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Technical Paper

Yielding Strengh Analysis for Self Supported Pressure Vessels

The hazardous bulk chemical liquid cargo transportation is usually made through highways, using special automotive devices, named semitrailer tank, a kind of mobile tank specially developed to perform this task, manufactured with many types of steel, selected according to the chemical characteristics of the product to be transported. Equipment sizing is made based on specific standards which include specified formulas, loading, and safety factors representing the design criteria of this type of device. Despite of the detailed design criteria for semitrailer tank, it has been observed failure of some pieces of equipment during operation, in a shorter effective life than that one considered in the design phase itself. Considering a detailed study of the stress distribution in this type of equipment, this paper shows a verification of the possibility of yielding failure in the semitrailer tank structure.
Technical Paper

Worldclass Product Development Overview

This paper will discuss Concurrent Engineering as an emerging product development methodology. Specific emphasis will be placed on some of the key tools and considerations necessary for the success of Concurrent Engineering. In particular, the paper will discuss strategic product planning driven by customer requirements and how the product development effort will support the strategic product plan.
Technical Paper

Work Solenoids-Environmental and Design Considerations for Earthmoving Equipment Applications

Work solenoids are widely used in household appliances. The environment and design of this type application does not lead to solenoids for the earthmoving industry. This paper presents the environmental effects to be considered when designing a solenoid for the earthmoving industry. It further explains the need for, and type of, test necessary to validate the design. Finally a review of production quality procedures, necessary to insure reliable production parts is discussed.
Technical Paper

Wiremesh Mounting System for Low Temperature Diesel Catalytic Converters

Knitted wiremesh along with radial gas tight seals provide reliable mounting system for low temperature underbody converters. The compression characteristics of the wiremesh is modified by wire material, wire diameter, wire geometry, mesh crimp heights; wire density, wiremesh courses per inch, needle count, number of strands, wiremesh temper, wiremesh surface profile and surface characteristics. The radial mounting pressure provided by the wiremesh is matched with the mounting pressure requirement. Wiremesh systems can be tailored to any required radial mounting pressure from conventional to ultra thin-wall substrates. The wiremesh mounting system is proven durable, without any failure on more than 25 million underbody converters in light duty vehicles. Cp and Cpk show the capability of the manufacturing process. Thus the wiremesh mounting support is a viable alternate for low temperature gasoline and diesel applications.
Technical Paper

Winterization of Commercial Vehicles to -50 F

The development trend in construction machinery has been to produce equipment having a high level of reliability. The dollar loss that occurs when a major piece of equipment breaks down on the job is sufficiently great to justify the cost of providing reliable operation. In the development of the North the need for increased reliability is greater than ever. In extreme low temperature conditions as found on the NORTH SLOPE operation in Alaska, the harshness of the environment places additional stress both on the equipment and the operators. The development of winterization kits for construction and heavy engineering equipment to date has been slow, probably because of a comparatively small market and because the work could be postponed or accomplished by protecting the equipment and operator by temporary means to meet the purpose. The results have not been economical or as efficient as desired but efficient enough to be acceptable.
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Wiley SAE MOBILUS® eBook Package

Committed to being the primary source for aerospace and ground vehicle engineering resources, SAE International has added the full compilation of our Wiley eBook collections to the SAE MOBILUS® technical resource platform. Purchasable as an annual subscription and containing the titles from the Wiley Aerospace Collection, the Wiley Automotive Collection, the Wiley Computer Systems Collection, and the Wiley Cyber Security Collection.
SAE MOBILUS Subscription

Wiley Cyber Security Collection Add-On

As an annual subscription, the Wiley Cyber Security Collection Add-On is available for purchase along with one or both of the following: Wiley Aerospace Collection Wiley Automotive Collection The titles from the Wiley Cyber Security Collection are included in the SAE MOBILUS® eBook Package. Titles: Network Forensics Penetration Testing Essentials Security in Fixed and Wireless Networks, 2nd Edition The Network Security Test Lab: A Step-by-Step Guide Risk Centric Threat Modeling: Process for Attack Simulation and Threat Analysis Applied Cryptography: Protocols, Algorithms and Source Code in C, 20th Anniversary Edition Computer Security Handbook, Set, 6th Edition Threat Modeling: Designing for Security Other available Wiley collections: Wiley SAE MOBILUS eBook Package Wiley Aerospace Collection Wiley Automotive Collection Wiley Computer Systems Collection Add-On (purchasable with the Wiley Aerospace Collection and/or the Wiley Automotive Collection)
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Wiley Automotive Collection

Purchasable as an annual subscription, the Wiley Automotive Collection contains 20 eBook titles and focuses on a wide range of categories, including engines, transmission, chassis, body, electrical, safety, and manufacturing. Titles covering new and emerging topics such as battery technology and electric and hybrid vehicles are included as well, making the series an essential addition to any institution’s automotive resources.
Technical Paper

When the Workplace Takes Its Toll: Combating Stress

The pressures created by the work environment and its demands can be many and varied. The effect of these pressures and demands can be extremely taxing to essentially every facet of the person experiencing them. However, this stress can be effectively managed and even prevented by using the appropriate measures.
Technical Paper

Wheel Traction Prediction - A Comparison Between Models and Experimental Data

The paper attempts to determine which traction model best fits with experimental data for a romanian lugged tractor tire. Different models for predicting net traction and traction efficiency for off-road conditions were considered. These models assume different tire-ground pressure distributions (constant, parabolic) over the undertread area and different contact patch length calculations. Experiments were conducted and the results were compared to the theoretical data. Two of the models are the best fit with the experimental data; both models assumed a parabolic pressure distribution over the undertread.
Technical Paper

What is This Thing Called A System (and How Can I Go About Understanding It?)

This paper describes how the needs of the truck end-user have changed under the pressures of deregulation and competition, and how the truck supply community has responded. It observes that traditional management and hardware responses are yielding diminishing improvements. Significant further improvement is postulated based on application of electronic technology to functional control of a “truck system”. This is defined as a technological discontinuity where a new perspective, “thinking systems” will be needed. The post-1995 truck system is described; and what “thinking systems” entails and “how to create a system” are discussed. It is further postulated that this change in technology will have major impacts on the structure of the truck manufacturing industry, and the capabilities required of its management and technical communities.
Technical Paper

Wet Clutch Energy Calculation

Formulas are derived to show that moving elements of a drive train can contribute to the energy seen by the clutch plates. Oscillograph traces, sample calculations and photographs of failed plates show actual energy at failure of test plates. The formula is presented for calculating instantaneous energy when coefficient of friction, apply pressure and slip speed are known or can be estimated.
Technical Paper

Web-based Engineering for Product Development and Business Support

Nowadays, developing web (World Wide Web) engineering is considered to be a top priority task in many companies. A corporate web information center with broad coverage to support a company's worldwide engineering activities can make the product development and customer support more efficient. First, the archived, readily available product information, knowledge database, and user friendly engineering tools can ease up the more ever demanding engineering jobs. Second, the convenient information storage, retrieval systems and hyperlinks on the web should ensure effective communications among engineers, customers, and suppliers. However, without in-depth planning, the full benefits of web engineering cannot be realized. To be effective, other companion engineering programs must also be instated. This paper reviews the experience we have gained in utilizing web engineering for product development and customer support.
Technical Paper

Web-Based Vehicle Remote Access and Its Application to In-Vehicle Network Integrated Fleet Management

The demands for effective and efficient management of commercial vehicles and freight transport have led to the increasing needs for sophisticated fleet management systems (FMS) for reducing the operation cost of commercial vehicle operation, improving custom service and asset management as well as maintaining the safety and security. The availability and declining costs of telecommunications and information technologies afford opportunities for using real-time information to achieve these targets and the emergence of internet technology make it possible to transfer updated real-time information through more widely available communication media. This paper introduces the web-based remote-access concept for the real-time information acquisition, which has been used to enhance functionality of a dynamic fleet management system.
Technical Paper

Wear Trends of Axial Piston Type Pumps Operating in Severe Environments

Axial piston type pumps are often exposed to severe operating conditions because of the duty cycle, the environment, or, in some situations, poor maintenance and even abuse. The detrimental effects on the pump and the hydraulic system as a result of these adverse conditions are often not known or predictable. In this study, four controlled severe operating conditions were imposed on four identical axial piston type pumps. They included 1) constant high load pressure and normal fluid temperature, 2) constant high load pressure and elevated fluid temperature, 3) cyclic load pressure and normal fluid temperature, and 4) cyclic load pressure and elevated fluid temperature. The tests were long-term; they were run continuously for up to 5000 hours. The pump wear was monitored in all cases using ferrography. In addition, the condition of the fluid was monitored and the circuit filters were examined periodically. The results of the findings are presented in this paper.
Technical Paper

Ways to Meet Future Emission Regulations for Agricultural Tractor Engines

After a review of current and future emission legislation for non-road engines (India, Europe, USA), the various options available to reduce the emissions of diesel tractor engines are discussed. Special emphasis is put on naturally aspirated engines in the 37 - 50 kW power range. AVL has recently designed and developed several naturally aspirated heavy-duty diesel tractor engines to comply with current exhaust emissions standards for the Indian domestic and the US markets (EPA Tier 2). In doing so, different levels of technologies were applied. Their impact on mean effective pressure, specific fuel consumption and emissions will be shown. The future non-road engine exhaust emissions legislation in different markets will be addressed (India, Europe and USA). Compliance with the new emission standards will require the introduction of more advanced technology.
Technical Paper

Warehouse-Stretching Gas Fork Lift Truck

This paper covers the development and features of a unique narrow aisle gas fork lift truck. It shows how three individually selective types of hydraulic circuits are utilized for a hydrostatic drive to power a rotatable front end - load assembly in a vehicle which is a new approach to narrow aisle stacking. The result is a lift truck which uses narrow aisles for storing material and retains the speed, utility, and endurance of conventional equipment.
Technical Paper

WABCO 150-Ton Electric Truck - Facts and Features

The Wabco Model 150-B mining truck was announced in late 1970, and during 1971, over 40 of them were delivered to various customers in this hemisphere. It employs various powerplants up to 1600 hp, which gives it a very favorable horsepower-to-weight ratio for vehicles in this size category. The 36 X 51 in tires provided are more than adequate for this vehicle, as the low air pressure at which these tires can be operated minimizes tire failures from road obstructions and provides extremely long life. The d-c drive system recently developed by General Electric for vehicles of this size class utilizes operational principles and design features that were successfully employed in smaller drive systems of this type, currently installed in over 1300 vehicles with engines up to 1000 hp. This paper describes the features of construction of this vehicle and the unique attributes of the pneumatic and hydraulic system.
Journal Article

Virtual Cylinder Pressure Sensor for Transient Operation in Heavy-Duty Engines

Cylinder pressure-based combustion control is widely introduced for passenger cars. Benefits include enhanced emission robustness to fuel quality variation, reduced fuel consumption due to more accurate (multi-pulse) fuel injection, and minimized after treatment size. In addition, it enables the introduction of advanced, high-efficient combustion concepts. The application in truck engines is foreseen, but challenges need to be overcome related to durability, increased system costs, and impact on the cylinder head. In this paper, a new single cylinder pressure sensor concept for heavy-duty Diesel engines is presented. Compared to previous studies, this work focuses on heavy-duty Diesel powertrains, which are characterized by a relatively flexible crank shaft in contrast to the existing passenger car applications.
Technical Paper

Vickers New Technologies Applied to Electrohydraulic Controls

Vickers Discovery Series EMV Electrohydraulic Mobile Valve is one of the most advanced new products introduced by Vickers in 1996. The EMV is a four-way proportional flow control valve intended for Load Sensing systems. The concept is based on separated meter-in and meter-out valve elements in combination with several new technologies such as Valvistor, Anti-Saturation, Meter-in and Meter-out Pressure Control. The valve is microprocessor controlled, programmable and communicates via a CAN-Bus. The valve could easily be specified with an interactive Windows based configuration software.