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Technical Paper

Physical Modeling of Automotive Turbocharger Compressor: Analytical Approach and Validation

Global warming is a climate phenomenon with world-wide ecological, economic and social impact which calls for strong measures in reducing automotive fuel consumption and thus CO2 emissions. In this regard, turbocharging and the associated designing of the air path of the engine are key technologies in elaborating more efficient and downsized engines. Engine performance simulation or development, parameterization and testing of model-based air path control strategies require adequate performance maps characterizing the working behavior of turbochargers. The working behavior is typically identified on test rig which is expensive in terms of costs and time required. Hence, the objective of the research project “virtual Exhaust Gas Turbocharger” (vEGTC) is an alternative approach which considers a physical modeled vEGTC to allow a founded prediction of efficiency, pressure rise as well as pressure losses of an arbitrary turbocharger with known geometry.
Technical Paper

Modeling Heavy-Duty Engine Thermal Management Technologies to Meet Future Cold Start Requirements

The low-NOx standard for heavy-duty trucks proposed by the California Air Resources Board will require rapid warm-up of the aftertreatment system. Several different engine technologies are being considered to meet this need. In this study, a 1-D engine model was first used to evaluate several individual control strategies capable of increasing the exhaust enthalpy and decreasing the engine-out NOX over the initial portion of the cold start FTP cycle. The additional fuel consumption resulting from these strategies was also quantified with the model. Next, several of those strategies were combined to create a hypothetical aftertreatment warm-up mode for the engine. The model was then used to evaluate potential benefits of an air gap manifold (AGM) and two different turbine by-pass architectures. The detailed geometry of the AGM model was taken into account, having been constructed from a real prototype design.
Technical Paper

Holistic Development of Future Low NOx Emission Concepts for Heavy-Duty Applications

Further tightening of NOx emission standards as well as CO2 emission limits for commercial vehicles are currently under discussion. In the on-road market, lowering NOx emissions up to 90%, down to 0.02 g/bhp-hr, has been proposed by CARB and is evaluated by US EPA. Testing for in-service conformity using a portable emission measurement system (PEMS) is currently under review in the US. In Europe, CO2 emission limits are anticipated and a CO2 monitoring program is ongoing. PEMS legislation has been recently tightened and further restrictions can be expected. Stage V legislation has been introduced in Europe and it is foreseeable that further tightening of off-road standards will take place in the future. This study deals with virtual development and evaluation of future engine and exhaust aftertreatment (EAT) technology solutions to fulfill the diverse future emission requirements with emphasis on off-road applications.
Technical Paper

Calibration Process for SCR Only TIER4i Engine for Construction Equipment

The current legislation for industrial applications and construction equipment including earthmoving machines and crane engines allows different strategies to fulfill the corresponding exhaust emission limits. Liebherr Machines Bulle SA developed their engines to accomplish these limits using SCRonly technology. IAV supported this development, carrying out engine as well as SCR aftertreatment system and vehicle calibration work including the OBD and NOx Control System (NCS) calibration, as well as executing the homologation procedures at the IAV development center. The engines are used in various Liebherr applications certified for EU Stage IIIb, EPA TIER 4i, China GB4 and IMO MARPOL Tier II according to the regulations “97/68/EC”, “40 CFR Part 1039”, “GB17691-2005” and “40 CFR Parts 9, 85, et al.” using the same SCR hardware for all engine power variants of the corresponding I6 and V8 engine families.