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Technical Paper

“SHIFT-MATE” A Fuel Efficiency Monitor

1985-12-01
852340
The SHIFT-MATE is a dashboard mounted computer based device that cues a truck driver to shift more efficiently. Through electronic circuitry, key vehicle parameters are monitored, computed, then via graphic display, instructs the driver when to shift for improved fuel economy. The theory of operation is described in the text.
Technical Paper

“MBE 4000-A New Engine for the US Class 8 Truck Market”

2000-12-04
2000-01-3457
Due to ever soaring fuel costs and even more stringent emission regulations which require more elaborate technical efforts and unfortunately lead to a negative trend on fuel economy as well, todays and future trucking business is extremely challenged. These facts create an urgent requirement for the engine manufacturer to offer an engine with an optimized cost-benefit-ratio for the trucking business. Mercedes-Benz, as the leader in the European commercial vehicle market - of which e. g. high fuel costs, long maintenance intervals and high engine power-to-weight ratios have always been key characteristics - has developed a new class 8 engine for the US market. The MBE 4000 is a 6 cylinder inline engine in the compact size and low weight category, but due to its displacement of 12,8 liters it offers high performance characteristics like heavier big block engines.
Technical Paper

“Dynamic Analysis of Cabin Tilting System of Heavy Trucks Using ADAMS-View for Development of a Software Interface for Optimization”

2008-10-07
2008-01-2683
Design of a Cabin Tilting System of heavy trucks, a multi degree of freedom mechanism, is a challenge. Factors like adequate tilting angle, cabin styling, packaging, non interference of tilting system with ride comfort, forces in the system, specifications of the hydraulic system, are all very important for designing the system. Numerous considerations make the design process highly iterative hence longer design time. This paper primarily focuses on Kinematics and Dynamic analysis of the system in ADAMS and validation of system with real time testing results. Intention of this work is to make a parametric ADAMS model and link it to a Knowledge Based Engineering application to facilitate designer to quickly carry out design iterations for reducing development time. The Knowledge Based Engineering software is made using object oriented language called ‘Object Definition Language’ which has been developed using C and C++ software languages.
Technical Paper

practical design suggestions for users of Brazed Honeycomb Sandwich

1959-01-01
590057
SIX BASIC suggestions are offered on how to design for practical, producible, economical structures of brazed honeycomb sandwich. The author illustrates the application of some of these design suggestions and explores the step-by-step theoretical reasoning a designer might use to arrive at a satisfactory design for a hypothetical large missile wing. The final design of a honeycomb sandwich component must take into account the process as well as structural and configuration requirements.
Technical Paper

Zero Emission Vehicles

1994-04-01
941108
Recharging electric vehicles with photovoltaics (PV) results in a truer “zero-emission” vehicle. Other papers have discussed the complex issue of distributed tailpipe emissions versus displaced emissions from centralized generating stations. The use of PV to recharge electric vehicles avoids the distributed versus centralized emission controversy because PV has minimal environmental impact. Even when considering the total fuel cycle, including fuel extraction and plant construction, PV still retains a significant environmental advantage over conventional electrical generation technologies. This paper reviews total fuel cycle emissions and then addresses the use of PV to recharge electric vehicles. The data presented in this paper applies also to hybrid electric vehicles.
Technical Paper

ZF Retarder in Commercial Vehicles

1992-11-01
922452
This paper describes the ZF - Intarder, a wear-free vehicle brake for commercial vehicles. Qualities such as optimum weight saving, compactness, compatibility with all PTOs and no change in driveshaft length, are the results of a new development. Performance measurements demonstrate connection with engine cooling system. Field test measurements provide new information about frequency of use of various brake levels and electronic speed control. An evaluation of financial issues indicates advantages for operation.
Technical Paper

ZF EE Drive - Electric Drive System for Low-Floor Buses

1994-11-01
942242
The current environmental situation in urban areas is demanding new concepts of transportation and innovative vehicle designs. More environmentally-friendly means of transport represent an important feature in local public transport. Improvements in the environmental situation are to be achieved by increased transition from individual transport to public transport on the one hand, and by having more environmentally-friendly buses on the other. Electric drive, whether as diesel, hybrid or zero-emission drive, has a central role to play in this. This report gives a survey of their estimated technical characteristics and possible applications.
Technical Paper

Yield Mapping of Soybeans and Corn Using GPS

1995-09-01
952112
Data obtained when harvesting with a combine equipped with a yield monitor were used to develop yield maps. A prototype yield monitor was developed that uses a combination of light emitters and receivers mounted in a rectangular frame. The monitor was mounted in the combine in the top of the clean grain elevator. As grain flows through the monitor, a voltage change proportional to light reduction was recorded. This voltage was then correlated to grain flow rate. At the same time, site-specific location was recorded using the global positioning satellites (GPS) system. The location data, yield monitor output, cutting width, and combine forward speed were stored in a spreadsheet format. The data were then used to prepare the yield maps.
Journal Article

Yaw Stability Enhancement of Articulated Commercial Vehicles via Gain-Scheduling Optimal Control Approach

2017-03-28
2017-01-0437
In this paper, a gain-scheduling optimal control approach is proposed to enhance yaw stability of articulated commercial vehicles through active braking of the proper wheel(s). For this purpose, an optimal feedback control is used to design a family of yaw moment controllers considering a broad range of vehicle velocities. The yaw moment controller is designed such that the instantaneous tractor yaw rate and articulation angle responses are forced to track the target values at each specific vehicle velocity. A gain scheduling mechanism is subsequently constructed via interpolations among the controllers. Furthermore, yaw moments derived from the proposed controller are realized by braking torque distribution among the appropriate wheels. The effectiveness of the proposed yaw stability control scheme is evaluated through software-in-the-loop (SIL) co-simulations involving Matlab/Simulink and TruckSim under lane change maneuvers.
Technical Paper

Yaw Stability Control of Tractor Semi-Trailers

2008-10-07
2008-01-2595
Tractor semi-trailer stability during emergency braking and steering maneuvers has been an issue that was improved through implementation of Anti-lock Braking Systems (ABS). Although some improvements have been achieved, the need for new control methodologies is evident from the number of accidents reported by NHTSA involving tractor semi-trailers. In this paper, a new control algorithm has been developed for improving the tractor semi-trailer stability through utilization of yaw moment, i.e., tire differential braking strategy. This new, multifaceted, adaptive control algorithm which allows the estimation of the unknown vehicle parameters through use of the adaptation laws is based on the Lyapunov Direct Method. A tractor semi-trailer model with four degrees of freedom was used to develop the control algorithm and the adaptation laws. The controller was implemented on a 2-axle tractor 1-axle van trailer in TruckSim 7©.
Technical Paper

Worldwide Truck Electronic Systems -- Trends for the 90s

1986-11-01
861970
It is the goal of this paper, to discuss the impact of electronics on modern day commercial vehicles an buses. Seen from the position of advanced engineering of an European commercial vehicle manufacturer, the emphasis will be placed on the mechanical-electronical system itself, rather than the electronics themselves. User friendly, logic protected systems will minimize operator unfamiliarity and misapplication and will offer not only component control, but shortly the integration of all of these subsystems in the total vehicle control. Total vehicle control will be the ultimate result, when the driver, the truck and the environment are brought together. Such vehicles will be more responsive, safer and easier to drive than today's commercial vehicles and buses and offer a cost effective utilization of these new technologies to the customer.
Technical Paper

Worldwide Survey and Characterization of Commercial Marine Fuels

1987-07-01
871392
The quality and availability of distillate fuels in the coming decades has become an increasing concern to the U.S. Navy. In response, the Energy Research and Development Office of the David Taylor Naval Ship Research and Development Center (DTNSRDC) has conducted a worldwide survey of commercial marine fuels. An effort was made to obtain 50 commercial marine fuel samples from various suppliers worldwide. The purpose of the survey was to assess the current quality of available fuels by analytically characterizing each of the fuel samples obtained. This assessment consisted of the measurement of more than 44 fuel properties. This paper contains a summary of the analytical results which were obtained. In addition, the current analytical results are compared with refinery specifications, with the current Navy specification, and with the results of a similar survey conducted in 1983. Finally, the resulting conclusions and recommendations are presented.
Technical Paper

Worldwide Safety and Environmental Regulations

1980-04-01
800664
United States construction equipment manufacturers are subject to a maze of product-oriented regulations in marketing their U.S.-built products in foreign countries. These same obstacles face their foreign-built products. In the past, these foreign regulations were more apt to be trade barriers to protect domestic markets than bonafide regulations to protect the users. These trade barriers are gradually being lifted because manufacturers in virtually all countries have now expanded beyond their domestic markets. Thus, the same manufacturers that formerly encouraged trade barriers must now cope with them. This expansion of markets now encourages the elimination of trade barriers and the harmonization of regulations. For the future, regulations will be retained and expanded. They will, however, be harmonized with international voluntary standards rather than having different regulations for each country.
Technical Paper

Worldwide Energy Situation-Impact on Commercial Vehicles

1979-02-01
790481
The world consumption rate of oil is increasing so fast that the supply will not keep pace. During 1977, the world energy consumption exceeded 265 quadrillion BTU s--the equivalent of over 130 million barrels of oil per day. By the year 2000, world energy consumption is expected to more than double. Some time between 1980 and the turn of the century, world oil production will stop growing and slowly begin to shrink. The inescapable conclusion is that petroleum will not be able to maintain its share of the rapidly growing demand for energy. Recognizing that there is a close relationship between energy consumption and the performance of national economies, especially in industrialized nations, other fuels will be needed to meet growth demands. The world must shift from a predominantly petroleum-based economy to one which will phase in other energy sources, with increased emphasis on coal and nuclear power. This transition will require some complex decisions.
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