior measures (e.g., lane keeping and headway measures) and indices of internal cognitive processes (e.g., driver situation awareness responses) collected under four distraction conditions, including no-distraction, visual-manual distraction only, cognitive distraction only, and dual distraction conditions. The baseline classification method that we employed was a support vector machine (SVM) to first identify driver states of visual-manual distraction and then to identify any cognitive-related distraction among the visual-manual distraction cases and other non-visual manual distraction cases.
Technical Paper

“EFFECT OF DRIVER AIRBAG VENT HOLE SIZES IN THE PERFORMANCE OF THE AIRBAG AND FORCES OCCURRING ON THE DRIVER BODY DUE TO THE AIRBAG DEPLOYMENT IN CASE OF ACCIDENT”

2019-11-21
2019-28-2416
Airbags are very important passive safety component used in vehicle for the safety of the driver during the accident. Airbags are provided with the vent hole for the immediate discharge of the gases which fills the airbag during deployment in case of any accident. Size of the airbag vent hole plays a very important role for the performance of airbag in reducing the driver Injury. Study shows the difference in the performance of the airbags in terms of driver injury and airbag displacement with change in the size of the vent hole for the same airbag.
Technical Paper

“Cromard” Thin Wall Steel Liners and Hard Chrome Plated Liners for High Production Gasoline and Diesel Engines

1964-01-01
640361
This paper, confined to the application of hard chrome plated liners to high-speed four-stroke diesel and gasoline engines, illustrates the increase in their popularity in the United Kingdom, and the advanced production methods which make this economically possible. The need for balanced engine life has long been apparent and is even more important today, the growth of motor transport having outstripped repair facilities. Iron bore life has been surpassed by improvement in the life of other component parts in the modern diesel engine. The provision of hard chrome plated liners can restore the balance. Further development and turbocharging of diesel engines has shown the need for a bore material capable of preventing scuffing and galling at elevated temperatures. Hard chrome has already proved itself in four-stroke engines under these conditions.
Technical Paper

“ACCU-DRIVE” STABILITY WITH COMFORT THE 1969 BUICK CHASSIS

1969-02-01
690490
Buick engineers are well pleased with their '69 Chassis. Benefits of a unique front suspension camber curve are documented. The effects of various suspension parameters on ride and handling are explained. These were varied independently of one another in the course of evaluating over 30 suspension configurations.
Technical Paper

‘Motoring Which?’ — Eighteen Years of Human Factors in Comparative Car Testing — An Historical Review

1980-02-01
800332
In 1961 the Consumers’ Association in Britain set up a car test unit, and in 1962 the first car test reports were published. These later became the ‘Motoring Which?’ quarterly supplement to ‘Which?’ magazine. The methods and general sequence of the CA car testing procedure are first outlined. The Human Factors contribution to this testing programme is then described. The contribution broadly takes two forms. First, human factors reference data and guidance are provided to assist with the planning and interpretation of the objective measurement programme run by the test unit. Second, an extensive Human Factors Questionnaire (HFQ) programme is organised, and the results are reported, quarterly for every group of test cars. The initial planning of the Human Factors contribution is described; then the essential features of the HFQ programme, and its successive stages of development over the years to the current form with computerised analysis and output are reviewed.
Technical Paper

‘Emotional Controlling’ of Digital Human Models - A New Way to Digital Autonomy?

2008-06-17
2008-01-1873
‘Emotional controlling’ is a very efficient way to realize autonomous behaviour of digital human models by closed loop controls. In particular this is an emotional optimization procedure based upon the ‘Hedonic principle’ and thus following closely the human original. Emotional controlling will be outlined and illustrated by an example demonstrating the specific way force and posture induced discomfort is shaping our movements.
Technical Paper

‘ElderTech’ - Enhancing the Independence of Elderly Through the Use of Technology

2000-03-06
2000-01-1368
Longevity is one of the great achievements of the twentieth century. This paper will explore ways that elderly people can employ technology to enhance their independence, loosely termed “ElderTech.” ElderTech is designed to establish a sustained, long-term investment in research and development (R&D) for technologies that can provide the largest growing population, Americans over the age of 65, with the tools to ensure active aging (maintaining independence, self-reliance, and an enhanced quality of life). It will also promote aging in place (in the home); and will address and ease Medicare's financial burden on the federal government. ElderTech is aimed to establish a technology framework that will ensure that the United States (U.S.) is ready to meet the needs of its older Americans.
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