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Technical Paper

Waste Heat Recovery from Multiple Heat Sources in a HD Truck Diesel Engine Using a Rankine Cycle - A Theoretical Evaluation

Few previous publications investigate the possibility of combining multiple waste heat sources in a combustion engine waste heat recovery system. A waste heat recovery system for a HD truck diesel engine is evaluated for utilizing multiple heat sources found in a conventional HD diesel engine. In this type of engine more than 50% of heat energy goes futile. The majority of the heat energy is lost through engine exhaust and cooling devices such as EGRC (Exhaust gas recirculation cooler), CAC (Charge air cooler) and engine cooling. In this paper, the potential of usable heat recuperation from these devices using thermodynamic analysis was studied, and also an effort is made to recuperate most of the available heat energy that would otherwise be lost. A well-known way of recuperating this heat energy is by employing a Rankine cycle circuit with these devices as heat sources (single loop or dual loop), and thus this study is focused on using a Rankine cycle for the heat recovery system.
Technical Paper

Ultra-High Speed Fuel Tracer PLIF Imaging in a Heavy-Duty Optical PPC Engine

In order to meet the requirements in the stringent emission regulations, more and more research work has been focused on homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) and partially premixed combustion (PPC) or partially premixed compression ignition (PCCI) as they have the potential to produce low NOx and soot emissions without adverse effects on engine efficiency. The mixture formation and charge stratification influence the combustion behavior and emissions for PPC/PCCI, significantly. An ultra-high speed burst-mode laser is used to capture the mixture formation process from the start of injection until several CADs after the start of combustion in a single cycle. To the authors’ best knowledge, this is the first time that such a high temporal resolution, i.e. 0.2 CAD, PLIF could be accomplished for imaging of the in-cylinder mixing process. The capability of resolving single cycles allows for the influence of cycle-to-cycle variations to be eliminated.
Technical Paper

Transition from HCCI to PPC: the Sensitivity of Combustion Phasing to the Intake Temperature and the Injection Timing with and without EGR

An experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of charge stratification on the combustion phasing in a single cylinder, heavy duty (HD) compression ignition (CI) engine. To do this the start of injection (SOI) was changed from -180° after top dead centre (ATDC) to near top dead centre (TDC) during which CA50 (the crank angle at which 50% of the fuel energy is released) was kept constant by changing the intake temperature. At each SOI, the response of CA50 to a slight increase or decrease of either intake temperature or SOI were also investigated. Afterwards, the experiment was repeated with a different intake oxygen concentration. The results show that, for the whole SOI period, the required intake temperature to keep constant CA50 has a “spoon” shape with the handle on the -180° side.
Journal Article

Transition from HCCI to PPC: Investigation of Fuel Distribution by Planar Laser Induced Fluorescence (PLIF)

In a previous study, in order to investigate the effect of charge stratification on combustion behavior such as combustion efficiency and combustion phasing which also largely affects the emissions, an experiment was conducted in a heavy-duty compression ignition (CI) metal engine. The engine behavior and emission characteristics were studied in the transition from HCCI mode to PPC mode by varying the start of injection (SOI) timing. To gain more detailed information of the mixing process, in-cylinder laser diagnostic measurements, namely fuel-tracer planar laser induced fluorescence (PLIF) imaging, were conducted in an optical version of the heavy-duty CI engine mentioned above. To the authors’ best knowledge, this is the first time to perform fuel-tracer PLIF measurements in an optical engine with a close to production bowl in piston combustion chamber, under transition conditions from HCCI to PPC mode.
Technical Paper

Transition from HCCI to PPC Combustion by Means of Start of Injection

Partially premixed combustion (PPC) is a promising way to achieve high efficiency and low engine-out emissions simultaneously in a heavy-duty engine. Compared to Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI), it can be controlled by injection events and much lower HC and CO emissions can be achieved. This work focuses on the transition from HCCI to PPC and combustion and emissions characteristics during the process are investigated. Injection strategies, EGR and boost pressure were the main parameters used to present the corresponding effect during the transition.
Technical Paper

The Effect of Injection Pressure on the NOx Emission Rates in a Heavy-Duty DICI Engine Running on Methanol.

Heavy-duty direct injection compression ignition (DICI) engine running on methanol is studied at a high compression ratio (CR) of 27. The fuel is injected with a common-rail injector close to the top-dead-center (TDC) with two injection pressures of 800 bar and 1600 bar. Numerical simulations using Reynold Averaged Navier Stokes (RANS), Lagrangian Particle Tracking (LPT), and Well-Stirred-Reactor (WSR) models are employed to investigate local conditions of injection and combustion process to identify the mechanism behind the trend of increasing nitrogen oxides (NOx) emissions at higher injection pressures found in the experiments. It is shown that the numerical simulations successfully replicate the change of ignition delay time and capture variation of NOx emissions.
Journal Article

Simultaneous PLIF Imaging of OH and PLII Imaging of Soot for Studying the Late-Cycle Soot Oxidation in an Optical Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine

The effects of injection pressure and swirl ratio on the in-cylinder soot oxidation are studied using simultaneous PLIF imaging of OH and LII imaging of soot in an optical diesel engine. Images are acquired after the end of injection in the recirculation zone between two adjacent diesel jets. Scalars are extracted from the images and compared with trends in engine-out soot emissions. The soot emissions decrease monotonically with increasing injection pressure but show a non-linear dependence on swirl ratio. The total amount of OH in the images is negatively correlated with the soot emissions, as is the spatial proximity between the OH and soot regions. This indicates that OH is an important soot oxidizer and that it needs to be located close to the soot to perform this function. The total amount of soot in the images shows no apparent correlation with the soot emissions, indicating that the amount of soot formed is a poor predictor of the emission trends.
Technical Paper

Scalability Aspects of Pre-Chamber Ignition in Heavy Duty Natural Gas Engines

This article presents a study related to application of pre-chamber ignition system in heavy duty natural gas engine which, as previously shown by the authors, can extend the limit of fuel-lean combustion and hence improve fuel efficiency and reduce emissions. A previous study about the effect of pre-chamber volume and nozzle diameter on a single cylinder 2 liter truck-size engine resulted in recommendations for optimal pre-chamber geometry settings. The current study is to determine the dependency of those settings on the engine size. For this study, experiments are performed on a single cylinder 9 liter large bore marine engine with similar pre-chamber geometry and a test matrix of similar and scaled pre-chamber volume and nozzle diameter settings. The effect of these variations on main chamber ignition and the following combustion is studied to understand the scalability aspects of pre-chamber ignition. Indicated efficiency and engine-out emission data is also presented.
Technical Paper

Potential ESC Performance of a Multi-Cylinder Heavy Duty PPC Truck Engine: System Simulations based on Single Cylinder Experiments

Partially Premixed Combustion (PPC) has demonstrated remarkably high gross indicated engine efficiencies combined with very low engine out emissions. The PPC concept relies on heavy boosting combined with dilution and partial premixing of the charge. The latter is usually achieved with high EGR rates and a separation of the fuel injection from the combustion event. Since more of the produced heat is used for work rather than being wasted with the exhaust gases, concerns have been raised regarding whether it is possible to achieve the required boosting pressures and EGR rates throughout the typical operating regime of a heavy duty (HD) diesel engine through turbocharging only. If supercharging would be required its cost in terms of work would mean a substantial loss of the gain in brake efficiencies of the PPC engine over current HD diesel engines.
Technical Paper

Numerical Investigation of Methanol Ignition Sequence in an Optical PPC Engine with Multiple Injection Strategies

Methanol is a genuine candidate on the alternative fuel market for internal combustion engines, especially within the heavy-duty transportation sector. Partially premixed combustion (PPC) engine concept, known for its high efficiency and low emission rates, can be promoted further with methanol fuel due to its unique thermo-physical properties. The low stoichiometric air to fuel ratio allows to utilize late injection timings, which reduces the wall-wetting effects, and thus can lead to less unburned hydrocarbons. Moreover, combustion of methanol as an alcohol fuel, is free from soot emissions, which allows to extend the operation range of the engine. However, due to the high latent heat of vaporization, the ignition event requires a high inlet temperature to achieve ignition event. In this paper LES simulations together with experimental measurements on an heavy-duty optical engine are used to study methanol PPC engine.
Journal Article

NOx-Conversion Comparison of a SCR-Catalyst Using a Novel Biomimetic Effervescent Injector on a Heavy-Duty Engine

NOx pollution from diesel engines has been stated as causing over 10 000 pre-mature deaths annually and predictions are showing that this level will increase [1]. In order to decrease this growing global problem, exhaust after-treatment systems for diesel engines have to be improved, this is especially so for vehicles carrying freight as their use of diesel engines is expected to carry on into the future [2]. The most common way to reduce diesel engine NOx out emissions is to use SCR. SCR operates by injecting aqueous Urea solution, 32.5% by volume (AUS-32), that evaporates prior the catalytic surface of the SCR-catalyst. Due to a catalytic reaction within the catalyst, NOx is converted nominally into Nitrogen and Water. Currently, the evaporative process is enhanced by aggressive mixer plates and long flow paths.
Technical Paper

Measurement of Gasoline Exhaust Particulate Matter Emissions with a Wide-Range EGR in a Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine

A large number of measurement techniques have been developed or adapted from other fields to measure various parameters of engine particulates. With the strict limits given by regulations on pollutant emissions, many advanced combustion strategies have been developed towards cleaner combustion. Exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) is widely applied to suppress nitrogen oxide (NOx) and reduce soot emissions. On the other hand, gasoline starts to be utilized in compression ignition engines due to great potential in soot reduction and high engine efficiency. New engine trends raise the need for good sensitivity and suitable accuracy of the PM measurement techniques to detect particulates with smaller size and low particulate mass emissions. In this work, we present a comparison between different measurement techniques for particulate matter (PM) emissions in a compression ignition engine running on gasoline fuel. A wide-range of EGR was used with lambda varied from 3 down to 1.
Technical Paper

Literature Review on Dual-Fuel Combustion Modelling

In the search for low greenhouse gas propulsion, the dual fuel engine provides a solution to use low carbon fuel at diesel-like high efficiency. Also a lower emission of NOx and particles can be achieved by replacing a substantial part of the diesel fuel by for example natural gas. Limitations can be found in excessively high heat release rate (combustion-knock), and high methane emissions. These limitations are strongly influenced by operating parameters and properties of the used (bio)-gas. To find the dominant relations between fuel properties, operating parameters and the heat release rate and methane emissions, a combustion model is beneficial. Such a model can be used for optimizing the process, or can even be used in real time control. As precursor for such a model, the current state of art of dual fuel combustion modelling is investigated in this work. The focus is on high speed dual fuel engines for heavy duty and marine applications, with a varying gas/diesel ratio.
Technical Paper

Large Eddy Simulation of an Ignition Front in a Heavy Duty Partially Premixed Combustion Engine

In partially premixed combustion engines high octane number fuels are injected into the cylinder during the late part of the compression cycle, giving the fuel and oxidizer enough time to mix into a desirable stratified mixture. If ignited by auto-ignition such a gas composition can react in a combustion mode dominated by ignition wave propagation. 3D-CFD modeling of such a combustion mode is challenging as the rate of fuel consumption can be dependent on both mixing history and turbulence acting on the reaction wave. This paper presents a large eddy simulation (LES) study of the effects of stratification in scalar concentration (enthalpy and reactant mass fraction) due to large scale turbulence on the propagation of reaction waves in PPC combustion engines. The studied case is a closed cycle simulation of a single cylinder of a Scania D13 engine running PRF81 (81% iso-octane and 19% n-heptane).
Journal Article

Investigation of Performance and Emission Characteristics of a Heavy Duty Natural Gas Engine Operated with Pre-Chamber Spark Plug and Dilution with Excess Air and EGR

This article deals with application of turbulent jet ignition technique to heavy duty multi-cylinder natural gas engine for mobile application. Pre-chamber spark plugs are identified as a promising means of achieving turbulent jet ignition as they require minimal engine modification with respect to component packaging in cylinder head and the ignition system. Detailed experiments were performed with a 6 cylinder 9.4 liter turbo-charged engine equipped with multi-point gas injection system to compare performance and emissions characteristics of operation with pre-chamber and conventional spark plug. The results indicate that ignition capability is significantly enhanced as flame development angle and combustion duration are reduced by upto 30 % compared to those with conventional spark plugs at certain operating points.
Journal Article

Investigation of Particle Number Emission Characteristics in a Heavy-Duty Compression Ignition Engine Fueled with Hydrotreated Vegetable Oil (HVO)

Diesel engines are one of the most important power generating units these days. Increasing greenhouse gas emission level and the need for energy security has prompted increasing research into alternative fuels for diesel engines. Biodiesel is the most popular among the alternatives for diesel fuel as it is biodegradable and renewable and can be produced domestically from vegetable oils. In recent years, hydrotreated vegetable oil (HVO) has also gained popularity due to some of its advantages over biodiesel such as higher cetane number, lower deposit formation, storage stability, etc. HVO is a renewable, paraffinic biobased alternative fuel for diesel engines similar to biodiesel. Unlike biodiesel, the production process for HVO involves hydrogen as catalyst instead of methanol which removes oxygen content from vegetable oil.
Technical Paper

Influence of Small Pilot on Main Injection in a Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine

Factors influencing the effect of pilot-injection on main-injection combustion were investigated using heat release analysis in a heavy-duty diesel engine fuelled with standard diesel fuel, and included the effect of those factors on engine performance and emissions. Combinations of pilot injection parameters i.e. pilot start of injection, pilot mass, pilot-main injection separation, and rail pressure were studied for various operating conditions and combustion phases. It was concluded that the effect of pilot-injection combustion on main injection can be studied based on the phase of pilot combustion at the start of main injection. Four cases were identified: a) main injection during the mixing phase of pilot injection; b) main injection during the premixed phase of pilot combustion; c) main injection during the diffusive phase of pilot combustion and d) main injection after pilot combustion was completed.
Technical Paper

Influence of Injection Timing on Exhaust Particulate Matter Emissions of Gasoline in HCCI and PPC

In order to reduce nitrogen oxides (NOx) and soot emissions while maintaining high thermal efficiency, more advanced combustion concepts have been developed over the years, such as Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) and Partially Premixed Combustion (PPC), as possible combustion processes in commercial engines. Compared to HCCI, PPC has advantages of lower unburned hydrocarbon (UHC) and carbon monoxide (CO) emissions; however, due to increased fuel stratifications, soot emissions can be a challenge when adding Exhaust-Gas Recirculation (EGR) gas. The current work presents particle size distribution measurements performed from HCCI-like combustion with very early (120 CAD BTDC) to PPC combustion with late injection timing (11 CAD BTDC) at two intake oxygen rates, 21% and 15% respectively. Particle size distributions were measured using a differential mobility spectrometer DMS500.
Journal Article

Heat Loss Analysis of a Steel Piston and a YSZ Coated Piston in a Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine Using Phosphor Thermometry Measurements

Diesel engine manufacturers strive towards further efficiency improvements. Thus, reducing in-cylinder heat losses is becoming increasingly important. Understanding how location, thermal insulation, and engine operating conditions affect the heat transfer to the combustion chamber walls is fundamental for the future reduction of in-cylinder heat losses. This study investigates the effect of a 1mm-thick plasma-sprayed yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) coating on a piston. Such a coated piston and a similar steel piston are compared to each other based on experimental data for the heat release, the heat transfer rate to the oil in the piston cooling gallery, the local instantaneous surface temperature, and the local instantaneous surface heat flux. The surface temperature was measured for different crank angle positions using phosphor thermometry.
Technical Paper

Heat Loss Analysis for Various Piston Geometries in a Heavy-Duty Methanol PPC Engine

Partially premixed combustion (PPC) in internal combustion engine as a low temperature combustion strategy has shown great potential to achieve high thermodynamic efficiency. Methanol due to its unique properties is considered as a preferable PPC engine fuel. The injection timing to achieve methanol PPC conditions should be set very close to TDC, allowing to utilize spray-bowl interaction to further improve combustion process in terms of emissions and heat losses. In this study CFD simulations are performed to investigate spray-bowl interaction for a number of different piston designs and its impact on the heat transfer and the overall piston performance. The validation case is based on a single cylinder heavy-duty Scania D13 engine with a compression ratio 15. The operation point is set to low load 5.42 IMEPg bar with SOI -3 aTDC.