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Journal Article

Waste Heat Recovery for Light-Duty Truck Application Using ThermoAcoustic Converter Technology

2017-03-28
2017-01-0153
Nearly a third of the fuel energy is wasted through the exhaust of a vehicle. An efficient waste heat recovery process will undoubtedly lead to improved fuel efficiency and reduced greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Currently, there are multiple waste heat recovery technologies that are being investigated in the auto industry. One innovative waste heat recovery approach uses Thermoacoustic Converter (TAC) technology. Thermoacoustics is the field of physics related to the interaction of acoustic waves (sonic power) with heat flows. As in a heat engine, the TAC produces electric power where a temperature differential exists, which can be generated with engine exhaust (hot side) and coolant (cold side). Essentially, the TAC converts exhaust waste heat into electricity in two steps: 1) the exhaust waste heat is converted to acoustic energy (mechanical) and 2) the acoustic energy is converted to electrical energy.
Technical Paper

Virtual Test of Injector Design Using CFD

2014-09-30
2014-01-2351
Diesel exhaust aftertreatment solutions using injection, such as urea-based SCR and lean NOx trap systems, effectively reduce the emission NOx level in various light vehicles, commercial vehicles, and industrial applications. The performance of the injector plays an important role in successfully utilizing this type of technology, and the CFD tool provides not only a time and cost-saving, but also a reliable solution for extensively design iterations for optimizing the injector internal nozzle flow design. Inspired by this fact, a virtual test methodology on injector dosing rate utilizing CFD was proposed for the design process of injector internal nozzle flows.
Technical Paper

Transient Performance of an HC LNC Aftertreatment System Applying Ethanol as the Reductant

2012-09-24
2012-01-1957
As emissions regulations around the world become more stringent, emerging markets are seeking alternative strategies that align with local infrastructures and conditions. A Lean NOx Catalyst (LNC) is developed that achieves up to 60% NOx reduction with ULSD as its reductant and ≻95% with ethanol-based fuel reductants. Opportunities exist in countries that already have an ethanol-based fuel infrastructure, such as Brazil, improving emissions reduction penetration rates without costs and complexities of establishing urea infrastructures. The LNC performance competes with urea SCR NOx reduction, catalyst volume, reductant consumption, and cost, plus it is proven to be durable, passing stationary test cycles and adequately recovering from sulfur poisoning. Controls are developed and applied on a 7.2L engine, an inline 6-cylinder non-EGR turbo diesel.
Journal Article

Secondary Fuel Injection Layout Influences on DOC-DPF Active Regeneration Performance

2013-09-24
2013-01-2465
Catalysts and filters continue to be applied widely to meet particulate matter regulations across new and retrofit diesel engines. Soot management of the filter continues to be enhanced, including regeneration methodologies. Concerns regarding in-cylinder post-injection of fuel for active regeneration increases interests in directly injecting this fuel into the exhaust. Performance of secondary fuel injection layouts is discussed, and sensitivities on thermal uniformity are measured and analyzed, providing insight to packaging challenges and methods to characterize and improve application designs. Influences of end cone geometries, mixers, and injector mounting positions are quantified via thermal distribution at each substrate's outlet. A flow laboratory is applied for steady state characterization, repeated on an engine dynamometer, which also provides transient results across the NRTC.
Technical Paper

Physical Modeling of Automotive Turbocharger Compressor: Analytical Approach and Validation

2011-09-13
2011-01-2214
Global warming is a climate phenomenon with world-wide ecological, economic and social impact which calls for strong measures in reducing automotive fuel consumption and thus CO2 emissions. In this regard, turbocharging and the associated designing of the air path of the engine are key technologies in elaborating more efficient and downsized engines. Engine performance simulation or development, parameterization and testing of model-based air path control strategies require adequate performance maps characterizing the working behavior of turbochargers. The working behavior is typically identified on test rig which is expensive in terms of costs and time required. Hence, the objective of the research project “virtual Exhaust Gas Turbocharger” (vEGTC) is an alternative approach which considers a physical modeled vEGTC to allow a founded prediction of efficiency, pressure rise as well as pressure losses of an arbitrary turbocharger with known geometry.
Technical Paper

Modeling of Close-Coupled SCR Concepts to Meet Future Cold Start Requirements for Heavy-Duty Engines

2019-04-02
2019-01-0984
The low-NOx standard for heavy-duty trucks proposed by the California Air Resources Board will require rapid warm-up of the aftertreatment system (ATS). Several different aftertreatment architectures and technologies, all based on selective catalytic reduction (SCR), are being considered to meet this need. One of these architectures, the close-coupled SCR (ccSCR), was evaluated in this study using two different physics-based, 1D models; the simulations focused on the first 300 seconds of the cold-start Federal Test Procedure (FTP). The first model, describing a real, EuroVI-compliant engine equipped with series turbochargers, was used to evaluate a ccSCR located either i) immediately downstream of the low-pressure turbine, ii) in between the two turbines, or iii) in a by-pass around the high pressure turbine.
Technical Paper

Modeling Heavy-Duty Engine Thermal Management Technologies to Meet Future Cold Start Requirements

2019-04-02
2019-01-0731
The low-NOx standard for heavy-duty trucks proposed by the California Air Resources Board will require rapid warm-up of the aftertreatment system. Several different engine technologies are being considered to meet this need. In this study, a 1-D engine model was first used to evaluate several individual control strategies capable of increasing the exhaust enthalpy and decreasing the engine-out NOX over the initial portion of the cold start FTP cycle. The additional fuel consumption resulting from these strategies was also quantified with the model. Next, several of those strategies were combined to create a hypothetical aftertreatment warm-up mode for the engine. The model was then used to evaluate potential benefits of an air gap manifold (AGM) and two different turbine by-pass architectures. The detailed geometry of the AGM model was taken into account, having been constructed from a real prototype design.
Journal Article

Durability and Reliability Test Planning and Test Data Analysis

2013-09-24
2013-01-2379
Durability/reliability design of products, such as auto exhaust systems, is essentially based on the observation of test data and the accurate interpretation of these data. Therefore, test planning and related data analysis are critical to successful engineering designs. To facilitate engineering applications, testing and data analysis methods have been standardized over the last decades by several standard bodies such as the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM). However, over the last few years, several effective testing and data analysis methods have been developed, and the existing standard procedures need to be updated to incorporate the new observations, knowledge, and consensus. In this paper, the common practices and the standard test planning and data analysis procedures are reviewed first. Subsequently, the recent development in accelerated testing, equilibrium based data fitting, design curve construction, and Bayesian statistical data analysis is presented.
Technical Paper

DPF Acoustic Performance: An Evaluation of Various Substrate Materials and Soot Conditions

2011-09-13
2011-01-2198
The Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF) is used on today's diesel vehicles to reduce the amount of soot being released into the atmosphere from diesel exhaust. The DPFs are typically wall-flow filtration devices of various extruded porous ceramic materials with more than 95% efficiency. Once the filter has loaded with soot, the DPF undergoes regeneration where the exhaust temperature is raised to burn off the soot. With the DPF being relatively new aftertreatment technology, the exhaust industry must investigate the acoustic and performance effects of the DPF when added to an exhaust system. In many applications the DPF replaces the exhaust muffler because of limited packaging space. The acoustic performance of the DPF changes with increasing soot density and exhaust backpressure. The acoustic response is measured with physical testing at multiple soot load densities. This study is part of a graduation thesis project for Kettering University[1].
Technical Paper

Calibration Process for SCR Only TIER4i Engine for Construction Equipment

2012-09-24
2012-01-1954
The current legislation for industrial applications and construction equipment including earthmoving machines and crane engines allows different strategies to fulfill the corresponding exhaust emission limits. Liebherr Machines Bulle SA developed their engines to accomplish these limits using SCRonly technology. IAV supported this development, carrying out engine as well as SCR aftertreatment system and vehicle calibration work including the OBD and NOx Control System (NCS) calibration, as well as executing the homologation procedures at the IAV development center. The engines are used in various Liebherr applications certified for EU Stage IIIb, EPA TIER 4i, China GB4 and IMO MARPOL Tier II according to the regulations “97/68/EC”, “40 CFR Part 1039”, “GB17691-2005” and “40 CFR Parts 9, 85, et al.” using the same SCR hardware for all engine power variants of the corresponding I6 and V8 engine families.
Technical Paper

CFD Study of Sensitivity Parameters in SCR NOx Reduction Modeling

2014-09-30
2014-01-2346
The Diesel engine combustion process results in harmful exhaust emissions, mainly composed of Particulate Matter (PM), Hydro Carbon (HC), Carbon monoxide (CO) and Nitrogen Oxides (NOx). Several technologies have been developed in the past decades to control these diesel emissions. One of the promising and well matured technology of reducing NOx is to implement Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) using ammonia (NH3) as the reducing agent. For an effective SCR system, the aqueous urea solutions should be fully decomposed into ammonia and it should be well distributed across the SCR. In the catalyst, all the ammonia is utilized for NOx reduction process. In the design stage, it is more viable to implement Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) for design iterations to determine an optimized SCR system based on SCR flow distribution. And in later stage, experimental test is required to predict the after-treatment system performance based on NOx reduction.
Technical Paper

CFD Optimization of Exhaust Manifold for Large Diesel Engine Aftertreatment Systems

2011-09-13
2011-01-2199
To meet EPA Tier IV large diesel engine emission targets, intensive development efforts are necessary to achieve NOx reduction and Particulate Matter (PM) reduction targets [1]. With respect to NOx reduction, liquid urea is typically used as the reagent to react with NOx via SCR catalyst [2]. Regarding to PM reduction, additional heat is required to raise exhaust temperature to reach DPF active / passive regeneration performance window [3]. Typically the heat can be generated by external diesel burners which allow diesel liquid droplets to react directly with oxygen in the exhaust gas [4]. Alternatively the heat can be generated by catalytic burners which enable diesel vapor to react with oxygen via DOC catalyst mostly through surface reactions [5].
Technical Paper

CFD Modeling of Mini and Full Flow Burner Systems for Diesel Engine Aftertreatment under Low Temperature Conditions

2012-09-24
2012-01-1949
With introductions of stringent diesel engine emission regulations, the DOC and DPF systems have become the mainstream technology to eliminate soot particles through diesel combustion under various operation conditions. Urea-based SCR has been the mainstream technical direction to reduce NOx emissions. For both technologies, low-temperature conditions or cold start conditions pose challenges to activate DOC or SCR emission-reduction performance. To address this issue, mini or full flow burner systems may be used to increase exhaust temperature to reach DOC light-off or SCR initiation temperature by combustion of diesel fuel. In essence, the burner systems incorporate a fuel injector, spray atomization, proper fuel / air mixing mechanisms, and combustion control as independent heat sources.
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