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Technical Paper

Physics-Based Modeling and Transient Validation of an Organic Rankine Cycle Waste Heat Recovery System for a Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine

This paper presents an Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) system model for heavy-duty diesel (HDD) applications. The dynamic, physics-based model includes: heat exchangers for parallel exhaust and EGR circuits, compressible vapor working fluid, distribution and flow control valves, a high pressure pump, and a reservoir. A finite volume method is used to model the evaporator, and a pressure drop model is included to improve the accuracy of predictions. Experimental results obtained on a prototype ORC system are used for model calibration and validation. Comparison of predicted and measured values under steady-state conditions is pursued first, followed by the analysis of selected transient events. Validation reveals the model’s ability to track real-world temperature and pressure dynamics of the ORC system. Therefore, this modeling framework is suitable for future system design studies, optimization of ORC power generation, and as a basis for development of control-oriented ORC models.
Journal Article

Model-Based Estimation of Vehicle Aerodynamic Drag and Rolling Resistance

Commercial vehicles transport the majority of the inland freight in US and a significant number of passengers. They are large fuel consumers as they operate a large number of hours per day, pulling heavy loads. The increasing fuel price and the Green House Gas emission regulation have provided a strong impetus for new technologies capable of improving the commercial vehicle fuel economy. Among others, optimized powertrain control can improve the vehicle fuel economy, particularly if it is based on accurate information about the instantaneous load demand. Furthermore, model-based online vehicle parameter estimator is critical for implementation of an adaptive vehicle controller. While vehicle mass estimation has been successfully demonstrated, rolling resistance and aerodynamic drag estimation has not been fully explored yet. This paper examines this problem using model-based approach with a supervisory data extraction scheme.
Technical Paper

Deaeration Device Study for a Hydraulic Hybrid Vehicle

This paper investigates the development of a deaeration device to remove nitrogen from the hydraulic fluid in hydraulic hybrid vehicles (HHVs). HHVs, which use accumulators to store and recycle energy, can significantly reduce vehicle emissions in urban delivery vehicles. In accumulators, nitrogen behind a piston cylinder or inside a bladder pressurizes an incompressible fluid. The permeation of the nitrogen through the rubber bladder into the hydraulic fluid limits the efficiency and reliability of the HHV system, since the pressure drop in the hydraulic fluid can in turn cause cavitation on pump components and excessive noise in the system. The nitrogen bubbles within the hydraulic fluid may be removed through the employment of commercial bubble eliminators if the bubbles are larger than a certain threshold. However, gas is also dissolved within the hydraulic fluid; therefore, novel design is necessary for effective deaeration in the fluid HHV circuit.