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Technical Paper

“MBE 4000-A New Engine for the US Class 8 Truck Market”

2000-12-04
2000-01-3457
Due to ever soaring fuel costs and even more stringent emission regulations which require more elaborate technical efforts and unfortunately lead to a negative trend on fuel economy as well, todays and future trucking business is extremely challenged. These facts create an urgent requirement for the engine manufacturer to offer an engine with an optimized cost-benefit-ratio for the trucking business. Mercedes-Benz, as the leader in the European commercial vehicle market - of which e. g. high fuel costs, long maintenance intervals and high engine power-to-weight ratios have always been key characteristics - has developed a new class 8 engine for the US market. The MBE 4000 is a 6 cylinder inline engine in the compact size and low weight category, but due to its displacement of 12,8 liters it offers high performance characteristics like heavier big block engines.
Technical Paper

“Dynamic Analysis of Cabin Tilting System of Heavy Trucks Using ADAMS-View for Development of a Software Interface for Optimization”

2008-10-07
2008-01-2683
Design of a Cabin Tilting System of heavy trucks, a multi degree of freedom mechanism, is a challenge. Factors like adequate tilting angle, cabin styling, packaging, non interference of tilting system with ride comfort, forces in the system, specifications of the hydraulic system, are all very important for designing the system. Numerous considerations make the design process highly iterative hence longer design time. This paper primarily focuses on Kinematics and Dynamic analysis of the system in ADAMS and validation of system with real time testing results. Intention of this work is to make a parametric ADAMS model and link it to a Knowledge Based Engineering application to facilitate designer to quickly carry out design iterations for reducing development time. The Knowledge Based Engineering software is made using object oriented language called ‘Object Definition Language’ which has been developed using C and C++ software languages.
Technical Paper

practical design suggestions for users of Brazed Honeycomb Sandwich

1959-01-01
590057
SIX BASIC suggestions are offered on how to design for practical, producible, economical structures of brazed honeycomb sandwich. The author illustrates the application of some of these design suggestions and explores the step-by-step theoretical reasoning a designer might use to arrive at a satisfactory design for a hypothetical large missile wing. The final design of a honeycomb sandwich component must take into account the process as well as structural and configuration requirements.
Technical Paper

pCBT: A New Material for High Performance Composites in Automotive Applications1

2004-10-26
2004-01-2698
Cyclic oligomers of butylene terephthalate (CBT™)† represent a new chemical route to semi-crystalline thermoplastic polybutylene terephthalate (PBT). The oligomers of interest melt completely at about 150°C to produce a low viscosity fluid that is ideal for wetting and dispersing fibrous fillers and reinforcements thereby enabling the development of composites that were previously not possible when working with high viscosity commercial PBT. Introduction of catalyst to undiluted molten cyclic oligomer leads to rapid ring opening polymerization and the formation of high molecular weight thermoplastic PBT without the generation of volatile organic compounds. The polymer resulting from this polymerization will be hereby referred to as pCBT. Treatment of cyclic oligomers in this fashion results in pCBT thermoplastic resin with a high melting point (230°C) and physical performance similar to that of other commercially available PBT resins.
Technical Paper

modeFRONTIER for Virtual Design and Optimization of Compact Heat Exchangers

2014-09-30
2014-01-2406
The main purpose of this study is the development of an innovative methodology for Heat Exchangers (HE) design to replace the conventional design procedures. The new procedure is based on the definition of a software package managed by modeFRONTIER, a multi-objective optimization software produced by ESTECO, able to create HE virtual models by targeting several objectives, like HE performance, optimal use of material, HE minimal weight and size and optimal manufacturability. The proposed methodology consists first in the definition of a workflow for the automatic CFD simulation of a parametric model of a periodic HE cellular element.
Technical Paper

Zero Emission Vehicles

1994-04-01
941108
Recharging electric vehicles with photovoltaics (PV) results in a truer “zero-emission” vehicle. Other papers have discussed the complex issue of distributed tailpipe emissions versus displaced emissions from centralized generating stations. The use of PV to recharge electric vehicles avoids the distributed versus centralized emission controversy because PV has minimal environmental impact. Even when considering the total fuel cycle, including fuel extraction and plant construction, PV still retains a significant environmental advantage over conventional electrical generation technologies. This paper reviews total fuel cycle emissions and then addresses the use of PV to recharge electric vehicles. The data presented in this paper applies also to hybrid electric vehicles.
Technical Paper

Yield Monitors, Combines, and Their Interactions

1999-09-14
1999-01-2846
Instantaneous combine grain yield monitors need to provide reliable yield measurements since yield as a function of location is key information needed to manage fields by management zones. A scale and a yield monitor measured the same stream of grain and provided similar results when compared to each other. Data from either device may be misinterpreted if care in calibration and operation is not taken. Careful operators who pay attention to calibration, maintenance, and manufacturer's instructions will be required.
Technical Paper

Yield Mapping with Digital Aerial Color Infrared (CIR) Images

1999-09-14
1999-01-2847
Yield potential was predicted and mapped for three corn fields in Central Illinois, using digital aerial color infrared images. Three methods, namely statistical (regression) modeling, genetic algorithm optimization and artificial neural networks, were used for developing yield models. Two image resolutions of 3 and 6 m/pixel were used for modeling. All the models were trained using July 31 image and tested using images from July 2 and August 31, all from 1998. Among the three models, artificial neural networks gave best performance, with a prediction error less than 30%. The statistical model resulted in prediction errors in the range of 23 to 54%. The lower resolution images resulted in better prediction accuracy compared to resolutions higher than or equal to the yield resolution. Images after pollination resulted in better accuracy compared to images before pollination.
Technical Paper

Yield Mapping of Soybeans and Corn Using GPS

1995-09-01
952112
Data obtained when harvesting with a combine equipped with a yield monitor were used to develop yield maps. A prototype yield monitor was developed that uses a combination of light emitters and receivers mounted in a rectangular frame. The monitor was mounted in the combine in the top of the clean grain elevator. As grain flows through the monitor, a voltage change proportional to light reduction was recorded. This voltage was then correlated to grain flow rate. At the same time, site-specific location was recorded using the global positioning satellites (GPS) system. The location data, yield monitor output, cutting width, and combine forward speed were stored in a spreadsheet format. The data were then used to prepare the yield maps.
Journal Article

Yaw Stability Enhancement of Articulated Commercial Vehicles via Gain-Scheduling Optimal Control Approach

2017-03-28
2017-01-0437
In this paper, a gain-scheduling optimal control approach is proposed to enhance yaw stability of articulated commercial vehicles through active braking of the proper wheel(s). For this purpose, an optimal feedback control is used to design a family of yaw moment controllers considering a broad range of vehicle velocities. The yaw moment controller is designed such that the instantaneous tractor yaw rate and articulation angle responses are forced to track the target values at each specific vehicle velocity. A gain scheduling mechanism is subsequently constructed via interpolations among the controllers. Furthermore, yaw moments derived from the proposed controller are realized by braking torque distribution among the appropriate wheels. The effectiveness of the proposed yaw stability control scheme is evaluated through software-in-the-loop (SIL) co-simulations involving Matlab/Simulink and TruckSim under lane change maneuvers.
Technical Paper

Yaw Stability Control of Tractor Semi-Trailers

2008-10-07
2008-01-2595
Tractor semi-trailer stability during emergency braking and steering maneuvers has been an issue that was improved through implementation of Anti-lock Braking Systems (ABS). Although some improvements have been achieved, the need for new control methodologies is evident from the number of accidents reported by NHTSA involving tractor semi-trailers. In this paper, a new control algorithm has been developed for improving the tractor semi-trailer stability through utilization of yaw moment, i.e., tire differential braking strategy. This new, multifaceted, adaptive control algorithm which allows the estimation of the unknown vehicle parameters through use of the adaptation laws is based on the Lyapunov Direct Method. A tractor semi-trailer model with four degrees of freedom was used to develop the control algorithm and the adaptation laws. The controller was implemented on a 2-axle tractor 1-axle van trailer in TruckSim 7©.
Technical Paper

Yaw Dynamics of Command Steered Multi Axle Semitrailer

2017-01-10
2017-26-0345
This paper investigates the yaw dynamic behaviour of a seven axle tractor semitrailer combination vehicle developed by VRDE (Vehicle Research & Development). The semitrailer has four steerable axles which follow command steering law i.e. all axles of semitrailer are steered in a particular relation with articulation of tractor. A 4 dof (degree of freedom) linear yaw plane model was developed for this combination vehicle. Yaw response characteristics such as lateral acceleration, yaw rate and articulation angle for step and sine steer is obtained from this model. Effects of speed on the above parameters are also studied to the same steering inputs. Lateral tyre forces due to semitrailer steering at various speeds are estimated to understand its distribution on each axle. Steady state yaw rate and articulation angle gain are obtained to predict the understeer / oversteer behaviour of combination vehicle.
Technical Paper

World Trucks - A European View

1989-08-01
891630
The idea of a world truck is a fascinating challenge - whereas cars are purchased more or less as seen; truck purchasers demand more individual configurations. In national and global terms, that means a highly complex truck market. Historically, a few European and North American manufacturers produced almost all the trucks for the world market. That changed through the 60's and 70's, with more local assembly plants around the world and increasing worldwide manufacturing capabilities. Concurrently, international component design standards have made some progress towards compatibility. Much greater co-operation is needed, however, before a genuinely international set of standards can be applied. As the task assigned to trucks is the same worldwide, namely to transport goods from A to B; it should be desirable and possible to work towards a greater commonality of vehicle - to ultimately achieve a world truck. The only unknown is the time scale.
Technical Paper

World Fuels and Modern Fuel Systems - A Path to Coexistence

2015-09-29
2015-01-2818
All around the world, steps are being taken to improve the quality of our environment. Prominent among these are the definition, implementation, and attainment of increasingly stringent emissions regulations for all types of engines, including off-highway diesels. These rigorous regulations have driven use of technologies like after-treatment, advanced air systems, and advanced fuel systems. Fuel dispensed off-highway is routinely and significantly dirtier than fuel from on-highway outlets. Furthermore, fuels used in developing countries can be up to 30 times dirtier than the average fuels in North America. Poor fuel cleanliness, coupled with the higher pressures and performance demands of modern fuel systems, create life challenges greater than encountered with cleaner fuels. This can result in costly disruption of operations, loss of productivity, and customer dissatisfaction in the off-highway market.
Technical Paper

Working Load Measurement and Analysis of Bolted Joint under Off-road Vehicle Operation

2018-04-03
2018-01-1234
In this study, we propose a method of measuring and analyzing the load on bolted joints used in a machine under off-road vehicle operation. Working load measurement under actual machine operation and the results of its analysis are shown as load frequency diagrams. An example of the measurement analysis of a load (three types of load: axial force, bending moment, and torsional torque) added to a bolted joint shank during actual machine operation is shown. In this paper, we describe how to apply the results of load analysis to the load condition at the design and experimental development stages.
Technical Paper

Work Solenoids-Environmental and Design Considerations for Earthmoving Equipment Applications

1986-04-01
860760
Work solenoids are widely used in household appliances. The environment and design of this type application does not lead to solenoids for the earthmoving industry. This paper presents the environmental effects to be considered when designing a solenoid for the earthmoving industry. It further explains the need for, and type of, test necessary to validate the design. Finally a review of production quality procedures, necessary to insure reliable production parts is discussed.
Standard

Wiring Distribution Systems for Off-Road, Self-Propelled Work Machines

2018-11-21
CURRENT
J1614_201811
This SAE Standard specifies requirements and design guidelines for electrical wiring systems of less than 50 V and cable diameters from 0.35 to 19 mm2 used on off-road, self-propelled earthmoving machines as defined in SAE J1116 and agricultural tractors as defined in ASAE S390.
Standard

Wiring Distribution Systems for Off-Road, Self-Propelled Work Machines

2012-09-13
HISTORICAL
J1614_201209
This SAE Standard specifies requirements and design guidelines for electrical wiring systems of less than 50 V and cable diameters from 0.35 to 19 mm2 used on off-road, self-propelled earthmoving machines as defined in SAE J1116 and agricultural tractors as defined in ASAE S390.
Technical Paper

Wiremesh Mounting System for Low Temperature Diesel Catalytic Converters

2005-11-01
2005-01-3508
Knitted wiremesh along with radial gas tight seals provide reliable mounting system for low temperature underbody converters. The compression characteristics of the wiremesh is modified by wire material, wire diameter, wire geometry, mesh crimp heights; wire density, wiremesh courses per inch, needle count, number of strands, wiremesh temper, wiremesh surface profile and surface characteristics. The radial mounting pressure provided by the wiremesh is matched with the mounting pressure requirement. Wiremesh systems can be tailored to any required radial mounting pressure from conventional to ultra thin-wall substrates. The wiremesh mounting system is proven durable, without any failure on more than 25 million underbody converters in light duty vehicles. Cp and Cpk show the capability of the manufacturing process. Thus the wiremesh mounting support is a viable alternate for low temperature gasoline and diesel applications.
Technical Paper

Winterization Of Construction Equipment - Report of CIMTC Subcommittee XV—Winterization

1957-01-01
570031
SINCE 1954 the CIMTC Subcommittee has been engaged in a program to meet military requirements through industry's production of construction equipment which can give satisfactory cold weather performance down to temperatures of −65 F. Individual contracts for three crawler tractors and one motor grader were negotiated by ERDL for these projects, and their performance is discussed. Industry participation was subsequently expanded to include engineering tests in the cold weather conditions of the Mesabi Iron Range. This joint report of the Winterization Sub-committee of the CIMTC and ERDL Winterization Section consists of separate papers by various members and consultants of this Sub-committee and ERDL personnel.
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