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Technical Paper

Real Driving NOx Emissions from Euro VI Diesel Buses

Since 2013, Euro VI heavy-duty on-road vehicles have been on the market in the Europe. Regulated exhaust emissions, including nitrogen oxides and particulate matter, have been cut down to a very low level, independent of fuel (diesel or natural gas). Multiple research papers have shown that the regulated emissions from the Euro VI and US 2010 heavy-duty on-road vehicles tested on chassis dynamometers really deliver emission levels which correspond the type approval requirements, independent of the test cycle used. In-service conformity (ISC), which is included in the Euro VI legislation, requires heavy-duty on-road engine manufacturers to test and prove their engines to comply with the emission legislation during the engine in-use period. The measurements are carried out in the field using PEMS (Portable Emission Measurement System) equipment. This kind of testing, depicting real-world emissions is the final stage to confirm low real-life emissions.
Technical Paper

Propane Fueled Heavy-Duty Vehicles

Propane is considered to be a viable fuel alternative for low-emission heavy-duty vehicles in Finland. Natural gas and propane have roughly the same potential for reduced exhaust emissions. Since natural gas and propane are both imported fuels in Finland, there is no preference between these two fuels. Propane, however, is much more easy to distribute, refuel and store onboard the vehicle. This is why propane has received more attention than natural gas as an automotive fuel. Work to develop a low-emission propane fueled truck started back in 1988 with engine tests. The first prototype, a 17-ton SISU truck was built in 1990, and was operated until September 1992. This truck was equipped with a 7.4-liter Valmet-engine, a closed-loop controlled IMPCO-fuel system and a three-way catalytic converter (TWC). The experience with this propane fueled truck was good. The driveability was excellent, and both noise level and exhaust emissions were low.
Technical Paper

Low-Polluting Gas Fueled Heavy-Duty Vehicles

There is a strong request for heavy-duty gas engines in the Nordic countries for environmental reasons. Therefore, several research projects are going on. This paper describes two of them: a Finnish Sisu truck and a MAN bus, both operating in the city of Espoo, the hometown of the Technical Research Centre. The truck is equipped with a 7.4 litre Finnish Valmet 612 engine. The development work has included engine tests and tests with a vehicle in laboratory conditions. A 3,3 litre 3-cylinder engine was used for the engine tests. The engine runs on stoichiometric mixture, and has a three-way catalyst based on metal substrate. The engine was run on both methane (compr. ratio 12:1) and propane (compr. ratio 10:1). Emissions were extremely low with both fuels. In the European 13-mode test 0.4 g CO, 0.1 g HC and 0.1 g NOx per kWh were achieved. Peak thermal efficiency was 35 % for both fuels. Maximum mean effective pressure (BMEP) for a naturally aspirated engine is 9 - 9,5 bar.
Journal Article

IEA Technology Network Cooperation: Fuel and Technology Alternatives for Buses: Overall Energy Efficiency and Emissions

In 2009 - 2011, a comprehensive project on urban buses was carried out in cooperation with IEA's Implementing Agreements on Alternative Motor Fuels and Bioenergy, with input from additional IEA Implementing Agreements. The objective of the project was to generate unbiased and solid data for use by policy- and decision-makers responsible for public transport using buses. The project comprised four major parts: (1) a well-to-tank (WTT) assessment of alternative fuel pathways, (2) an assessment of bus end-use (tank-to-wheel, TTW) performance, (3) combining WTT and TTW data into well-to-wheel (WTW) data and (4) a cost assessment, including indirect as well as direct costs. Experts at Argonne National Laboratory, Natural Resources Canada and VTT worked on the WTT part. In the TTW part, Environment Canada and VTT generated emission and fuel consumption data by running 21 different buses on chassis dynamometers, generating data for some 180 combinations of vehicle, fuel and driving cycle.
Technical Paper

Emission performance of paraffinic HVO diesel fuel in heavy duty vehicles

When switching from regular diesel fuel (sulfur free) to paraffinic hydrotreated vegetable oil (HVO), the changes in fuel chemistry and physical properties will affect emission characteristics in a very positive way. The effects also depend on the technology, after-treatment and sophistication of the engine. To determine the real effects in the case of city buses, 17 typical buses, representing emission classes from Euro II to EEV, were measured with HVO, regular diesel and several blended fuels. The average reduction was 10% for nitrogen oxides (NOx) and 30% for particulate matter (PM). Also some engine tests were performed to demonstrate the potential for additional performance benefits when fuel injection timing was optimized for HVO.
Technical Paper

Bus Fleet Operation on Renewable Paraffinic Diesel Fuel

Helsinki Region Transport, Neste Oil, Proventia Emission Control and VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland carried out a 3.5 year PPP venture “OPTIBIO” to demonstrate the use of paraffinic renewable diesel (hydrotreated vegetable oil HVO) in city buses. The fleet test in Metropolitan Helsinki involving some 300 buses is the largest one in the world to demonstrate this new fuel. The fuels were a 30 % blend of renewable diesel and 100 % renewable diesel. This paper describes the overall set-up of the project, gives an overview of the emission results as well as presents experience from the field.