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Journal Article

Standardized Optical Constants for Soot Quantification in High-Pressure Sprays

Soot formation in high-pressure n-dodecane sprays is investigated under conditions relevant to heavy-duty diesel engines. Sprays are injected from a single-hole diesel injector belonging to the family of engine combustion network (ECN) Spray D injectors. Soot is quantified using a high-speed extinction imaging diagnostic with incident light wavelengths of 623 nm and 850 nm. Previously, soot measurements in a high-pressure spray using 406-nm and 520-nm incident light demonstrated a minimal wavelength dependence in the complex refractive index of soot (m), as demonstrated by a near unity ratio of the non-dimensional extinction coefficients (ke,406 nm/ke,520 nm). The present work, however, demonstrates a significant difference in m for measurements with infrared incident light. During the quasi-steady period of the spray combustion event, the experimentally determined ke ratio (ke,623 nm/ke,850 nm) is 1.42 ± 0.27.
Journal Article

Optical Investigation of the Reduction of Unburned Hydrocarbons Using Close-Coupled Post Injections at LTC Conditions in a Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine

Partially premixed low-temperature combustion (LTC) using exhaust-gas recirculation (EGR) has the potential to reduce engine-out NOx and soot emissions, but increased unburned hydrocarbon (UHC) emissions need to be addressed. In this study, we investigate close-coupled post injections for reducing UHC emissions. By injecting small amounts of fuel soon after the end of the main injection, fuel-lean mixtures near the injector that suffer incomplete combustion can be enriched with post-injection fuel and burned to completion. The goal of this work is to understand the in-cylinder mechanisms affecting the post-injection efficacy and to quantify its sensitivity to operational parameters including post-injection duration, injection dwell, load, and ignition delay time of the post-injection mixture.
Journal Article

Measurements of Liquid Length, Vapor Penetration, Ignition Delay, and Flame Lift-Off Length for the Engine Combustion Network ‘Spray B’ in a 2.34 L Heavy-Duty Optical Diesel Engine

This paper presents new measurements of liquid and liftoff lengths, vapor penetration, and ignition delay using the Engine Combustion Network (ECN) ‘Spray B’ injector in a 2.34 L skip-fired heavy-duty optical engine. The data from the Spray B injector, having three 90-micron holes, are compared with previously existing constant-volume vessel data using both the Spray B injector as well as the ECN Spray A injector, which has a single 90-micron axial hole. The new data were acquired using Mie scattering, OH* chemiluminescence imaging, schlieren imaging, and incylinder pressure measurements. This paper presents data from estimated isentropic-core top-dead-center conditions with ambient densities of 15.2 and 22.8 kg/m3, temperatures of 800, 900, and 1000 K, and for both non-reacting (0% and 7.5% O2) and reacting (13, 15, and 21% O2) injections of n-dodecane at fuel-rail pressures of 500, 1000, and 1500 bar.
Journal Article

Effects of Post-Injection Strategies on Near-Injector Over-Lean Mixtures and Unburned Hydrocarbon Emission in a Heavy-Duty Optical Diesel Engine

Post-injection strategies aimed at reducing engine-out emissions of unburned hydrocarbons (UHC) were investigated in an optical heavy-duty diesel engine operating at a low-load, low-temperature combustion (LTC) condition with high dilution (12.7% intake oxygen) where UHC emissions are problematic. Exhaust gas measurements showed that a carefully selected post injection reduced engine-out load-specific UHC emissions by 20% compared to operation with a single injection in the same load range. High-speed in-cylinder chemiluminescence imaging revealed that without a post injection, most of the chemiluminescence emission occurs close to the bowl wall, with no significant chemiluminescence signal within 27 mm of the injector. Previous studies have shown that over-leaning in this near-injector region after the end of injection causes the local equivalence ratio to fall below the ignitability limit.
Technical Paper

EMC/EMI Testing on a Modest Budget

When considering the addition of radio frequency reception and transmission equipment to the suite of electronics already installed on a modern motor vehicle, numerous issues must be considered and tested to ensure reliable and safe operation not only of the additional equipment but the vehicle itself. This paper addresses some of the major issues and suggests modest design and testing practices that will accomplish the desired reliability and safety. The modest design and testing proposed addresses good engineering practices of electrically bonding metallic surfaces of the vehicle, grounding equipment, shielding signal cables, introducing filters, and appropriately separating cables into bundles.
Journal Article

Dilution and Injection Pressure Effects on Ignition and Onset of Soot at Threshold-Sooting Conditions by Simultaneous PAH-PLIF and Soot-PLII Imaging in a Heavy Duty Optical Diesel Engine

Although accumulated in-cylinder soot can be measured by various optical techniques, discerning soot formation rates from oxidation rates is more difficult. Various optical measurements have pointed toward ways to affect in-cylinder soot oxidation, but evidence of effects of operational variables on soot formation is less plentiful. The formation of soot and its precursors, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), are strongly dependent on temperature, so factors affecting soot formation may be more evident at low-temperature combustion conditions. Here, in-cylinder PAHs are imaged by planar laser-induced fluorescence (PAH-PLIF) using three different excitation wavelengths of 355, 532, and 633 nm, to probe three different size-classes of PAH from 2-3 to 10+ rings. Simultaneous planar laser-induced incandescence of soot (soot-PLII) using 1064-nm excitation provides complementary imaging of soot formation near inception.
Technical Paper

Diffusion-Flame / Wall Interactions in a Heavy-Duty DI Diesel Engine

Over the past decade, laser diagnostics have improved our understanding of many aspects of diesel combustion. However, interactions between the combusting fuel jet and the piston-bowl wall are not well understood. In heavy-duty diesel engines, with typical fuels, these interactions occur with the combusting vapor-phase region of the jet, which consists of a central region containing soot and other products of rich-premixed combustion, surrounded by a diffusion flame. Since previous work has shown that the OH radical is a good marker of the diffusion flame, planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF) imaging of OH was applied to an investigation of the diffusion flame during wall interaction. In addition, simultaneous OH PLIF and planar laser-induced incandescence (PLII) soot imaging was applied to investigate the likelihood for soot deposition on the bowl wall.
Journal Article

Applying Advanced CFD Analysis Tools to Study Differences between Start-of-Main and Start-of-Post Injection Flow, Temperature and Chemistry Fields Due to Combustion of Main-Injected Fuel

This paper is part of a larger body of experimental and computational work devoted to studying the role of close-coupled post injections on soot reduction in a heavy-duty optical engine. It is a continuation of an earlier computational paper. The goals of the current work are to develop new CFD analysis tools and methods and apply them to gain a more in depth understanding of the different in-cylinder environments into which fuel from main- and post-injections are injected and to study how the in-cylinder flow, thermal and chemical fields are transformed between start of injection timings. The engine represented in this computational study is a single-cylinder, direct-injection, heavy-duty, low-swirl engine with optical components. It is based on the Cummins N14, has a cylindrical shaped piston bowl and an eight-hole injector that are both centered on the cylinder axis. The fuel used was n-heptane and the engine operating condition was light load at 1200 RPM.
Journal Article

Analysis of EGR Effects on the Soot Distribution in a Heavy Duty Diesel Engine using Time-Resolved Laser Induced Incandescence

The soot distribution as function of ambient O₂ mole fraction in a heavy-duty diesel engine was investigated at low load (6 bar IMEP) with laser-induced incandescence (LII) and natural luminosity. A Multi-YAG laser system was utilized to create time-resolved LII using 8 laser pulses with a spacing of one CAD with detection on an 8-chip framing camera. It is well known that the engine-out smoke level increases with decreasing oxygen fraction up to a certain level where it starts to decrease again. For the studied case the peak occurred at an O₂ fraction of 11.4%. When the oxygen fraction was decreased successively from 21% to 9%, the initial soot formation moved downstream in the jet. At the lower oxygen fractions, below 12%, no soot was formed until after the wall interaction. At oxygen fractions below 11% the first evidence of soot is in the recirculation zone between two adjacent jets.
Journal Article

An Experimental Investigation of Low-Soot and Soot-Free Combustion Strategies in a Heavy-Duty, Single-Cylinder, Direct-Injection, Optical Diesel Engine

High-efficiency, clean-combustion strategies for heavy-duty diesel engines are critical for meeting stringent emissions regulations and reducing the costs of aftertreatment systems that are currently required to meet these regulations. Results from previous constant-volume combustion-vessel experiments using a single jet of fuel under quiescent conditions have shown that mixing-controlled soot-free combustion (i.e., combustion where soot is not produced) is possible with #2 diesel fuel. These experiments employed small injector-orifice diameters (≺ 150 μm) and high fuel-injection pressures (≻ 200 MPa) at top-dead-center (TDC) temperatures and densities that could be achievable in modern heavy-duty diesel engines.
Technical Paper

A Measurement Technique for Characterizing Performance Degradation Caused by EMI on Radio Equipment

By using a radio frequency (RF) audio distortion measurement test setup, communication devices can be evaluated for degradation caused by electromagnetic interference (EMI) from active vehicle components. This measurement technique can be used to determine the performance of a radio receiver under a variety of conditions. The test setup consists of making measurements on a baseband audio signal that is sent to the device under test (receiver) via over-the-air RF transmissions. Once a baseline is established, active components on the vehicle can be powered on to determine their contribution to the receiver's degradation. The degradation measured is a result of distortion caused by conducted, radiated, and/or coupled EMI from active components into the receiver's passband.