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Technical Paper

The Thermodynamic Design, Analysis and Test of Cummins’ SuperTruck 2 50% Brake Thermal Efficiency Engine System

Current heavy duty diesel engines have a brake thermal efficiency (BTE) between 44-46%. In partnership with the Department of Energy (DOE) as part of the Supertruck 2 program, Cummins has undertaken a research program to develop a new heavy duty diesel engine designed to deliver greater than 50% BTE without the use of waste heat recovery. A system level optimization focused on; increased compression ratio and injection rate, carefully matched highly efficient turbocharging, variable lube oil and cooling components, dual loop EGR and low restriction after treatment designed to deliver 50% BTE at a target development point. This work will also illustrate the system level planning and interaction required to allow that same 50% BTE heavy duty diesel to be integrated with a WHR to deliver system level efficiency of 55% BTE at a single point. In addition to a test bench demonstration, the above described system is also planned to be demonstrated at a vehicle system level.
Journal Article

Systematic Development of Highly Efficient and Clean Engines to Meet Future Commercial Vehicle Greenhouse Gas Regulations

With increasing energy prices and concerns about the environmental impact of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, a growing number of national governments are putting emphasis on improving the energy efficiency of the equipment employed throughout their transportation systems. Within the U.S. transportation sector, energy use in commercial vehicles has been increasing at a faster rate than that of automobiles. A 23% increase in fuel consumption for the U.S. heavy duty truck segment is expected from 2009 to 2020. The heavy duty vehicle oil consumption is projected to grow while light duty vehicle (LDV) fuel consumption will eventually experience a decrease. By 2050, the oil consumption rate by LDVs is anticipated to decrease below 2009 levels due to CAFE standards and biofuel use. In contrast, the heavy duty oil consumption rate is anticipated to double. The increasing trend in oil consumption for heavy trucks is linked to the vitality, security, and growth of the U.S. and global economies.
Journal Article

Piston Cooling Nozzle Oil Jet Evaluation Using CFD and a High Speed Camera

Piston cooling nozzles/jets play several crucial roles in the power cylinder of an internal combustion engine. Primarily, they help with the thermal management of the piston and provide lubrication to the cylinder liner and the piston’s wrist pin. In order to evaluate the oil jet characteristics from various piston cooling nozzle (PCN) designs, a quantitative and objective process was developed. The PCN characterization began with a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) turbulent model to analyze the mean oil velocity and flow distribution at the nozzle exit/tip. Subsequently, the PCN was tested on a rig for a given oil temperature and pressure. A high-speed camera captured images at 2500 frames per second to observe the evolution of the oil stream as a function of distance from the nozzle exit. An algorithm comprised of standard digital image processing techniques was created to calculate the oil jet width and density.
Journal Article

Multi-Domain Simulation Model of a Wheel Loader

Wheel loader subsystems are multi-domain in nature, including controls, mechanisms, hydraulics, and thermal. This paper describes the process of developing a multi-domain simulation of a wheel loader. Working hydraulics, kinematics of the working tool, driveline, engine, and cooling system are modeled in LMS Imagine.Lab Amesim. Contacts between boom/bucket and bucket/ground are defined to constrain the movement of the bucket and boom. The wheel loader has four heat exchangers: charge air cooler, radiator, transmission oil cooler, and hydraulic oil cooler. Heat rejection from engine, energy losses from driveline, and hydraulic subsystem are inputs to the heat exchangers. 3D CFD modeling was done to calibrate airflows through heat exchangers in LMS Amesim. CFD modeling was done in ANSYS FLUENT® using a standard k - ε model with detailed fan and underhood geometry.
Technical Paper

Multi-Domain Optimization for Fuel Economy Improvement of HD Trucks

Fuel costs are significant portion of operational costs of freight owners in China. Reduction is fuel consumption for a given trip is key to increase maximize freight efficiency and increase the bottom-line of freight. In this paper, fuel economy improvements of cab over style 49T heavy duty Foton truck powered by Cummins 12 Liter engine are studied and applied systematically. In addition to finding improvements at engine level, majority of fuel efficiency improvements are also identified at vehicle level involving vehicle design (more aerodynamic), component selection/matching (low rolling resistance tires) and powertrain electronic features integration (shift schedule/electronic trims). These powertrain features include Cummins adaptive torque modulation and transmission neutral coasting. 3D CFD (ANSYS Fluent) is used to carry out aerodynamic study of truck and Cummins Vehicle Mission Simulation (VMS) is used to study powertrain integration features.
Technical Paper

Meeting the US 2007 Heavy-Duty Diesel Emission Standards - Designing for the Customer

The paper covers the design and development of Heavy-Duty (HD) Diesel engines that meet the 2007 HD US EPA emission standards. These standards are the most stringent standards in the world for on-highway HD diesel engines, and have driven the application of new technologies, which includes: particulate aftertreatment, crankcase ventilation systems, and second generation cooled EGR. The paper emphasizes the importance of designing the product to meet the tough expectations of the trucking industry - for lowest total cost of ownership, lowest operating costs, high uptime, ease of maintenance, high performance and durability. A key objective was that these new low emission engines should meet or exceed the performance, reliability and fuel economy standards set by the products they replace. Additionally, these engines were designed to be fully compatible and emissions compliant with bio-diesel B20 blends that meet the ASTM and EMA fuel standards.
Technical Paper

High-Performance Grid Computing for Cummins Vehicle Mission Simulation: Architecture and Applications

This paper presents an extension of our earlier work on Cummins Vehicle Mission Simulation (VMS) software. Previously, we presented VMS as a Windows based analysis tool to simulate vehicle missions quickly and to gauge, communicate, and improve the value proposition of Cummins engines to customers. We have subsequently extended this VMS architecture to build a grid-computing platform to support high volume of simulation needs. The building block of the grid-computing version of VMS is an executable file that consists of vehicle and engine simulation models compiled using Real Time Workshop. This executable file integrates MATLAB and Simulink with Java, XML, and JDBC technologies and interacts with the MySQL database. Our grid consists of a cluster of twenty Linux servers with quad-core processors. The Sun Grid Engine software suite that administers this cluster can batch-queue and execute 80 simulations concurrently.
Technical Paper

Developing Diesel Engines to Meet Ultra-low Emission Standards

The modern diesel engine is used around the world to power applications as diverse as passenger cars, heavy-duty trucks, electrical power generators, ships, locomotives, agricultural and industrial equipment. The success of the diesel engine results from its unique combination of fuel economy, durability, reliability and affordability - which drive the lowest total cost of ownership. The diesel engine has been developed to meet the most demanding on-highway emission standards, through the introduction of advanced technologies such as: electronic controls, high pressure fuel injection, and cooled exhaust gas recirculation. The standards to be introduced in the U.S. in 2007 will see the introduction of the Clean Diesel which will achieve near-zero NOx and particulate emissions, while retaining the customer values outlined above.
Technical Paper

Design and Validation of a New 13L Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine Using Analysis-Led Design

The paper covers the design and development of a new 13L heavy-duty diesel engine. It describes in detail some of the design techniques that were used. To meet these exacting requirements, extensive use was made of Analysis-Led Design, which allows components, sub-systems and the entire engine, aftertreatment and vehicle system to be modeled before designs are taken to prototype hardware. This enables a level of system and sub-system optimization not previously available. The engine was designed primarily for on-highway use in China, and the paper describes the emissions strategy for China, and the physical design strategy for the new engine, and provides some engine performance robustness details. The engine architecture is discussed and the paper details the analysis of the major components - cylinder block, head, head seal, power cylinder, bearings and camshaft drive.
Technical Paper

Analytical Evaluation of Integrated Drivetrain NVH Phenomena

This paper demonstrates the use of a system level model that includes torsional models of a Cummins diesel engine and an Allison transmission to study and improve system NVH behavior. The study is a case where the two suppliers of key powertrain components, Cummins Inc. and Allison Transmission Inc., have collaborated to solve an observed NVH problem for a vehicle customer. A common commercial tool, Siemens' AMESim, was used to develop the drivetrain torsional system model. This paper describes a method of modelling and calibration of baseline engine and transmission models to identify the source of vibration. Natural frequencies, modal shapes, and forced response were calculated for each vehicle drive gear ratio to study the torsional vibration. Several parametric studies such as damping, inertia, and stiffness were carried out to understand their impact on torsional vibration of the system.
Technical Paper

Analysis Lead Drivability Assessment

Drivability and powertrain refinement continue to gain importance in the assessment of overall vehicle quality. This notion has transcended its light duty origins and is beginning to gain considerable traction in the medium and heavy duty markets. However, with drivability assessment and refinement also comes the high costs associated with vehicle testing, including items such as test facilities, prototype component evaluation, fuel and human resources. Taking all of this into account, any and all measures must be used to reduce the cost of drivability evaluation and powertrain refinement. This paper describes an analysis based co-simulation methodology, where sophisticated powertrain simulation and objective drivability evaluation tools can be used to predict vehicle drivability. A fast running GT power engine model combined with simplified controls representation in Matlab/Simulink was used to predict engine transients and responses.
Journal Article

An Engine and Powertrain Mapping Approach for Simulation of Vehicle CO2 Emissions

Simulations used to estimate carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions and fuel consumption of medium- and heavy-duty vehicles over prescribed drive cycles often employ engine fuel maps consisting of engine measurements at numerous steady-state operating conditions. However, simulating the engine in this way has limitations as engine controls become more complex, particularly when attempting to use steady-state measurements to represent transient operation. This paper explores an alternative approach to vehicle simulation that uses a “cycle average” engine map rather than a steady state engine fuel map. The map contains engine CO2 values measured on an engine dynamometer on cycles derived from vehicle drive cycles for a range of generic vehicles. A similar cycle average mapping approach is developed for a powertrain (engine and transmission) in order to show the specific CO2 improvements due to powertrain optimization that would not be recognized in other approaches.