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Technical Paper

VERT - Clean Diesel Engines for Tunnel Construction

Diesel engines are irreplaceable in tunnel construction. The particulate emissions of present day engines are so high that the imission limits valid since 1991 cannot be attained by ventilation alone. This problem had to be solved preparatory to the large tunnel projects in Switzerland, Austria and Germany. Several retro-fitting measures were investigated both in the laboratory and in field tests, within the scope of the Project VERT. Oxidation catalytic converters, exhaust gas recirculation, and the usage of special fuels cannot be recommended. Particulate trap deployment, in different systems, was mostly successful. Particular attention was focused on the dependable filtration of finest particulates < 200 nm. The VERT proved that exhaust gas after-treatment with particulate traps is feasible, cost effective and controllable in the field. Pertinent directives are in discussion.
Technical Paper

Secondary Emissions Risk Assessment of Diesel Particulate Traps for Heavy Duty Applications

Most particulate traps efficiently retain soot of diesel engine exhaust but the potential hazard to form secondary emissions has to be controlled. The Diesel Particle Filter (DPF) regeneration is mainly supported by metal additives or metallic coatings. Certain noble or transition metals can support the formation of toxic secondary emissions such as Dioxins, Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAH), Nitro-PAH or other volatile components. Furthermore, particulate trap associated with additive metals can penetrate through the filter system or coating metals can be released from coated systems. The VERT test procedure was especially developed to assess the potential risks of a formation of secondary pollutants in the trap. The present study gives an overview to the VERT test procedure. Aspects of suitability of different fuel additives and coating metals will be discussed and examples of trap and additive induced formation of toxic secondary emissions will be presented.
Technical Paper

Particulate Traps for Construction Machines Properties and Field Experience

1 Occupational Health Authorities in Germany and Switzerland require the use of particulate traps (PT) on construction machines used in underground and in tunneling since 1994. Swiss EPA has extended this requirement 1998 to all construction sites which are in or close to cities. During the VERT*-project, [1, 2, 3, 4, 5]**, traps systems were evaluated for this purpose and only those providing efficiencies over 95% for ultrafine particles < 200 nm have received official recommendation. 10 trap-systems are very popular now for these application, most of them for retrofitting existing engines. Efficiency data will be given as well as experience during a 2-years authority-controlled field test. LIEBHERR, producing their own Diesel engines in Switzerland and construction machines in Germany is the first company worldwide supplying particulate traps as OEM-feature (Original Equipment Manufacturing) on customers request.
Technical Paper

Particulate Traps Used in City-Buses in Switzerland

1 Switzerland is enforcing the use of particulate traps for offroad applications like construction as well as for occupational health applications like tunneling. This decision is based on the results of the VERT-project (1994-1999), which included basic aerosol research, bench screening and field testing of promising solutions as well as the development of implementation tools like trap specification, certification scheems and field control measures. On the other hand there is no corresponding regulation for city-buses yet although PM 10 is about 2× above limit in most Swiss cities. Public pressure however is growing and city transport authorities have reacted by retrofitting Diesel city-buses instead of waiting for cleaner engine technology or CNG-conversions. The favored trap system with about 200 retrofits so far is the CRT.